其他第二正典
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東正教(耶路撒冷主教)用的聖詠Psalm 151維基 聖詠Psalm 151 敘利亞文通俗譯本Syriac Peshitta 才會用的巴路克Baruch2維基 巴路克Baruch2
敘利亞文通俗譯本Syriac Peshitta 才會用的巴路克Baruch3維基 巴路克Baruch3 敘利亞文通俗譯本Syriac Peshitta 才會用的聖詠Psalm 152–155維基 聖詠Psalm 152–155
埃塞俄比亞東正教才會用的巴路克Baruch4維基 埃塞俄比亞東正教才會用的禧年書Jubilees維基 禧年書Jubilees 埃塞俄比亞東正教才會用的以諾書Enoch維基
以諾書Enoch 埃塞俄比亞東正教才會用的Meqabyan維基 Meqabyan 瑪加伯3和4簡介
Maccabees III 瑪加伯3 Maccabees IV 瑪加伯4 關於瑪加伯1234的伸延閱讀 科普特語埃及人福音 維基
科普特語埃及人福音 拿戈瑪第經集 維基 丟格那妥書 維基 希臘文版《丟格那妥書》全文
黑馬牧人書 維基 希臘文版《黑馬牧人書》全文 巴拿巴書 維基 希臘文版《巴拿巴書》全文
東正教(耶路撒冷主教)用的聖詠Psalm 151維基
Psalm 151 is the name given to a short psalm that is found in most copies of the Septuagint[1]  but not in the Masoretic text of the Hebrew Bible. The title given to this psalm in the Septuagint indicates that it is supernumerary, and no number is affixed to it: "This Psalm is ascribed to David and is outside the number. When he slew Goliath in single combat"[2]. It is included also in some manuscripts of the Peshitta.

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Psalm_151

The Eastern Orthodox Church accepts Psalm 151 as canonical. Roman Catholics, Protestants, and most Jews consider it apocryphal. However, it is found in an appendix in some Catholic Bibles, such as certain editions of the Latin Vulgate, as well as in some ecumenical translations, such as the New Revised Standard Version.

Dead Sea scrolls discovery

Although for many years scholars believed that Psalm 151 might have been an original Greek composition and that “there is no evidence that Psalm 151 ever existed in Hebrew”[3], we now know from the Dead Sea scrolls that this psalm did in fact exist in Hebrew and was a part of the psalter used by the Qumran community.

Psalm 151 appears along with a number of canonical and non-canonical psalms in the Dead Sea scroll 11QPs(a) (named also 11Q5), a first century CE scroll discovered in 1956. The editio princeps of this manuscript was first published in 1963 by J. A. Sanders[4]. This scroll contains two short Hebrew psalms which scholars now agree served as the basis for Psalm 151[5].

One of these Hebrew psalms, known as “Psalm 151a”, is reflected in verses 1–5 of the Greek Psalm 151, while verses 6 onward are derived from the other Hebrew psalm, known as “Psalm 151b” (which is only partially preserved). The composer has brought the two Hebrew psalms together in a manner that significantly changes their meaning and structure, but the influence of the Hebrew originals is still readily apparent. In some ways the Greek version of Psalm 151 does not seem to make good sense, and the Hebrew text provides a basis for a better understanding of what transpired in the creation of the Greek version. In comparison to the Hebrew text Sanders regards the Greek text of this psalm to be in places “desiccated”, “meaningless”, “truncated”, “ridiculous”, “absurd”, “jumbled”, and “disappointingly different”, all this the result of its having been “made from a truncated amalgamation of the two Hebrew psalms”[6]. On details of translation, structure, and meaning of this psalm see especially the works of Skehan[7], Brownlee[8], Carmignac[9], Strugnell[10], Rabinowitz[11], Dupont-Sommer[12], and Flint[13].

Content

The title of the psalm claims that it was written by King David after his battle with Goliath. As it stands in the Greek text this apocryphal psalm celebrates how David was the least of his brothers, and yet God chose him to be anointed king (vv. 1-5). It goes on to commemorate how David cut off Goliath's head with the Philistine's own sword, and thereby removed Israel's disgrace (vv. 6-7). The psalm assumes familiarity with and draws ideas and phraseology from certain portions of biblical material[14].

Cultural influence

At the beginning of his first address to his Council of State, Emperor Haile Selassie of Ethiopia recited this psalm in total.[15]

Notes

   1. ^ Henry Barclay Swete An Introduction to the Old Testament in Greek, Cambridge University Press, 1914, page 252
   2. ^ Athanasian Grail Psalter
   3. ^ H. B. Swete, Introduction to the Old Testament in Greek, 253
   4. ^ J. A. Sanders “Ps. 151 in 11QPss”, ZAW 75 [1963]: 73-86, and slightly revised in J. A. Sanders, ed., The Psalms Scroll of Qumrân Cave 11 (11QPsa), DJD 4, 54-64
   5. ^ Abegg, Martin Jr., Peter Flint, Eugene Ulrich, The Dead Sea Scrolls Bible (1999, HarperCollins) ISBN 0-06-060064-0, pp. 585-586
   6. ^ see J. A. Sanders, The Dead Sea Psalms Scroll, 94-100
   7. ^ P. W. Skehan, “The Apocryphal Psalm 151”, CBQ 25 [1963]: 407-09;
   8. ^ W. H. Brownlee, “The 11Q Counterpart to Ps 151,1-5”, RevQ 4 [1963]: 379-87;
   9. ^ J. Carmignac, “La forme poétique du Psaume 151 de la grotte 11”, RevQ 4 [1963]: 371-78; J. Carmignac, “Précisions sur la forme poétique du Psaume 151”, RevQ 5 [1965]: 249-52;
  10. ^ J. Strugnell, “Notes on the Text and Transmission of the Apocryphal Psalms 151, 154 (= Syr. II) and 155 (= Syr. III)”, HTR 59 [1966]: 257-81;
  11. ^ I. Rabinowitz, “The Alleged Orphism of 11QPss 28 3-12”, ZAW 76 [1964]: 193-200;
  12. ^ A. Dupont-Sommer, “Le Psaume CLI dans 11QPsa et le problème de son origine essénienne”, Semitica 14 [1964]: 25-62.
  13. ^ P. W. Flint, The Dead Sea Psalms Scrolls and the Book of Psalms, STDJ 17 [Leiden: Brill, 1997] (on the Qumran evidence for the Psalter in general)
  14. ^ e.g., 1 Sam 16-17; Ps 78:70-72; 89:20; cf. 2 Sam 6:5; 2 Chr 29:26
  15. ^ Harold Marcus, Haile Selassie I: The Formative Years (Lawrenceville: Red Sea Press, 1996), p. 96

聖詠Psalm 151
This psalm is ascribed to David as his own composition (though it is outside the number*), after he had fought in single combat with Goliath.
1I was small among my brothers,
   and the youngest in my father’s house;
I tended my father’s sheep.


2My hands made a harp;
   my fingers fashioned a lyre.


3And who will tell my Lord?
   The Lord himself; it is he who hears.*


4It was he who sent his messenger*
   and took me from my father’s sheep,
   and anointed me with his anointing-oil.


5My brothers were handsome and tall,
   but the Lord was not pleased with them.


6I went out to meet the Philistine,*
   and he cursed me by his idols.


7But I drew his own sword;
   I beheaded him, and took away disgrace from the people of Israel.
敘利亞文通俗譯本Syriac Peshitta 才會用的巴路克Baruch2維基
is a Jewish  pseudepigraphical text thought to have been written in the late first century CE  or early second century CE, after the destruction of the Temple in 70 CE. It is attributed to the Biblical Baruch and so is associated with the Old Testament, but not regarded as scripture  by Jews or by most Christian groups. It is included in some editions of the Peshitta. It has 87 sections.

2 Baruch is also known as the Syriac Apocalypse of Baruch. The Apocalypse proper occupies the first 77 chapters of the book. Chapters 78-87 are usually referred to as the Letter of Baruch to the Nine and a Half Tribes.

Manuscript Tradition

The Letter of Baruch had a separate and wider circulation than the rest of the book, and is attested in thirty-six Syriac manuscripts.

The Apocalypse proper has been less widely available. One Latin excerpt was known from a quotation in Cyprian.[1] A 4th-5th century CE Greek fragment was found among the Oxyrhynchus manuscripts.[2] Two excerpts were known from 13th century lectionaries of the Syriac Orthodox Church.[3].

The full text of 2 Baruch is now known from a sixth or seventh century CE Syriac manuscript discovered by Antonio Ceriani in the Biblioteca Ambrosiana in Milan in 1866[4]. An Arabic manuscript of the whole text was discovered in 1974. It is apparently a rather free translation from a Syriac text similar to the Milan manuscript.

Description

Although the canonical Book of Jeremiah portrays Baruch as Jeremiah's scribe, 2 Baruch portrays him as a prophet in his own right. It has a similar style to the writings attributed to Jeremiah: a mix of prayer, lamentation, and visions. Although Baruch writes of Nebuchadnezzar's sack of Jerusalem in 586 BC, it is currently believed as having been written in reaction to the fall of Jerusalem in 70 CE, but before 135 CE.

The Syriac is almost certainly a translation from the Greek; the original was probably written in Hebrew. There is a close relation between this apocalypse and that of 2 Esdras, but critics are divided over the question, which has influenced the other. The probabilities favor the hypothesis that the 2 Baruch is an imitation of that of Esdras and therefore later. This Apocalypse of Baruch deals in part with the same problems, the sufferings of the theocratic people, and their ultimate triumph over their oppressors. Its Messianim in general is earthly, but in the latter part of the book the Messiah's realm tends unmistakably towards a more spiritual conception. Greater importance is attached to the law than in the related composition. Some scholars of 2 Baruch have seen in it a composite work, but the majority of critics consider it a unity.

As in 2 Esdras sin is traced to the disobedience of Adam, but different stances are taken about the hereditary of Adam's sin: while 2 Esdras supports the heredity, 2 Baruch has a quite different position: "each of us has been the Adam of his own soul" (54:15).

The first part of the text is structured in triplets: three fasts each followed by three visions and three addresses to the people. The visions are notable for their discussion of theodicy, the problem of evil, and an emphasis on predestination. According to the text, the Temple's sacred objects were rescued from destruction under the protection angels to be returned during the restoration prophesied in the Book of Jeremiah. The second part of the text is a long letter (known as Letter of Baruch), which many scholars believe was originally a separate document.

Content

    * Chapters 1-5: God reveals to Baruch the imminent destruction of Jerusalem, and asks him leave the city along with all other pious persons. Baruch cannot understand how the name of Israel can be remembered and the promises made to Moses can come true if the Temple is in ruins. God explains that such earthly building is not the one he showed to Adam before the Fall and to Moses on the Sinai and assures Baruch that Israel's woes will not be permanent. Then Baruch, Jeremiah, and all other pious ones go to the Kidron Valley, where they sorrow and fast.

    * Chapters 6-8: On the following day the Chaldeans surround the city; and Baruch is carried up miraculously to the walls of Jerusalem and he sees four angels with torches firing the walls, but not before another angel has consigned the sacred vessels of the Temple to the earth, which swallows them up till the latter days.

    * Chapters 9-12: Seven days after the capture of Jerusalem, Baruch again receives a revelation. He is told that Jeremiah should go with the captives to Babylon, but that he himself must remain at the ruins of Jerusalem, where God will reveal to him what shall happen at the end of days. Then Baruch sings a dirge on the destruction of Jerusalem.

    * Chapters 13-20: After fasting seven days, Baruch receives a revelation concerning the future punishment of the heathen and of all godless persons; he replies to the Lord complaining about the sad fate of the men. God answers that the man was instructed in the Law and that now the time shall be sped up, referring to the end of days soon to come.

    * Chapters 21-30: After another seven-day fast and long prayers the heavens open and Baruch hears a heavenly voice. First he is blamed for the doubt and the Lord explains that "because when Adam sinned and death was decreed against those who should be born, then the multitude of those who should be born was numbered, and for that number a place was prepared where the living might dwell and the dead might be guarded", and so the "future time" will come only when the earth shall have brought forth all her fruit. Baruch demands when this time will arrive, and the Lord gives a first description of the "future time", explaining the twelve divisions of the time of oppression (the same division we find in the Ladder of Jacob), and foretelling the Messianic era of joy and the resurrection of the deads.

    * Chapters 31-44: Baruch assembles the elders of the people and tells them that Zion will soon be restored, but destroyed once again, then to be rebuilt for all eternity.

    * Chapters 35-40: Baruch, while sitting in the ruins of the Temple lamenting, receives a new revelation in the form of the following vision: In his sleep he sees a wood surrounded by rocks and crags, and, opposite the wood, a growing vine, beneath which flows a spring. The spring runs quietly as far as the wood, where it waxes to a mighty stream, overwhelming the wood and leaving only one cedar standing. This cedar, too, is finally swept away and carried to the vine. God explains the meaning of the vision to Baruch. The wood is the mighty fourth power (probably the Roman Empire); the spring is the dominion of the Messiah; and the vine is the Messiah himself, who will destroy the last hostile ruler on Mount Zion.

    * Chapters 42-46: Baruch is explained about the fate of converts and apostates, and is directed to warn the people and to prepare himself for another revelation. He predicts to his son and to other seven elders his own death and foretells that shall not be wanting to Israel a wise man nor a son of the law.

    * Chapters 47-52: This central part of the Apocalypse begins with the great prayer of Baruch, full of humility in front of the majesty of God. And God revels him the oppressions in the latter days, the resurrection, the final destiny of the righteous ("there shall then be excellency in the righteous surpassing that in the angels"), and the fate of the godless. Thus Baruch understands not to grieve for who die, but to joy for the present sufferance.

    * Chapters 53-74: A second prophetic vision follows, whose meaning is explained by the angel Ramiel. A cloud which arises from the sea rains down twelve times alternately dark and bright waters. This indicates the course of events from Adam to the Messiah. The six dark waters are the dominion of the godless—Adam, Ancient Egypt, Canaan, Jeroboam, Manasseh, and the Chaldeans. The six bright waters are Abraham, Moses, David, Hezekiah, Josiah, and the time of the Second Temple ("nevertheless, not fully as in the beginning"). After these twelve waters comes another water still darker than the others and shot with fire, carrying annihilation in its train. A clear flash puts an end to the fearful tempest. The dark cloud is the period between the time of the Second Temple and the advent of the Messiah, which latter event determines the dominion of the wicked, and inaugurates the era of eternal bliss.

    * Chapters 75-77: After Baruch has thanked God for the secrets revealed to him, God asks him to warn the people, and keep himself in readiness for his translation to heaven, since God intends to keep him there until the consummation of the times. Baruch admonishes the people and, besides, writes two letters: one to the nine and one-half tribes (sent them by means of an eagle); the other to the two and one-half tribes exiled in Babylon (of which no content is given).

    * Chapters 78-87 (known also as Letter of Baruch to the nine and one-half tribes): the mains themes of this letter are: the hope for a future reward after the present sufferance, the speed up of the times, the constancy of Moses's covenant and the freedom of the man to follow God.


Notes

   1. ^ Cyprian Testimoniorum adversus Judæos III.29 includes verses 48:36 48:33-34
   2. ^ P. Oxy. 403, including verses 12:1-13:2 13:11-14:3
   3. ^ British Museum, Addit. 14.686, 1255 CE: verses 44:9-15; British Museum, Addit. 14.687, 1256 CE: verses 72:1-73:2; the same excerpts were also found in a 15th century lectionary in Kerala
   4. ^ Manuscript "B. 21 inf" ff 264a-276a. A. Ceriani Apocalypsis Baruch (notae criticae) in Monumenta sacra et profana 1,2, Milano 1866 pag 73-98

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/2_Baruch
巴路克Baruch2
THE BOOK OF THE APOCALYPSE OF BARUCH THE

SON OF NERIAH





1—4. Announcement of the coming Destruction of Jerusalem to Baruch



1 1 And it came to pass in the twenty-fifth year of Jeconiah, king of Judah, that the word of the Lord came to Baruch, the son of Neriah, and said to him: 2 'Have you seen all that this people are doing to Me, that the evils which these two tribes which remained have done are greater than (those of) the ten tribes which were carried away captive? 3 For the former tribes were forced by their kings to commit sin, but these two of themselves have been forcing and compelling their kings to commit sin. 4 For this reason, behold I bring evil upon this city, and upon its inhabitants, and it shall be removed from before Me for a time, and I will scatter this people among the Gentiles that they may do good to the Gentiles. And My people shall be chastened, and the time shall come when they will seek for the prosperity of their times.



2 1 For I have said these things to you that you may bid Jeremiah, and all those that are like you, to retire from this city.



2 For your works are to this city as a firm pillar,

And your prayers as a strong wall.'



3 1 And I said: 'O LORD, my Lord, have I come into the world for this purpose that I might see the evils of my mother? Not (so) my Lord. 2 If I have found grace in Your sight, first take my spirit that I may go to my fathers and not behold the destruction of my mother. For two things vehemently constrain me: for I cannot resist you, and my soul, moreover, cannot behold the evils of my mother. 4 But one thing I will say in Your presence, O Lord. 5 What, therefore, will there be after these things? for if you destroy Your city, and deliver up Your land to those that hate us, how shall the name of Israel be again remembered? 6 Or how shall one speak of Your praises? or to whom shall that which is in Your law be explained? Or shall the world return to its nature of aforetime), and the age revert to primeval silence? And shall the multitude of souls be taken away, and the nature of man not again be named? And where is all that which you did say regarding us?'  



4 1 And the Lord said unto me:

        'This city shall be delivered up for a time,

        And the people shall be chastened during a time,

        And the world will not be given over to oblivion.





4:2-7. The heavenly Jerusalem



2 [Dost you think that this is that city of which I said: "On the palms of My hands have I graven you"? 3 This building now built in your midst is not that which is revealed with Me, that which prepared beforehand here from the time when I took counsel to make Paradise, and showed Adam before he sinned, but when he transgressed the commandment it was removed from him, as also Paradise. 4 And after these things I showed it to My servant Abraham by night among the portions of the victims. 5 And again also I showed it to Moses on Mount Sinai when I showed to the likeness of the tabernacle and all its vessels. 6 And now, behold, it is preserved with Me, as Paradise. 7 Go, therefore, and do as I command you.']



5. Baruch's Complaint and God's Reassurance



5 1    And I answered and said:

        'So then I am destined to grieve for Zion,

        For your enemies will come to this place and pollute Your sanctuary,

        And lead your inheritance into captivity,

        And make themselves masters of those whom you have loved,

        And they will depart again to the place of their idols,

        And will boast before them:

        And what will you do for Your great name?'

2       And the Lord said unto me:

        'My name and My glory are unto all eternity;

        And My judgment shall maintain its right in its own time.

3     And you shall see with your eyes

        That the enemy will not overthrow Zion,

        Nor shall they burn Jerusalem,

        But be the ministers of the Judge for the time.

4       But do you go and do whatsoever I have said unto you.

5       And I went and took Jeremiah, and Adu, and Seriah, and Jabish, and Gedaliah, and all the honorable men of the people, and I led them to the valley of Kidron, and I narrated to them all that had been said to me. 6 And they lifted up their voice, and they all wept. 7 And we sat there and fasted until the evening.



6—8. Invasion of the Chaldeans and their Entrance into the City after the Sacred Vessels were hidden and the City's Walls overthrown by Angels



6 1 And it came to pass on the morrow that, lo! the army of the Chaldees surrounded the city, and at the time of the evening, I, Baruch, left the people, and I went forth and stood by the oak. 2 And I was grieving over Zion, and lamenting over the captivity which had come upon the people. 3 And lo! suddenly a strong spirit raised me, and bore me aloft over the wall of Jerusalem. 4 And I beheld, and lo! four angels standing at the four corners of the city, each of them holding a torch of fire in his hands. 5 And another angel began to descend from heaven. and said unto them: 'Hold your lamps, and do not light them till I tell you. 6 For I am first sent to speak a word to the earth, and to place in it what the Lord the Most High has commanded me.' 7 And I saw him descend into the Holy of Holies, and take from there the veil, and holy ark, and the mercy-seat, and the two tables, and the holy raiment of the priests, and the altar of incense, and the forty-eight precious stones, wherewith the priest was adorned and all the holy vessels of the tabernacle. 8 And he spoke to the earth with a loud voice:



        'Earth, earth, earth, hear the word of the mighty God,

        And receive what I commit to you,

        And guard them until the last times,

        So that, when you are ordered, you may restore them,

        So that strangers may not get possession of them.

9       For the time comes when Jerusalem also will be delivered for a time,

        Until it is said, that it is again restored for ever.'

10     And the earth opened its mouth and swallowed them up.



7 1 And after these things I heard that angel saying unto those angels who held the lamps: 'Destroy, therefore, and overthrow its wall to its foundations, lest the enemy should boast and say:



        " We have overthrown the wall of Zion,

        And we have burnt the place of the mighty God."'

2       And they have seized the place where I had been standing before.



8 1 Now the angels did as he had commanded them, and when they had broken up the corners of the walls, a voice was heard from the interior of the temple, after the wall had fall saying:



2       'Enter, you enemies,

        And come, you adversaries;

        For he who kept the house has forsaken (it).'



3       And I, Baruch, departed. 4 And it came to pass after these things that the army of the Chaldees entered and seized the house, and all that was around it. And they led the people away captive and slew some of them, and bound Zedekiah the king, and sent him to the king of Babylon.



9—12. First Fast of seven Days: Baruch to remain amid the Ruins of Jerusalem and Jeremiah to accompany the Exiles to Babylon. Baruch's Dirge over Jerusalem



9 1 And I, Baruch, came, and Jeremiah, whose heart was found pure from sins, who had not been captured in the seizure of the City. 2 And we rent our garments, we wept, and mourned, and fasted seven days.



10 1 And it came to pass after seven days, that the word of God carne to me, and said unto me: 2 'Tell Jeremiah to go and support the captivity of the people unto Babylon. But do you remain here amid the desolation of Zion, and I will show to you after these days 'what will befall at the end of days.' And I said to Jeremiah as the Lord commanded me. And he, indeed, departed with the people, but I, Baruch, returned and sat before the gates of the temple, and I lamented with the following lamentation over Zion and said:



6    'Blessed is he who was not born,

      Or he, who having been born, has died.

7    But as for us who live, woe unto us,

      Because we see the afflictions of Zion,

      And what has befallen Jerusalem.

8    I will call the Sirens from the sea,

      And you Lilin, come you from the desert,

      And you Shedim and dragons from the forests:

      Awake and gird up your loins unto mourning,

      And take up with me the dirges,

      And make lamentation with me.

9    Ye husbandmen, sow not again;

      And, O earth, wherefore give  you your harvest fruits?

      Keep within you the sweets of your sustenance.

10  And thou, vine, why further do you give your wine;

      For an offering will not again be made from there in Zion,

      Nor will first-fruits again be offered.

11     And do ye, O heavens, 'withhold your dew,

        And open not the treasuries of rain:

12     And do thou, O sun withhold the light of your rays.

        And do thou, O moon, extinguish the multitude of your light;

        For why should light rise again

        Where the light of Zion is darkened?

13     And you, you bridegrooms, enter not in,

        And let not the brides adorn themselves with garlands;

        And, you women, pray not that you may bear.

14     For the barren shall above all rejoice,

        And those who have no sons shall be glad,

        And those who have sons shall have anguish.

15     For why should they bear in pain,

        Only to bury in grief?

16     Or why, again, should mankind have sons?

        Or why should the seed of their kind again be named,

        Where this mother is desolate,

        And her sons are led into captivity?

17     From this time forward speak not of beauty,

        And discourse not of gracefulness.

18     Moreover, you priests) take you the keys of the sanctuary,

        And cast them into the height of heaven,

        And give them to the Lord and say:

        "Guard Your house Thyself,

        For lo! we are found false stewards."

19     And you, you virgins; who weave fine linen

        And silk with gold of Ophir,

        Take with haste all (these) things

        And cast (them) into the fire,

        That it may bear them to Him who made them,

        And the flame send them to Him who created them,

        Lest the enemy get possession of them.'



11 1 Moreover, I, Baruch, say this against you, Babylon:

        'If you had prospered,

        And Zion had dwelt in her glory,

        Yet the grief to us had been great

        That you should be equal to Zion.

2       But now, lo! the grief is infinite,

        And the lamentation measureless,

        For lo! you are prospered

        And Zion desolate.

3       Who will be judge regarding these things?

        Or to whom shall we complain regarding that which has befallen us?

        O Lord, how have you borne (it)?

4       Our fathers went to rest without grief,

        And lo! the righteous sleep in the earth in tranquility;

5       For they knew not this anguish,

        Nor yet had they heard of that which had befallen us.

6       Would that you had ears, O earth,

        And that you had a heart, O dust:

        That you might go and announce in Sheol,

        And say to the dead:

7       "Blessed are you more than we who live."'






OXYRHYNCHUS GREEK FRAGMENT, from Grenfell and Hunt's

Oxyrhynchus Papyri, vol. iii. 3-7, 1903.

Verso.

12 1 But I will say this as I think.

And I will speak against you, O land, which alt prospering.

2 The noonday does not always burn.

Nor do the rays of the sun constantly give light.

3 Do not expect Land hope] that you will always he prosperous and rejoicing.

And be not greatly up lifted and boastful.

4 For assuredly in its own season shall the (divine) wrath awake against you.

Which now in long-suffering is held in as it were by reins.




(2-5) 12 1 But I will say this as 1 think,

And speak against you, the land that is prospering.

2       Not always does the noonday burn,

         Nor do the rays of the sun constantly give light.

(6-8) 3 And do not you expect to

        rejoice,

Nor condemn greatly.



(8-10) 4 For assuredly in its season shall the (divine) wrath be awakened against you,

Which is now restrained by long-suffering as it were by a rein.



12:5—13. Second Fast. Revelation as to the coming judgment on the Heathen.



5 And when I had said these things, I fasted seven days.



        13 1 And it came to pass after these things, that I, Baruch, was standing upon Mount Zion, and lo! a voice came from the height and said unto me: 2 'Stand upon your feet, Baruch, and hear the word of the mighty God.'


(10-16) 5 And having said these things I fasted seven days.



13 1 And it came to pass after these things that I, Baruch, was standing upon Mount Zion, and lo a voice came forth from the height and said unto me:

2 'Stand upon your feet, Baruch, and hear the word of the mighty God.'



3 Because you have been astonished at what has befallen Zion, you shall therefore be assuredly preserved to the consummation of the times, that you may be for a testimony. 4 So that, if ever those prosperous cities say: 5 'Why hath the mighty God brought upon us this retribution?' Say you to them, you and those like you who shall have seen this evil: '(This is the evil) and retribution which is coming upon you and upon your people in its (destined) time that the nations may be thoroughly smitten. 6 And then they shall be in anguish. 7 And if they say at that time:



8       For how long? you will say to them:

        "Ye who have drunk the strained wine,

        Drink you also of its dregs,

        The judgment of the Lofty One

        Who has no respect of persons."'

9       On this account he had aforetime no mercy on His own sons,

        But afflicted them as His enemies, because they sinned,

10     Then therefore were they chastened

        That they might be sanctified.






OXYRHYNCHUS GREEK FRAGMENT Recto

11     But now, you peoples and nations, you are guilty

         Because you have always trodden down the earth,

         And used the creation unrighteously.

12     For I have always benefited you.

        And you have always been ungrateful for the bene­ficence.


(19-20) 11 (Ye) peoples and . . .



      (Ye) have trodden down the earth

      And misused the created things

in it.

(21-22) 12 For you were always being benefited

      But you were always ungrateful.



14—19. The Righteousness of the Righteous has profited neither them nor their City; God's Judgments are incomprehensible; the World was made for the Righteous, yet they pass and the World remains (14). Answer—Man knows God's Judgments and has sinned willingly. This World is a Weariness to the Righteous but the next is theirs (15), to be won through Character whether a Man's Time here be long or short (16—17). Final Weal or Woe—the supreme Question (18—19).






OXYRHYNCHUS GREEK FRAGMENT Recto

14 1 And I answered and said: 'Lo! you have shown me the method of the times, and that which shall be after these things, and you have said unto me, that the retribution, which has been spoken of by you, shall come upon the nations. 2 And now I know that those who have sinned are many, and they have lived in prosperity,' and departed from the world, but the few nations will be left in those times, to whom those words shall he said which you did say. 3 For what advantage is there in this, or what (evil), worse than what' we have seen befall us, are we to expect to see?


(23-25) 14 1 And I answered and said: 'Behold, you have shown me the methods of the times, and that which shall be.

(25-27) And you have said unto me that the retribution which was spoken of by you shall be endured by the nations.

(27-32) 2 And now I know that those who have sinned are many, and they have lived . . . , and departed from the world, but that few nations will be left in those times to whom . . . the words (which) you did say.

(32-33) 3 And what advantage (is there) in this or what worse than (these?)



4 But again I will speak in Your presence: 5 What have they profited who had knowledge before you and have not walked in vanity as the rest of the nations, and have not said to the dead: "Give us life," but always feared you, and have not left Your ways? 6 And lo! they have been carried off, nor on their account have you had mercy on Zion. 7 And if others did evil, it was due to Zion that on account of the works of those who wrought good works she should be forgiven, and should not be overwhelmed on account of the works of those who wrought unrighteousness. 8 But who, O LORD, my Lord, will comprehend Your judgment,



        Or who will search out the profoundness of Your way?

        Or who will think out the weight of Your path?

9       Or who will be able to think out Your incomprehensible counsel?

        Or who of those that are born has ever found

        The beginning or end of Your wisdom?

10     For we have all been made like a breath. 11 For as the breath ascends involuntarily, and again dies, so it is with the nature of men, who depart not according to their own will, and know not what will befall them in the end. 12 For the righteous justly hope for the end, and without fear depart from this habitation, because they have with you a store of works preserved in treasuries. 13 On this account also these without fear leave this world, and trusting with joy they hope to receive the world which you have promised them. 14 But as for us—woe to us, who also are now shamefully entreated, and at that time look forward (only) to evils. 15 But you know accurately what you have done by means of Your servants; for we are not able to understand that which is good as you art, our Creator. 16 But again I will speak in Your presence, O LORD, my Lord. 17 When of old there was no world with its inhabitants, you did devise and speak with a word, and forthwith the works of creation stood before you. 18 And you did say that you wouldst make for Your world man as the administrator of Your works, that it might be known that he was by no means made on account of the world, but the world on account of him. 19 And now I see that as for the world which was made on account of us, lo! it abides; but we, on account of whom it was made, depart.'



15 1 And the Lord answered and said unto me: 'You are rightly astonished regarding the departure of man, but you have not judged well regarding the evils which befall those who sin. 2 And as regards what you have said, that the righteous are carried off and the impious are prospered, 3 And as regards what you have said: "Man knows not Your judgment "—On this account hear, and I will speak to you, and hearken, and I will cause you to hear My words. 5 Man would not rightly have understood My judgment, unless he had accepted the law, and I had instructed him in understanding. 6 But now, because he transgressed wittingly, yea, just on this ground that he knows (about it), he shall be tormented.



7 And as regards what you did say touching the righteous, that on account of them has this world come, so also again shall that, which is to come, come on their account. 8 For this world is to them a strife and a labor with much trouble; and that accordingly which is to come, a crown with great glory.'



16 1 And I answered and said: '0 LORD, my Lord, lo! the years of this time are few and evil, and who is able in his little time to acquire that which is measureless?'



17 1 And the Lord answered and said unto me: 'With the Most High account is not taken of time nor of a few years. 2 For what did it profit Adam that he lived nine hundred and thirty years and transgressed that which he was commanded? Therefore the multitude of time that he lived did not profit him, but brought death and cut off the years of those who were born from him. wherein did Moses suffer loss in that he lived only one hundred and twenty years, and, inasmuch he was subject to Him who formed him, brought the law to the seed of Jacob, and lighted a lamp for the nation of Israel?'



18 1 And I answered and said: 'He that lighted has taken from the light, and there are but few that have imitated him. But those many whom he has lighted have taken from the darkness of Adam and have not rejoiced in the light of the lamp.'



19 And He answered and said unto me: 'Wherefore at that time he appointed for them a covenant and said:



        "Behold I have placed before you life and death,"

        And he called heaven and earth to witness against them.

2       For he knew that his time was but short,

        But that heaven and earth endure always.

3       But after his death they sinned and transgressed,

        Though they knew that they had the law reproving (them),

        And the light in which nothing could err,

        Also the spheres which testify, and Me.



4 Now regarding everything that is, it is I that judge, but do not you take counsel in your soul regarding these things, nor afflict thyself because of those which have been. 5 For now it is the consummation of time that should be considered, whether of business, or of prosperity, or of shame and not the beginning thereof. 6 Because if a man be prospered in his beginnings and shamefully entreated in his old age, he forgets all the prosperity that he had. 7 And again, if a man is shamefully entreated in his beginnings, and at his end is prospered, he remembers not again his evil entreatment. 8 And again hearken: though each one were prospered all that time—all the time from the day on which death was decreed against those who transgress—and in his end was destroyed, in vain would have been everything.'





20. Zion has been taken away to hasten the Advent of the Judgment



20 1    'Therefore, behold! the days come,

        And the times shall hasten more than the former,

        And the seasons shall speed on more than those that are past,

        And the years shall pass more quickly than the present (years).

    2  Therefore have I now taken away Zion,

        That I may the more speedily visit the world in its season.

3   Now therefore hold fast in your heart everything that I command you,

      And seal it in the recesses of your mind.

4   And then I will show you the judgment of My might,

     And My ways which are unsearchable.



5 Go therefore and sanctify thyself seven days, and eat no bread, nor drink water, nor speak to anyone.  6 And afterwards come to that place and I will reveal Myself to you, and speak true things with you, and I will give you commandment regarding the method of the times; for they are coming and tarry not.'





21:1-11. Fast of seven Days: Baruch's Prayer: God's Answer



The Prayer of Baruch the Son of Neriah.



21 1 And I went there and sat in the valley of Kidron in a cave of the earth, and I sanctified my soul there, and I ate no bread, yet I was not hungry, and I drank no water, yet I thirsted not, and I was there till the seventh day, as He had commanded me. 2 And afterwards I came to that place where He had spoken with me. 3 And it came to pass at sunset that my soul took much thought, and I began to speak in the presence of the Mighty One, and said: 4 'O you that have made the earth, hear me, that have fixed the firmament by the word, and have made firm the height of the heaven by the spirit, that have called from the beginning of the world that which did not yet exist, and they obey you. 5 you that have commanded the air by Your nod, and have seen those things which are to be as those things which you are doing. 6 you that rule with great thought the hosts that stand before you: also the countless holy beings, which you did make from the beginning, of flame and fire, which stand around Your throne you rule with indignation. 7 To you only does this belong that you should do forthwith whatsoever you do wish. 8 Who causes the drops of rain to rain by number upon the earth, and alone knows the consummation of the times before they come; have respect unto my prayer. For 9 you alone are able to sustain all who are, and those who have passed away, and those who are to be, those who sin, and those who are to righteous [as living (and) being past finding out]. For you alone do live immortal and past finding out, and know the number of mankind. And if in time many have sinned, yet others not a few have been righteous.





21:12-18. Baruch's Depreciation of this Life.



12 you know where you preserve the end of those who have sinned, or the consummation of those who have been righteous. 2 For if there were this life only, which belongs to all men, nothing could be more bitter than this.



14      For of what profit is strength that turns to sickness,

Or fullness of food that turns to famine,

Or beauty that turns to ugliness.



15 For the nature of man is always changeable.  16 For what we were formerly now we no longer are and what we now are we shall not afterwards remain. 16 For if a consummation had not been prepared for all, in vain would have been their beginning. But regarding everything that comes from you do you inform me, and regarding everything about which I ask you, do you enlighten me.





21:19-25. Baruch prays to God to hasten the Judgment and fulfill His Promise



19 How long will that which is corruptible remain, and how long will the time of mortals be prospered, and until what time will those who transgress in the world be polluted with much wickedness? 20 Command therefore in mercy and accomplish all that you saidst you wouldst bring, that Your might may be made known to those who think that Your long-suffering is weakness. 21 And show to those who know not, that everything that has befallen us and our city until now has been according to the long-suffering of Your power, because on account of Your name you have called us a beloved people. 22 Bring to an end therefore henceforth mortality. 23 And reprove accordingly the angel of death, and let Your glory appear, and let the might of Your beauty be known, and let Sheol be sealed so that from this time forward it may not receive the dead, and let the treasuries of souls restore those which are enclosed in them. 24 For there have been many years like those that are desolate from the days of Abraham and Isaac and Jacob, and of all those who are like them, who sleep in the earth, on whose account you did say that you had created the world. 25 And now quickly show Your glory, and do not defer what has been promised by you.' 26 And (when) I had completed the words of this prayer I was greatly weakened.





22—23. God's Reply to Baruch's Prayer. He will fulfill His Promise: Time needed for its Accomplishment:  Things must be judged in the Light of their Consummation (22). Till all Souls are born the End cannot come (23).



22 1 And it came to pass after these things that lo! the heavens were opened, and I saw, and power was given to me, and a voice was beard from on high, and it said unto me: 2 Baruch, Baruch, why are you troubled? 3 He who travels by a road but does not complete it, or who departs by sea but does not arrive at the port, can he be comforted? 4 Or he who promises to give a present to another, but does not fulfill it, is it not robbery? 5 Or he who sows the earth, but does not reap its fruit in its season, does he not lose everything? 6 Or he who plants a plant unless it grows till the time suitable to it, does he who planted it expect to receive fruit from it? 7 Or a woman who has conceived, if she bring forth untimely, does she not assuredly slay her infant? 8 Or he who builds a house, if he does not roof it and complete it, can it be called a house? Tell Me that first.'



23 1 And I answered and said: Not so, O LORD, my Lord.' 2 And He answered and said unto me: 'Why therefore are you troubled about that which you know not, and why are you ill at ease about things in which you are ignorant? 3 For as you have not forgotten the people who now are and those who have passed away, so I remember those who are appointed to come. 4 Because when Adam sinned and death was decreed against those who should be born, then the multitude of those who should be born was numbered, and for that number a place was prepared where the living might dwell and the dead might be guarded. Before therefore the number aforesaid is fulfilled, the creature will not live again [for My spirit is the creator of life], and Sheol will receive the dead. 6 And again it is given to you to hear what things are to come after these times. 7 For truly My redemption has drawn nigh, and is not far distant as aforetime.





24. The coming Judgment



24 1 'For behold! the days come and the books shall be opened in which are written the sins of all those who have sinned, and again also the treasuries in which the righteousness of all those who have been righteous in creation is gathered. 2 For it shall come to pass at that time that you shall see—and the many that are with you—the long-suffering of the Most High, which has been throughout all generations, who has been long-suffering towards all who are born, (alike) those who sin and (those who) are righteous.' 3 And I answered and said: 'But, behold! O Lord, no one knows the number of those things which have passed nor yet of those things which are to come. 4 For I know indeed that which has befallen us, but what will happen to our enemies I know not, and when you will visit Your works.'





25—26. Sign of the coming Judgment



25 1 And He answered and said unto me: 'You too shall be preserved till that time till that sign which the Most High will work for the inhabitants of the earth in the end of days. 2 This therefore shall be the sign. 3 When a stupor shall seize the inhabitants of the earth, and they shall fall into many tribulations, and again when they shall fall into great torments. And it will come to pass when they say in their thoughts by reason of their much tribulation: "The Mighty 'One doth no longer remember the earth"—yes, it will come to pass when they abandon hope, that the time will then awake.'



26 1 And I answered and said: 'Will that tribulation which is to be continue a long time, and will that necessity embrace many years?'





26-30. The Twelve Woes that are to Come upon the Earth: The Messiah and the temporary Messianic Kingdom



27 1 And He answered and said unto me: 'Into twelve parts is that time divided, and each one of them is reserved for that which is appointed for it. 2 In the first part there shall be the begin­ning of commotions. 3 And in the second part (there shall be) slayings of the great ones. 4 And in the third part the fall of many by death. 5 And in the fourth part the sending of the sword. 6 And in the fifth part famine and the withholding of rain. 7 And in the sixth part earthquakes and terrors. 8 [Wanting.] 9 And in the eighth part a multitude of specters and attacks of the Shedim. 10 And in the ninth part the fall of fire. 11 And in the tenth part rapine and much oppression. 12 And in the eleventh part wickedness and unchastity. 13 And in the twelfth part confusion from the mingling together of all those things aforesaid. 14 For these parts of that time are reserved, and shall be mingled one with another and minister one to another. 15 For some shall leave out some of their own, and receive (in its stead) from others, and some complete their own and that of others, so that those may not understand who are upon the earth in those days that this is the consummation of the times.



28 1 Nevertheless, whoever understands shall then be wise. 2 For the measure and reckoning of that time are two parts a week of seven weeks.' 3 And I answered and said: 'It is good for a man to come and behold, but it is better that he should not come lest he fall. 4 [But I will say this also: 5 Will he who is incorruptible despise those things which are corruptible, and whatever befalls in the case of those things which are corruptible, so that he might look only to those things which are not corruptible?] 6 But if; O Lord, those things shall assuredly come to pass which you have foretold to me, so do you show this also unto me if indeed I have found grace in Your sight. 7 Is it in one place or in one of the parts of the earth that those things are come to pass, or will the whole earth experience (them) ?'



29 1 And He answered and said unto me: 'Whatever will then befall (will befall) the whole earth; therefore all who live will experience (them). 2 For at that time I will protect only those who are found in those self-same days in this land. 3 And it shall come to pass when all is accomplished that was to come to pass in those parts, that the Messiah shall then begin to be revealed. 4 And Behemoth shall be revealed from his place and Leviathan shall ascend from the sea, those two great monsters which I created on the fifth day of creation, and shall have kept until that time; and then they shall be for food for all that are left. 5 The earth also shall yield its fruit ten-thousandfold and on each (?) vine there shall be a thousand branches, and each branch shall produce a thousand clusters, and each cluster produce a thousand grapes, and each grape produce a cor of wine. 6 And those who have hungered shall rejoice: moreover, also, they shall behold marvels every day. 7 For winds shall go forth from before Me to bring every morning the fragrance of aromatic fruits, and at the close of the day clouds distilling the dew of health. 8 And it shall come to pass at that self-same time that the treasury of manna shall again descend from on high, and they will eat of it in those years, because these are they who have come to the consummation of time.



30 1 And it shall come to pass after these things, when the time of the advent of the Messiah is fulfilled, that He shall return in glory.





30:2-5. The Resurrection



2 Then all who have fallen asleep in hope of Him shall rise again. And it shall come to pass at that time that the treasuries will be opened in which is preserved the number of the souls of the righteous, and they shall come forth, and a multitude of souls shall be seen together in one assemblage of one thought, and the first shall rejoice and the last shall not be grieved. 3 For they know that the time has come of which it is said, that it is the consummation of the times. 4 But the souls of the wicked, when they behold all these things, shall then waste away the more. 5 For they shall know that their torment has come and their perdition has arrived.'





31—33. Baruch exhorts the People to prepare themselves for worse Evils



31 1 And it came to pass after these things: that I went to the people and said unto them: 'Assemble unto me all your elders and I will speak words unto them.' 2 And they all assembled in the valley of the Kidron. 3 And I answered and said unto them:



Hear, O Israel, and I will speak to you,

And give ear, O seed of Jacob, and I will instruct you.

4        Forget not Zion,

But hold in remembrance the anguish of Jerusalem.

5        For lo! the days come,

When everything that is shall become the prey of corruption

And be as though it had not been.



32 1 'But as for you, if you prepare your hearts, so as to sow in them the fruits of the law, it shall protect you in that time in which the Mighty One is to shake the whole creation. 2 [Because after a little time the building of Zion will be shaken in order that it may be built again. But that building will not remain, but will again after a time be rooted out, and will remain desolate until the time. 4 And afterwards it must be renewed in glory, and perfected for evermore.] 5 Therefore we should not be distressed so much over the evil which has now come as over that which is still to be. 6 For there will be a greater trial than these two tribulations when the Mighty One will renew His creation. 7 And now do not draw near to me for a few days, nor seek me till I come to you.' 8 And it came to pass when I had spoken to them all these words, that I, Baruch, went my way, and when the people saw me setting out, they lifted up their voice and lamented and said : 9 To where are you departing from us, Baruch, and are you forsaking us as a father who forsakes his orphan children, and departs from them?



33 1 'Are these the commands which your companion, Jeremiah the prophet, commanded you, and said unto you: "Look to this people till I go and make ready the rest of the brethren in Babylon against whom has gone forth the sentence that they should be led into captivity"? And now if you also forsake us, it were good for us all to die before you, and then that you should withdraw from us.'





34—35. Lament of Baruch



34 And I answered and said unto the people: 'Far be it from me to forsake you or to withdraw from you, but I will only go unto the Holy of Holies to inquire of the Mighty One concerning you and concerning Zion, if in some respect I should receive more illumination: and after these things I will return to you.



35 1 And I, Baruch, went to the holy place, and sat down upon the ruins and wept, and said:



2        'O that mine eyes were springs,

And mine eyelids a fount of tears.

3        For how shall I lament for Zion,

And how shall I mourn for Jerusalem?

4        Because in that place where I am now prostrate,

Of old the high priest offered holy sacrifices,

And placed thereon an incense of fragrant odors.

5        But now our glorying has been made into dust,

And the desire of our soul into sand.'





36—37. The Vision of the Forest, the Vine, the Fountain and the Cedar



36 1 And when I had said these things I fell asleep there, and I saw a vision in the night. 2 And lo! a forest of trees planted on the plain, and lofty and rugged rocky mountains surrounded it, and that forest occupied much space. 3 And lo! over against it arose a vine, and from under it there went forth a fountain peacefully. 4 Now that fountain came to the forest and was (stirred) into great waves, and those waves submerged that forest, and suddenly they rooted out the greater part of that forest, and overthrew all the mountains which were round about it. 5 And the height of the forest began to be made low, and the top of the mountains was made low and that fountain prevailed greatly, so that it left nothing of that great forest save one cedar only. 6 Also when it had cast it down and had destroyed and rooted out the greater part of that forest, so that nothing was left of it, nor could its place be recognized, then that vine began to come with the fountain in peace and great tranquility, and it came to a place which was not far from that cedar, and they brought the cedar which had been cast down to it. 7 And I beheld and lo! that vine opened its mouth and spoke and said to that cedar: Art you not that cedar which was left of the forest of wickedness, and by whose means wickedness persisted, and was wrought all those years, and goodness never. 8 And you kept conquering that which was not yours, and to that which was your you did never show compassion, and you did keep extending your power over those who were far from you, and those who drew near you, you did hold fast in the toils of your wickedness, and you did uplift thyself always as one that could not be rooted out! 9 But now your time has sped and your hour is come. 10 Do you also therefore depart, O cedar, after the forest, which departed before you, and become dust with it, and let your ashes be mingled together. 11 And now recline in anguish and rest in torment till your last time come, in which you will come again, and be tormented still more.'



37 And after these things I saw that cedar burning, and the vine growing, itself and all around it, the plain full of unfading flowers. And I indeed awoke and arose.





38—40. Interpretation of the Vision



38 1 And I prayed and said: 'O LORD, my Lord, you do always enlighten those who are led by understanding. 2 Your law is life, and Your wisdom is right guidance. 3 Make known to me therefore the interpretation of this vision. 4 For you know that my soul hath always walked in Your law, and from my (earliest) days I departed not from Your wisdom.'



39 1 And He answered and said unto me: 'Baruch, this is the interpretation of the vision which you have seen. 2 As you have seen the great forest which lofty and rugged mountains surrounded, this is the word. 3 Behold! the days come, and this kingdom will be destroyed which once destroyed Zion, and it will be subjected to that which comes after it. 4 Moreover, that also again after a time will be destroyed, and another, a third, will arise, and that also will have dominion for its time, and will be destroyed. 5 And after these things a fourth kingdom will arise, whose power will be harsh and evil far beyond those which were before it, and it will rule many times as the forests on the plain, and it will hold fast for times, and will exalt itself more than the cedars of Lebanon. 6 And by it the truth will be hidden, and all those who are polluted with iniquity will flee to it, as evil beasts flee and creep into the forest. 7 And it will come to pass when the time of its consummation that it should fall has approached, then the principate of My Messiah will be revealed, which is like the fountain and the vine, and when it is revealed it will root out the multitude of its host. 8 And as touching that which you have seen, the lofty cedar, which was left of that forest, and the fact, that the vine spoke those words with it which you did hear, this is the word.



40 1 The last leader of that time will be left alive, when the multitude of his hosts will be put to the sword, and he will be bound, and they will take him up to Mount Zion, and My Messiah will convict him of all his impieties, and will gather and set before him all the works of his hosts. 2 And afterwards he will put him to death, and protect the rest of My people which shall be found in the place which I have chosen. 3 And his principate will stand for ever, until the world of corruption is at an end, and until the times aforesaid are fulfilled. 4 This is your vision, and this is its interpretation.'





41—42. The Destiny of the Apostates and of the Proselytes



41 1 And I answered and said: 'For whom and for how many shall these things be? or who will be worthy to live at that time? 2 For I will speak before you everything that I think, and I will ask of you regarding those things which I meditate. 3 For lo! I see many of Your people who have withdrawn from Your covenant, and cast from them the yoke of Your law. 4 But others again I have seen who have forsaken their vanity, and fled for refuge beneath Your wings. 5 What therefore will be to them? or how will the last time receive them? 6 Or perhaps the time of these will assuredly be weighed, and as the beam inclines will they be judged accordingly?'



42 1 And He answered and said unto me: 'These things also will I show unto you. 2 As for what you did say—"To whom will these things be, and how many (will they be)? "—to those who have believed there shall be the good which was spoken of aforetime, and to those who despise there shall be the contrary of these things. 3 And as for what you did say regarding those who have drawn near and those who have withdrawn this in the word. 4 As for those who were before subject, and afterwards withdrew and mingled themselves with the seed of mingled peoples, the time of these was the former, and was accounted as something exalted. 5 And as for those who before knew not but afterwards knew life, and mingled (only) with the seed of the people which had separated itself, the time of these (is) the latter, and is accounted as something exalted. 6 And time shall succeed to time and season to season, and one shall receive from another, and then with a view to the consummation shall everything be compared according to the measure of the times and the hours of the seasons. 7 For corruption shall take those that belong to it, and life those that belong to it. 8 And the dust shall be called, and there shall be said to it: "Give back that which is not yours, and raise up all that you have kept until its time".'



43. Baruch told of his Death and bidden to give his last Commands to the People



43 1   But, do thou, Baruch, direct your heart to that which has been said to you,

And understand those things which have been shown to you;

For there are many eternal consolations for you.

2        For you shall depart from this place,

And you shall pass from the regions which are now seen by you,

And you shall forget whatever is corruptible,

And shall not again recall those things which happen among mortals.



3 Go therefore and command your people, and come to this place, and afterwards fast seven days, and then I will come to you and speak with you.'





44:1-8; 45—46. Baruch tells the Elders of his impending Death, but encourages them to expect the Consolation of Zion



44 1 And I, Baruch, went from thence, and came to my people, and I called my first-born son and [the Gedaliahs] my friends, and seven of the elders of the people, and I said unto them:



          Behold, I go unto my fathers

According to the way of all the earth.

3        But withdraw you not from the way of the law,

But guard and admonish the people which remain,

Lest they withdraw from the commandments of the Mighty One.

4        For you see that He whom we serve is just,

And our Creator is no respecter of persons.

5        And see you what hath befallen Zion,

And what hath happened to Jerusalem.

6        For the judgment of the Mighty One shall (thereby) be made known,

And His ways, which, though past finding out, are right.

7        For if you endure and persevere in His fear,

And do not forget His law,

The times shall change over you for good.

And you shall see the consolation of Zion.

8, 9    Because whatever is now is nothing,

But that which shall be is very great.

For everything that is corruptible shall pass away,

And everything that dies shall depart,

And all the present time shall be forgotten,

Nor shall there be any remembrance of the present time, which is defiled with evils.

10      For that which runs now runs unto vanity,

And that which prospers shall quickly fall and be humiliated.

11      For that which is to be shall be the object of desire,

And for that which comes afterwards shall we hope;

For it is a time that passes not away,

12      And the hour comes which abides for ever.

And the new world (comes) which does not turn to corruption those who depart to its blessedness,

And has no mercy on those who depart to torment,

And leads not to perdition those who live in it.

13      For these are they who shall inherit that time which has been spoken of,

          And theirs is the inheritance of the promised time.

14      These are they who have acquired for themselves treasures of wisdom,

          And with them are found stores of understanding,

          And from mercy have they not withdrawn,

          And the truth of the law I have they preserved.

15      For to them shall be given the world to come,

But the dwelling of the rest who are many shall be in the fire.'



45 2 'Do you therefore so far as you are able instruct the people, for that labor is ours. For if you teach them, you will quicken them.'



46 1 And my son and the elders of the people answered and said unto me:



'Has the Mighty One humiliated us to such a degree

As to take you from us quickly?

2        And truly we shall be in darkness,

And there shall be no light to the people who are left,

3        For where again shall we seek the law,

Or who will distinguish for us between death and life?'

4        And I said unto them: 'The throne of the Mighty One I cannot resist;

Nevertheless, there shall not be wanting to Israel a wise man

Nor a son of the law to the race of Jacob.

5        But only prepare you your hearts, that you may obey the law,

And be subject to those who in fear are wise and understanding;

And prepare your souls that you may not depart from them.

6        For if you do these things, Good tidings shall come unto you.



[Which I before told you of; nor shall you fall into the torment, of which I testified to you before.' 7 But with regard to the word that I was to be taken I did not make (it) known to them or to my son.]



47 1 And when I had gone forth and dismissed them, I went there and said unto them: 'Behold! I go to Hebron: for thither the Mighty One hath sent me.' 2 And I came to that place where the word had been spoken unto me, and I sat there, and fasted seven days.





48:1-47. PRAYER OF BARUCH



48 1 And it came to pass after the seventh day, that I prayed before the Mighty One and said



2        'O my Lord, you summon the advent of the times,

And they stand before you;

You cause the power of the ages to pass away,

And they do not resist you;

          You arrange the method of the seasons,

And they obey you.

3        You alone know the duration of the generations,

And you reveal not Your mysteries to many.

4        You make known the multitude of the fire,

And you weigh the lightness of the wind.

5        You explore the limit of the heights,

And you scrutinize the depths of the darkness.

6        You care for the number which pass away that they may be preserved, And you prepare an abode for those that are to be.

7        You remember the beginning which you have made,

And the destruction that is to be You forget not.

8        With nods of fear and indignation You command the flames,

And they change into spirits,

And with a word you quicken that which was not,

And with mighty power you hold that which has not yet come.

9        You instruct created things in the understanding of you,

And you make wise the spheres so as to minister in their orders.

10      Armies innumerable stand before you

And minister in their orders quietly at Your nod.

11      Hear Your servant

And give ear to my petition.

12      For in a little time are we born,

          And in a little time do we return.

13      But with you hours are as a time,

          And days as generations.

14      Be not therefore wroth with man; for he is nothing

15      And take not account of our works; For what are we?

For lo! by Your gift do we come into the world,

          And we depart not of our own will.

16      For we said not to our parents, "Beget us,

Nor did we send to Sheol and say, "Receive us."

17      What therefore is our strength that we should bear Your wrath,

Or what are we that we should endure Your judgment?

18      Protect us in Your compassions,

          And in Your mercy help us.

19      Behold the little ones that are subject unto you,

          And save all that draw near unto you:

          And destroy not the hope of our people,

          And cut not short the times of our aid.

20      For this is the nation which you have chosen,

          And these are the people, to whom you find no equal.

21      But I will speak now before you,

          And I will say as my heart thinks.

22      In you do we trust, for lo! Your law is with us,

And we know that we shall not fall so long as we keep Your statutes.

23      [To all time are we blessed at all events in this that we have not mingled with the Gentiles.]

24      For we are all one celebrated people,

Who have received one law from One:

And the law which is amongst us will aid us,

And the surpassing wisdom which is in us will help us.'



25 And when I had prayed and said these things, I was greatly weakened. 26 And He answered and said unto me:



'You have prayed simply, O Baruch,

And all your words have been heard.

27      But My judgment exacts its own

And My law exacts its rights.

28      For from your words I will answer you,

And from your prayer I will speak to you.



29 For this is as follows: he that is corrupted is not at all; he has both wrought iniquity so far as lie could do anything, and has not remembered My goodness, nor accepted My long-suffering. 30 Therefore you shall surely be taken up, as I before told you. 31 For that time shall arise which brings affliction; for it shall come and pass by with quick vehemence, and it shall be turbulent coming in the heat of indignation. 32 And it shall come to pass in those days that all the inhabitants of the earth shall be moved one against another, because they know not that My judgment has drawn nigh.



33      For there shall not be found many wise at that time,

          And the intelligent shall be but a few:

          Moreover, even those who know shall most of all be silent.

34      And there shall be many rumors and tidings not a few,

          And the doing of phantasms shall be manifest,

          And promises not a few be recounted,

          Some of them (shall prove) idle,

          And some of them shall be confirmed.

35      And honor shall be turned into shame,

          And strength humiliated into contempt,

And probity destroyed,

And beauty shall become ugliness.

36      And many shall say to many at that time:

"Where hath the multitude of intelligence hidden itself,

And whither hath the multitude of wisdom removed itself?"

37      And whilst they are meditating these things,

Then envy shall arise in those who had not thought aught of themselves (?)

And passion shall seize him that is peaceful,

And many shall be stirred up in anger to injure many,

And they shall rouse up armies in order to shed blood,

And in the end they shall perish together with them.

38      And it shall come to pass at the self-same time,

That a change of times shall manifestly appeal to every man,

Because in all those times they polluted themselves

And they practiced oppression,

And walked every man in his own works,

And remembered not the law of the Mighty One.

39      Therefore a fire shall consume their thoughts,

And in flame shall the meditations of their reins be tried;

For the Judge shall come and will not tarry.

40      Because each of the inhabitants of the earth knew when he was transgressing.

But My Law they knew not by reason of their pride.

41      But many shall then assuredly weep,

Yea, over the living more than over the dead.'

42      And I answered and said:

'O Adam, what have you done to all those who are born from you?

And what will be said to the first Eve who hearkened to the serpent?

43      For all this multitude are going to corruption,

Nor is there any numbering of those whom the fire devours.



44 But again I will speak in Your presence. 45 You, O LORD, my Lord, know what is in Your creature. 46 For you did of old command the dust to produce Adam, and you know the number of those who are born from him, and how far they have sinned before you, who have existed and not confessed you as their Creator. 47 And as regards all these their end shall convict them, and Your law which they have transgressed shall requite them on Your day.'





48:48-50. Fragment of an Address of Baruch to the People



48      ['But now let us dismiss the wicked and inquire about the righteous.

49      And I will recount their blessedness

And not be silent in celebrating their glory, which is reserved for them.

50      For assuredly as in a little time in this transitory world in which you live, you have endured much labor,

So in that world to which there is no end, you shall receive great light.']





49—52. The Nature of the Resurrection Body: the final Destinies of the Righteous

and the Wicked



49 1 'Nevertheless, I Will again ask from you, O Mighty One, yea, I will ask made all things.

2        "In what shape will those live who live in Your day?

Or how will the splendor of those who (are) after that time continue?

3        Will they then resume this form of the present,

And put on these entrammelling members,

Which are now involved in evils,

And in which evils are consummated,

Or will you perchance change these things which have been in the world

As also the world?"



50 1 And He answered and said unto me:



'Hear, Baruch, this word,

And write in the remembrance of your heart all that you shall learn.

2        For the earth shall then assuredly restore the dead,

[Which it now receives, in order to preserve them].

          It shall make no change in their form,

But as it has received, so shall it restore them,

And as I delivered them unto it, so also shall it raise them.



3 For then it will be necessary to show the living that the dead have come to life again, and that those who had departed have returned (again). 4 And it shall come to pass, when they have severally recognized those whom they now know, then judgment shall grow strong, and those things which before were spoken of shall come.



51 1 And it shall come to pass, when that appointed day has gone by, that then shall the aspect of those who are condemned be afterwards changed, and the glory of those who are justified. 2 For the aspect of those who now act wickedly shall become worse than it is, as they shall suffer torment. 3 Also (as for) the glory of those who have now been justified in My law, who have had understanding in their life, and who have planted in their heart the root of wisdom, then their splendor shall be glorified in changes, and the form of their face shall be turned into the light of their beauty, that they may be able to acquire and receive the world which does not die, which is then promised to them. 4 For over this above all shall those who come then lament, that they rejected My law, and stopped their ears that they might not hear wisdom or receive understanding. 5 When therefore they see those, over whom they are now exalted, (but) who shall then be exalted and glorified more than they, they shall respectively be transformed, the latter into the splendor of angels, and the former shall yet more waste away in wonder at the visions and in the beholding of the forms. 6 For they shall first behold and afterwards depart to be tormented.



7        But those who have been saved by their works,

          And to whom the law has been now a hope,

          And understanding an expectation,

          And wisdom a confidence,

          Shall wonders appear in their time.

8        For they shall behold the world which is now invisible to them,  

          And they shall behold the time which is now hidden from them:

9        And time shall no longer age them.

10      For in the heights of that world shall they dwell,

          And they shall be made like unto the angels,

          And be made equal to the stars,

          And they shall be changed into every form they desire,

          From beauty into loveliness,

          And from light into the splendor of glory.



11 For there shall be spread before them the extents of Paradise, and there shall be shown to them the beauty of the majesty of the living creatures which are beneath the throne, and all the armies of the angels, who are now held fast by My word, lest they should appear, and] are held fast by a command, that they may stand in their places till their advent comes. 12 Moreover, there shall then be excellency in the righteous surpassing that in the angels. 13 For the first shall receive the last, those whom they were expecting, and the last those of whom they used to hear that they had passed away.



14      For they have been delivered from this world of tribulation,

          And laid down the burthen of anguish.

15      For what then have men lost their life,

          And for what have those who were on the earth exchanged their soul?

16      For then they chose (not) for themselves this time,

          Which, beyond the reach of anguish, could not pass away:

          But they chose for themselves that time,

          Whose issues are full of lamentations and evils,

          And they denied the world which ages not those who come to it,

          And they rejected the time of glory,

          So that they shall not come to the honor of which I told you before.'



52 1 And I answered and said:

'How can we forget those for whom woe is then reserved?

2        And why therefore do we again mourn for those who die?

          Or why do we weep for those who depart to Sheol?

3        Let lamentations be reserved for the beginning of that coming torment,

          And let tears be laid up for the advent of the destruction of that time.

4        [But even in the face of these things will I speak.

5        And as for the righteous, what will they do now?

6        Rejoice you in the suffering which you now suffer:

          For why do you look for the decline of your enemies?

7        Make ready your soul for that which is reserved for you,

And prepare your souls for the reward which is laid up for you.']





53—54. THE MESSIAH APOCALYPSE



53. The Vision of the Cloud with black and white Waters



53 1 And when I had said these things I fell asleep there, and I saw a vision, and lo! a cloud was ascending from a very great sea, and I kept gazing upon it) and lo! it was full of waters white and black, and there were many colors in those self-same waters, and as it were the likeness of great lightning was seen at its summit. 2 And I saw the cloud passing swiftly in quick courses, and it covered all the earth. 3 And it came to pass after these things that that cloud began to pour upon the earth the waters that were in it. 4 And I saw that there was not one and the same like­ness in the waters which descended from it. 5 For in the first beginning they were black and many (Or a time, and afterwards I saw that the waters became bright, but they were not many, and after these things again I saw black (waters), and after these things again bright, and again black and again bright. 6 Now this was done twelve times, but the black were always more numerous than the bright. 7 And it came to pass at the end of the cloud, that lo! it rained black waters, and they were darker than had been all those waters that were before, and fire was mingled with them, and where those waters descended, they wrought devastation and destruction. 8 And after these things I saw how that lightning which I had seen on the summit of the cloud, seized hold of it and hurled it to the earth. 9 Now that lightning shone exceedingly, so as to illuminate the whole earth, and it healed those regions where the last waters had descended and wrought devastation. 10 And it took hold of the whole earth, and had dominion over it. 11 And I saw after these things, and lo! twelve rivers were ascending from the sea, and they began to surround that lightning and to become subject to it. 12 And by reason of my fear I awoke.





54—55. Baruch's Prayer for an Interpretation of  the Vision: Ramiel's advent for

this Purpose



54 1 And I besought the Mighty One, and said:



'You alone, O Lord, know of aforetime the deep things of the world,

And the things which befall in their times You bring about by Your word, And against the works of the inhabitants of the earth you do hasten the beginnings of the times,

And the end of the seasons you alone know.

2        (You) for whom nothing is too hard,

But who do everything easily by a nod:

3        (You) to whom the depths come as the heights,

And whose word the beginnings of the ages serve:

4        (You) who reveal to those who fear you what is prepared for them,

That thenceforth they may be comforted.

5        You show great acts to those who know not;

You break up the enclosure of those who are ignorant,

And lightest up what is dark,

And reveal what is hidden to the pure,

[Who in faith have submitted themselves to you and Your law.]

6        You have shown to Your servant this vision;

Reveal to me also its interpretation.

7        For I know that as regards those things wherein I besought you, I have received a response,

And as regards what I besought, you did reveal to me with what voice I should praise you,

And from what members I should cause praises and hallelujahs to ascend to you.

8        For if my members were mouths,

And the hairs of my head voices,

Even so I could not give you the reward of praise,

Nor laud you as is befitting,

Nor could I recount Your praise,

Nor tell the glory of Your beauty.

9        For what am I amongst men,

Or why am I reckoned amongst those who are more excellent than I,

That I have heard all these marvelous things from the Most High,

And numberless promises from Him who created me?

10      Blessed be my mother among those that bear,

And praised among women be she that bare me.

11      For I will not be silent in praising the Mighty One,

And with the voice of praise I will recount His marvelous deeds.

12      For who doeth like unto Your marvelous deeds, O God,

Or who comprehend Your deep thought of life.

13      For with Your counsel you do govern all the creatures which Your right  hand has created

And you have established every fountain of light beside you,

And the treasures of wisdom beneath Your throne have you prepared.

14      And justly do they perish who have not loved Your law,

And the torment of judgment shall await those who have not submitted themselves to Your power.

15      For though Adam first sinned

And brought untimely death upon all,

Yet of those who were born from him

Each one of them has prepared for his own soul torment to come,

And again each one of them has chosen for himself glories to come.

16      [For assuredly he who believeth will receive reward.



17      But now, as for you, you wicked that now are, turn you to destruction, because you shall speedily be visited, in that formerly you rejected the understanding of the Most High.



18      For His works have not taught you,

Nor has the skill of His creation which is at all times persuaded you.]

19      Adam is therefore not the cause, save only of his own soul,

But each of us has been the Adam of his own soul.

20      But do You, O Lord, expound to me regarding those things which you have revealed to me,

And inform me regarding that which I besought you.

21      For at the consummation of the world vengeance shall be taken upon those who have done wickedness according to their wickedness,

And you will glorify the faithful according to their faithfulness.

22      For those who are amongst your own you rule,

And those who sin you blot out from amongst your own.'



55 1 And it came to pass when I had finished speaking the words of this prayer, that I sat there under a tree, that I might rest in the shade of the branches. 2 And I wondered and was astonished, and pondered in my thoughts regarding the multitude of goodness which sinners who are upon the earth have rejected, and regarding the great torment which they have despised, though they knew that they should be tormented because of the sin they had committed. And when I was pondering on these things and the like, lo! the angel Ramiel who presides over true visions was sent to me, and he said unto me:



4        'Why does your heart trouble you, Baruch,

and why does your thought disturb you?

5        For if owing to the report which you have only heard of judgment you are so moved,

What (wilt you be) when you shall see it manifestly with your eyes?

6        And if with the expectation wherewith you do expect the day of the Mighty One you are so overcome,

What (wilt you be) when you shall come to its advent?

7        And, if at the word of the announcement of the torment of those who have done foolishly you are so wholly distraught,

How much more when the event will reveal marvelous things?

8        And if you have heard tidings of the good and evil things which are then coming and are grieved,

What (wilt you be) when you shall behold what the majesty will reveal, Which shall convict these and cause those to rejoice.'





56—74. Interpretation of the Vision. The black and bright Waters symbolize the World's History from Adam to the Advent of the Messiah.



56 1 'Nevertheless, because you have besought the Most High to reveal to you the interpretation of the vision which you have seen, I have been sent to tell you. 2 And the Mighty One hath assuredly made known to you the methods of the times that have passed, and of those that are destined to pass in His world from the beginning of its creation even unto its consummation, of those things which (are) deceit and of those which (are) in truth. 3 For as you did see a great cloud which ascended from the sea, and went and covered the earth, this is the duration of the world (= αιων) which the Mighty One made when he took counsel to make the world. 4 And it came to pass when the word had gone forth from His presence, that the duration of the world had come into being in a small degree, and was established according to the multitude of the intelligence of Him who sent it. 5 And as you did previously see on the summit of the cloud black waters which descended previously on the earth, this is the transgression wherewith Adam the first man transgressed.



6        For [since] when he transgressed

Untimely death came into being,

Grief was named

And anguish was prepared,

And pain was created,

And trouble consummated,

And disease began to be established,

And Sheol kept demanding that it should be renewed in blood,

And the begetting of children was brought about,

And the passion of parents produced,

And the greatness of humanity was humiliated,

And goodness languished.



7 What therefore can be blacker or darker than these things? 8 This is the beginning of the black waters which you have seen. 9 And from these black (waters) again were black derived, and the darkness of darkness was produced. 10 For he became a danger to his own soul: even to the angels 11 For, moreover, at that time when he was created, they enjoyed liberty. 12 And became he a danger some of them descended, and mingled with the women. 13 And then those who did so were tormented in chains. 14 But the rest of the multitude of the angels, of which there is (no) number, restrained themselves. 15 And those who dwelt on the earth perished together (with them) through the waters of the deluge. 16 These are the black first waters.



57 1 And after these (waters) you did see bright waters: this is the fount of Abraham, also his generations and advent of his son, and of his son's son, and of those like them. 2 Because at that time the unwritten law was named amongst them,



And the works of the commandments were then fulfilled,

And belief in the coming judgment was then generated,

And hope of the world that was to be renewed was then built up,

And the promise of the life that should come hereafter was implanted.

3        These are the bright waters, which you have seen.



58 1 'And the black third waters which you have seen, these are the mingling of all sins, which the nations afterwards wrought after the death of those righteous men, and the wickedness of the land of Egypt, wherein they did wickedly in the service wherewith they made their sons to serve. 2 Nevertheless, these also perished at last.



59 1 'And the bright fourth waters which you have seen are the advent of Moses and Aaron and Miriam and Joshua the son of Nun and Caleb and of all those like them. 2 For at that time the lamp of the eternal law shone on all those who sat in darkness, which announced to them that believe the promise of their reward, and to them that deny, the torment of fire which is reserved for them. 3 But also the heavens at that time were shaken from their place, and those who were under the throne of the Mighty One were perturbed, when He was taking Moses unto Himself. 4 For He showed him many admonitions together with the principles of the law and the consummation of the times, as also to you, and likewise the pattern of Zion and its measures, in the pattern of which the sanctuary of the present time was to be made. 5 But then also He showed to him the measures of the fire, also the depths of the abyss, and the weight of the winds, and the number of the drops of rain: 6 And the suppression of anger, and the multitude of long-suffering, and the truth of judgment: 7 And the root of wisdom, and the riches of understanding, and the fount of knowledge: 8 And the height of the air, and the greatness of Paradise, and the consummation of the ages, and the beginning of the day of judgment: 9 And the number of the offerings, and the earths which have not yet come: 10 And the mouth of Gehenna, and the station of vengeance, and the place of faith, and the region of hope: And the likeness of future torment, and the multitude of innumerable angels, and the flaming hosts, and the splendor of the lightnings, and the voice of the thunders, and the orders of the chiefs of the angels, and the treasuries of light, and the changes of the times, and the investigations of the law. 12 These are the bright fourth waters which you have seen.



60 1 And the black fifth waters which you have seen raining are the works which the Amorites wrought, and the spells of their incantations which they wrought, and the wickedness of their mysteries, and the mingling of their pollution. 2 But even Israel was then polluted by sins in the days of the judges, though they saw many signs which were from Him who made them.



61 1 And the bright sixth waters which thru did see, this is the time in which David and Solomon were born.



2        And there was at that time the building of Zion,

And the dedication of the sanctuary,

          And the shedding of much blood of the nations that sinned then,

And many offerings which were offered then in the dedication of the sanctuary.

3        And peace and tranquility existed at that time,

4        And wisdom was heard in the assembly:

          And the riches of understanding were magnified in the congregations,

5        And the holy festivals were fulfilled in blessedness and in much joy.

6        And the judgment of the rulers was then seen to be without guile,

And the righteousness of the precepts of the Mighty One was accomplished with truth.

7        And the land [which] was then beloved by the Lord,

And because its inhabitants sinned not, it was glorified beyond all lands, And the city Zion ruled then over all lands and regions.

8        These are the bright waters which you have seen.



62 1 And the black seventh waters which you have seen, this is the perversion (brought about) by the counsel of Jeroboam, who took counsel to make two calves of gold: 2 And all the iniquities which kings who were after him iniquitously wrought. 3 And the curse of Jezebel and the worship of idols which Israel practiced at that time. 4 And the withholding of rain, and the famines which occurred until women eat the fruit of their wombs. 5 And the time of their captivity which came upon the nine tribes and a half, because they were in many sins. 6 And Shalmanezzar king of Assyria came and led them away captive. 7 But regarding the Gentiles it were tedious to tell how they always wrought impiety and wickedness, and never wrought righteousness. 8 These are the black seventh waters which you have seen.



63 1 'And the bright eighth waters which you have seen, this is the rectitude and uprightness of Hezekiah king of Judah and the grace (of God) which came upon him. 2 For when Sennacherib was stirred up in order that he might perish, and his wrath troubled him in order that he might thereby perish, for the multitude also of the nations which were with him. 3 When, moreover, Hezekiah the king heard those things which the king of Assyria was devising, (i.e.) to come and seize him and destroy his people, the two and a half tribes which remained: nay, more he wished to overthrow Zion also: then Hezekiah trusted in his works, and had hope in his righteousness, and spoke with the Mighty One and said: 4 "Behold, for lo! Sennacherib is prepared to destroy us, and he will be boastful and uplifted when he has destroyed Zion."



5        And the Mighty One heard him, for Hezekiah was wise,

And He had respect unto his prayer, because he was righteous.



6 And thereupon the Mighty One commanded Ramiel His angel who speaks with you. 7 And I went forth and destroyed their multitude, the number of whose chiefs only was a hundred and eighty-five thousand, and each one of them had an equal number (at his command). 8 And at that time I burned their bodies within, but their raiment and arms I preserved outwardly, in order that the still more wonderful deeds of the Mighty One might appear, and that thereby His name might be spoken of throughout the whole earth. 9 And Zion was saved and Jerusalem delivered: Israel also was freed from tribulation. 10 And all those who were in the holy land  rejoiced, and the name of the Mighty One was glorified so that it was spoken of 11 These are the bright waters which you have seen.



64 1 'And the black ninth waters which you have seen, this is all the wickedness which was in the days of Manasseh the son of Hezekiah. 2 For he wrought much impiety, and he slew the righteous, and he wrested judgment, and he shed the blood of the innocent, and wedded women he violently polluted, and he overturned the altars, and destroyed their offerings, and drove forth their priests lest they should minister in the sanctuary. 3 And he made an image with five faces: four of them looked to the four winds, and the fifth on the summit of the image as ah adversary of the zeal of the Mighty One. 4 And then wrath went forth from the presence of the Mighty One to the intent that Zion should be rooted out, as also it befell in your days. But also against the two tribes and a half went forth a decree that they should also be led away captive, as you have now seen. 5 And to such a degree did the impiety of Manasseh increase, that it removed the praise of the Most High from the sanctuary. 7 On this account Manasseh was at that time named 'the impious," and finally his abode was in the fire. 8 For though his prayer was heard with the Most High, finally, when he was cast into the brazen horse and the brazen horse was melted, it served as a sign unto him for the hour. 9 For he had not lived perfectly, for he was not worthy—but that thenceforward he might know by whom finally he should be tormented. 10 For he who is able to benefit is also able to torment.



65 1 'Thus, moreover, did Manasseh act impiously, and thought that in his time the Mighty One would not inquire into these things. 2 These are the black ninth waters which you have seen.



66 1 'And the bright tenth waters which you have seen: this is the purity of the generations of Josiah king of Judah, who was the only one at the time who submitted himself to the Mighty One with all his heart and with all his soul. 2 And he cleansed the land from idols, and hallowed all the vessels which had been polluted, and restored the offerings to the altar, and raised the horn of the holy, and exalted the righteous, and honored all that were wise in understanding, and brought back the priests to their ministry, and destroyed and removed the magicians and enchanters and necromancers from the land. 3 And not only did he slay the impious that were living, but they also took from the sepulchers the bones of the dead and burned them with fire. 4 [And the festivals and the Sabbaths he established in their sanctity], and their polluted ones he burnt in the fire, and the lying prophets which deceived the people, these also he burnt in the fire, and the people who listened to them when they were living, he cast them into the brook Kidron, and heaped stones upon them. 5 And he was zealous with zeal for the Mighty One with all his soul, and he alone was firm in the law at that time, so that he left none that was uncircumcised, or that wrought impiety in all the land, all the days of his life. 6 Therefore he shall receive an eternal reward, and he shall be glorified with the Mighty One beyond many at a later time. 7 For on his account and on account of those who are like him were the honorable glories, of which you were told before, created and prepared. These arc the bright waters which you have seen.



67 1 'And the black eleventh waters which you have seen: this is the calamity which is now befalling "Zion.



2        Do you think that there is no anguish to the angels in the presence of the Mighty One,



That Zion was so delivered up,

And that lo! the Gentiles boast in their hearts,

And assemble before their idols and say,

          "She is trodden down who oftentimes trod down,

And she has been reduced to servitude who reduced (others)"?

3        Dost you think that in these things the Most High rejoices,

Or that His name is glorified?

4        [But how will it serve towards His righteous judgment?]

5        Yet after these things shall the dispersed among the Gentiles be taken hold of by tribulation,

And in shame shall they dwell in every place.

6        Because so far as Zion is delivered up

And Jerusalem laid waste,

Shall idols prosper in the cities of the Gentiles,

And the vapor of the smoke of the incense of the righteousness which is by the law is extinguished in Zion,

And in the region of Zion in every place lo! there is the smoke of impiety.

7        But the king of Babylon will arise who has now destroyed Zion,

And he will boast over the people,

And he will speak great things in his heart in the presence of the Most High.

8        But he also shall fall at last. These are the black waters.



68 1 'And the bright twelfth waters which you have seen: this is the word. For after these things time will come when your people shall fall into distress, so that they shall all run the risk of perishing together. 3 Nevertheless, they will be saved, and their enemies will fall in their presence. 4 And they will have in (due) time much joy. 5 And at that time after a little interval Zion will again be rebuilt, and its offerings will again be restored, and the priests will return to their ministry, and also the Gentiles will come to glorify it. 6 Nevertheless, not fully as in the beginning. 7 But it will come to pass after these things that there will be the fall of many nations. 8 These are the bright waters which you have seen.



69 1 'For the last waters which you have seen which were darker than all that were before them, those which were after the twelfth number, which were collected together, belong to the whole world. 2 For the Most High made division from the beginning, because He alone knows what will befall. 3 For as to the enormities and the impieties which should be wrought before Him, He foresaw six kinds of them. 4 And of the good works of the righteous which should be accomplished before Him, He foresaw six kinds of them, beyond those which He should work at the consummation of the age. 5 On his account there were not black waters with black, nor bright with bright; for it is the consummation.



70 1 'Hear therefore the interpretation of the last black waters which are to come [after the black]: this the word. 2 Behold! the days come, and it shall be when the time of the age has ripened,



And the harvest of its evil and good seeds has come,

That the Mighty One will bring upon the earth and its inhabitants and upon its rulers

Perturbation of spirit and stupor of heart.

3        And they shall hate one another,

And provoke one another to fight,

And the mean shall rule over the honorable,

And those of low degree shall be extolled above the famous.

4        And the many shall be delivered into the hands of the few,

And those who were nothing shall rule over the strong,

And the poor shall have abundance beyond the rich,

And the impious shall exalt themselves above the heroic.

5        And the wise shall be silent,

And the foolish shall speak,

Neither shall the thought of men be then confirmed,

Nor the counsel of the mighty,

Nor shall the hope of those who hope be confirmed.

6        And when those things which were predicted have come to pass,

Then shall confusion fall upon all men,

And some of them shall fall in battle,

And some of them shall perish in anguish,



7 And some of them shall be destroyed by their own. Then the Most High peoples whom He has prepared before,



And they shall come and make war with the leaders that shall then be left.

8        And it shall come to pass that whoever gets safe out of the war shall die in the earthquake,

And whoever gets safe out of the earthquake shall be burned by the fire,

And whoever gets safe out of the fire shall be destroyed by famine.



9 [And it shall come to pass that whoever of the victors and the vanquished gets safe out of and escapes all these things aforesaid will be delivered into the hands of My servant Messiah.] 10 For all the earth shall devour its inhabitants.



71 1 'And the holy land shall have mercy on its own, And it shall protect its inhabitants at that time. 2 This is the vision which you have seen, and this is the interpretation. 3 For I have come to tell you these things, because your prayer has been heard with the Most High.



72 'Hear now also regarding the bright lightning which is to come at the consummation after these black (waters): this is the word. 2 After the signs have come, of which you were told before, when the nations become turbulent, and the time of My Messiah is come, he shall both summon all the nations, and some of them he shall spare, and some of them he shall slay. 3 These things therefore shall come upon the nations which are to be spared by Him. 4 Every nation, which knows not Israel and has not trodden down the seed of Jacob, shall indeed be spared. 5 And this because some out of every nation shall be subjected to your people. 6 But all those who have ruled over you, or have known you, shall be given up to the sword.



73 1   'And it shall come to pass, when He has brought low everything that is in the world,



And has sat down in peace for the age on the throne of His kingdom,

That joy shall then be revealed,

And rest shall appear.

2        And then healing shall descend in dew,

And disease shall withdraw,

And anxiety and anguish and lamentation pass from amongst men,

And gladness proceed through the whole earth.

3        And no one shall again die untimely,

Nor shall any adversity suddenly befall.

4        And judgments, and abusive talk, and contentions, and revenges,

And blood, and passions, and envy, and hatred,

And whatsoever things are like these shall go into condemnation when they are removed.

5        For it is these very things which have filled this world with evils,

And on account of these the life of man has been greatly troubled.

6        And wild beasts shall come from the forest and minister unto men

And asps and dragons shall come forth from their holes to submit themselves to a little child.

7        And women shall no longer then have pain when they bear,

Nor shall they suffer torment when they yield the fruit of the womb.



74 1   'And it shall come to pass in those days that the reapers shall not grow weary,

Nor those that build be toil-worn;

For the works shall of themselves speedily advance

Together with those who do them in much tranquility.

2        For that time is the consummation of that which is corruptible,

And the beginning of that which is not corruptible.

3        Therefore those things which were predicted shall belong to it:

Therefore it is far away from evils, and near to those things which die not.

4        This is the bright lightning which came after the last dark waters.'





75. Baruch's Hymn on the Unsearchableness of God's Ways and on His Mercies  through which the Faithful shall attain to a blessed Consummation



75 1   And I answered and said:

'Who can understand, O Lord, Your goodness?

For it is incomprehensible.

2        Or who can search into your compassions,

Which are infinite?

3        Or who can comprehend Your intelligence?

4        Or who is able to recount the thoughts of Your mind?

5        Or who of those who are born can hope to come to those things,

Unless he is one to whom you are merciful and gracious?

6        Because, if assuredly you did not have compassion on man,

Those who are under Your right hand,

They could not come to those things,

But those who are in the numbers named can be called.

7        But if, indeed, we who exist know wherefore we have come,

And submit ourselves to Him who brought us out of Egypt,

We shall come again and remember those things which have passed,

And shall rejoice regarding that which has been.

8        But if now we know not wherefore we have come,

And recognize not the principate of Him who brought us up out of Egypt, We shall come again and seek after those things which have been now,

And be grieved with pain because of those things which have befallen.'





76. Baruch bidden to instruct the People for forty days and then to hold himself ready for his Assumption on the Advent of the Messiah



76 1 And He answered and said unto me: ['Inasmuch as the revelation of this vision has been interpreted to you as you requested], hear the word of the Most High that you may know what is to befall you after these things. 2 For you shall surely depart from this earth, nevertheless not unto death, but you shall be preserved unto the consummation of the times. 3 Go up therefore to the top of that mountain, and there shall pass before you all the regions of that land, and the figure of the inhabited world, and the top(s) of the mountains, and the depth(s) of the valleys, and the depths of the seas, and the number of the rivers, that you may see what you are leaving, and whither you are going. 4 Now this shall befall after forty days. Go now therefore during these days and instruct the people so far as you are able, that they may learn so as not to die at the last time, but may learn in order that they may live at the last times.'





77. Baruch's Admonition to the People and his writing of two Letters—one to the nine and a half tribes in Assyria and the other to the two and a half in Babylon



77 1 And I, Baruch, went there and came to the people, and assembled them together from the greatest to the least, and said unto them: 2 'Hear, you children of Israel, behold how many you are who remain of the twelve tribes of Israel. 3 For to you and to your fathers the Lord gave a law more excellent than to all peoples. 4 And because your brethren transgressed the commandments of the Most High,



He brought vengeance upon you and upon them,

And He spared not the former,

And the latter also He gave into captivity:

And He left not a residue of them,

5        But behold! you are here with me.

6        If, therefore, you direct your ways aright,

Ye also shall not depart as your brethren departed,

But they shall come to you.

7        For He is merciful whom you worship,

And He is gracious in whom you hope,

And He is true, so that He shall do good and not evil.

8        Have you not seen here what has befallen Zion?

9        Or do you perchance think that the place had sinned,

And that on this account it was overthrown?

Or that the land had wrought foolishness,

And that therefore it was delivered up?

10      And know you not that on account of you who did sin,

That which sinned not was overthrown,

And, on account of those who wrought wickedly,

That which wrought not foolishness was delivered up to (its) enemies?'



11 And the whole people answered and said unto me: 'So far as we can recall the good things which the Mighty One has done unto us, we do recall them; and those things which we do not remember He in His mercy knows. 12 Nevertheless, do this for us your people: write also to our brethren in Babylon an epistle of doctrine and a scroll of hope, that you may confirm them also before you do depart from us.



13      For the shepherds of Israel have perished,

And the lamps which gave light are extinguished,

And the fountains have withheld their stream whence we used to drink.

14      And we are left in the darkness,

And amid the trees of the forest,

And the thirst of the wilderness.'

15      And I answered and said unto them

'Shepherds and lamps and fountains come from the law:

And though we depart, yet the law abides.

16      If therefore you have respect to the law,

And are intent upon wisdom,

A lamp will not be wanting,

And a shepherd will not fail,

And a fountain will not dry up.



17 Nevertheless, as you said unto me, I will write also unto your brethren in Babylon, and I will send by means of men, and I will write in like manner to the nine tribes and a half, and send by means of a bird.' 18 And it came to pass on the one and twentieth day in the eighth month that I, Baruch, came and sat down under the oak under the shadow of the branches, and no man was with me, but I was alone. 19 And I wrote these two epistles: one I sent by an eagle to the nine and a half tribes; and the other I sent to those that were at Babylon by means of three men. 20 And I called the eagle and spoke these words unto it: 21 'The Most High hath made you that you should be higher than all birds. 22 And now go and tarry not in (any) place, nor enter a nest, nor settle upon any tree, till you have passed over the breadth of the many waters of the river Euphrates, and have gone to the people that dwell there, and cast down to them this epistle. 23 Remember, moreover, that, at the time of the deluge, Noah received from a dove the fruit of the olive, when he sent it forth from the ark. 24 Yea, also the ravens ministered to Elijah, bearing him food, as they had been commanded. 25 Solo­mon also, in the time of his kingdom, whithersoever he wished to send or seek for anything, commanded a bird (to go thither), and it obeyed him as he commanded it. 26 And now let it not weary you, and turn not to the right hand nor the left, but fly and go by a direct way, that you may preserve the command of the Mighty One, according as I said unto you.'





78—86. THE EPISTLE OF BARUCH THE SON OF NERIAH WHICH HE

WROTE TO THE NINE AND A HALF TRIBES



78 1 These are the words of that epistle which Baruch the son of Neriah sent to the nine and a half tribes, which were across the river Euphrates, in which these things were written.

2 Thus says Baruch the son of Neriah to the brethren carried into captivity: 'Mercy and peace.' I bear in mind, my brethren, the love of Him who created us, who loved us from of old, and never hated us, but above all educated us. 3 And truly I know that behold all we the twelve tribes are bound by one bond, inasmuch as we are born from one father. 4 Wherefore I have been the more careful to leave you the words of this epistle before I die, that you may be comforted regarding the evils which have come upon you, and that you may be grieved also regarding the evil that has befallen your brethren; and again, also, that you may justify His judgment which 5 He has decreed against you that you should be carried away captive—for what you have suffered is disproportioned to what you have done—in order that, at the last times, you may be found worthy of your fathers. 6 Therefore, if you consider that ye have now suffered those things for your good, that you may not finally be condemned and tormented, then you will receive eternal hope; if above all you destroy from your heart vain error, on account of which you departed hence. 7 For if you so do these things, He will continually remember you, He who always promised on our behalf to those who were more excellent than we, that He will never forget or forsake us, but with much mercy will gather together again those who were dispersed.



79 1 Now, my brethren, learn first what befell Zion: how that Nebuchadnezzar king of Babylon came up against us. 2 For we have sinned against Him who made us, and we have not kept the commandments which he commanded us, yet he hath not chastened us as we deserved. 3 For what befell you we also suffer in a preeminent degree, for it befell us also.



80 1 And now, my brethren, I make known unto you that when the enemy had surrounded the city, the angels of the Most High were sent, and they overthrew the fortifications of the strong wall, and they destroyed the firm iron corners, which could not be rooted out. 2 Nevertheless, they hid all the vessels of the sanctuary, lest the enemy should get possession of them. 3 And when they had done these things, they delivered thereupon to the enemy the overthrown wall, and the plundered house, and the burnt temple, and the people who were overcome because they were delivered up, lest the enemy should boast and say: 'Thus by force have we been able to lay waste even the house of the Most High in war.' Your brethren also have they bound and led away to Babylon, and have caused them to dwell there. 5 But we have been left here, being very few. 6 This is the tribulation about which I wrote to you. 7 For assuredly I know that (the consolation of) the inhabitants of Zion consoles you : so far as you knew that it was prospered (your consolation) was greater than the tribulation which you endured in having to depart from it.



81 1 But regarding consolation, hear the word. 2 For I was mourning regarding Zion, and I prayed for mercy from the Most High, and I said:



3        'How long will these things endure for us?

And will these evils come upon us always?'

4        And the Mighty One did according to the multitude of His mercies,

And the Most High according to the greatness of His compassion,

And He revealed unto me the word, that I might receive consolation,

And He showed me visions that I should not again endure anguish,

And He made known to me the mystery of the times.

And the advent of the hours he showed me.



82 1 Therefore, my brethren, I have written to you, that you may comfort yourselves regarding the multitude of your tribulations. 2 For know you that our Maker will assuredly avenge us on all our enemies, according to all that they have done to us, also that the consummation which the Most High will make is very nigh, and His mercy that is coming, and the consummation of His judgment, is by no means far off.



3        For lo! we see now the multitude of the prosperity of the Gentiles,

Though they act impiously,

But they shall be like a vapor:

4        And we behold the multitude of their power,

Though they do wickedly,

But they shall be made like unto a drop:

5        And we see the firmness of their might.

Though they resist the Mighty One every hour,

But they shall be accounted as spittle.

6        And we consider the glory of their greatness,

Though they do not keep the statutes of the Most High,

But as smoke shall they pass away.

7        And we meditate on the beauty of their gracefulness,

Though they have to do with pollutions,

But as grass that withers shall they fade away.

8        And we consider the strength of their cruelty,

Though they remember not the end (thereof),

But as a wave that passes shall they be broken.

9        And we remark the boastfulness of their might,

Though they deny the beneficence of God, who gave (it) to them,

But they shall pass away as a passing cloud.



83 1   [For the Most High will assuredly hasten His times,

And He will assuredly bring on His hours.

2        And He will assuredly judge those who are in His world,

And will visit in truth all things by means of all their hidden works.

3        And He will assuredly examine the secret thoughts,

And that which is laid up in the secret chambers of all the members of mail. And will make (them) manifest in the presence of all with reproof.



4 Let none therefore of these present things ascend into your hearts, but above all let us be expectant, because that which is promised to us shall come. 5 And let us not now look unto the delights of the Gentiles in the present, but let us remember what has been promised to us in the end. 6 For the ends of the times and of the seasons and whatsoever is with them shall assuredly pass by together. 7 The consummation, moreover, of the age shall then show the great might of its ruler, when all things come to judgment. 8 Do you therefore prepare your hearts for that which before you believed, lest you come to be in bondage in both worlds, so that you be led away captive here and be tormented there. 9 For that which exists now or which has passed away, or which is to come, in all these things, neither is the evil fully evil, nor again the good fully good.



10      For all healthinesses of this time are turning into diseases,

11      And all might of this time is turning into weakness,

And all the force of this time is turning into impotence,

12      And every energy of youth is turning into old age and consummation.

And every beauty of gracefulness of this time is turning faded and hateful,

13      And every proud dominion of the present is turning into humiliation and shame,

14      And every praise of the glory of this time is turning into the shame of silence,

And every vain splendor and insolence of this time is turning into voiceless ruin.

15      And every delight and joy of this time is turning to worms and corruption,

16      And every clamor of the pride of this time is turning into dust and stillness.

17      And every possession of riches of this time is being turned into Sheol alone,

18      And all the rapine of passion of this time is turning into involuntary death,

And every passion of the lusts of this time is turning into a judgment of torment.

19      And every artifice and craftiness of this time is turning into a proof of the truth,

20      And every sweetness of unguents of this time is turning into judgment and condemnation,

21      And every love of lying is turning to contumely through truth.



22 [Since therefore all these things are done now, does anyone think that they will not be avenged? But the consummation of all things will come to the truth.]



84 Behold! I have therefore made known unto you (these things) whilst I live: for I have said (it) that you should learn the things that are excellent; for the Mighty One hath commanded me to instruct you: and I will set before you some of the commandments of His judgment before I die. 2 Remember that formerly Moses assuredly called heaven and earth to witness against you and said: 'If you transgress the law you shall be dispersed, but if you keep it you shall be kept.' 3 And other things also he used to say unto you when you the twelve tribes were together in the desert. 4 And after his death you cast them away from you: on this account there came upon you what had been predicted. 5 And now Moses used to tell you before they befell you, and lo! they have befallen you: for you have forsaken the law. 6 Lo! I also say unto you after you have suffered, that if you obey those things which have been said unto you, you will receive from the Mighty One whatever has been laid up and reserved for you. 7 Moreover, let this epistle be for a testimony between me and you, that you may remember the commandments of the Mighty One, and that also there may be to me a defense in the presence of Him who sent me. 8 And remember you the law and Zion, and the holy land and your brethren, and the covenant of your fathers, and forget not the festivals and the Sabbaths. And deliver this epistle and the traditions of the law to your sons after you, as also your fathers delivered (them) to you. 10 And at all times make request perseveringly and pray diligently with your whole heart that the Mighty One may be reconciled to you, and that He may not reckon the multitude of your sins, but remember the rectitude of your fathers. 11 For if He judge us not according to the multitude of His mercies, woe unto all us who are born.



85 1   [Know, moreover, that

In former times and in the generations of old our fathers had helpers,

Righteous men and holy prophets:

2        No more, we were in our own land

[And they helped us when we sinned],

http://www.pseudepigrapha.com/pseudepigrapha/2Baruch.html
敘利亞文通俗譯本Syriac Peshitta 才會用的巴路克Baruch3維基
3 Baruch or the Greek Apocalypse of Baruch is a visionary, Jewish pseudepedigraphic text thought to have been written after 130 CE, perhaps as late as the early 3rd century CE,[1]  after the fall of Jerusalem to the Romans in 70 CE. It is one of the Pseudepigrapha, attributed to the 6th-century BCE scribe of Jeremiah, Baruch ben Neriah, and does not form part of the biblical canon of either Jews or Christians. It survives in certain Greek manuscripts, and also in a few Old Church Slavonic ones.

Like 2 Baruch, this Greek Apocalypse of Baruch describes the state of Jerusalem after the sack by Nebuchadnezzar in 587 BCE and discusses how Judaism can survive when the temple is no longer in existence. It frames this discussion as a mystical vision granted to Baruch ben Neriah. Also like 2 Baruch, 3 Baruch argues that the Temple has been preserved in heaven and is presented as fully functional and attended by angels; thus there is no need for the temple to be rebuilt on earth. This third book of Baruch addresses the question of why God permits good people to suffer, and answering with a vision of the afterlife in which sinners and the righteous get their just rewards.[1]

During the vision, Baruch is shown various heavens,[2] there witnessing the punishment of the builders of the "tower of strife against God" (perhaps the Tower of Babel); a serpent named Hades who drinks from the sea; and other such marvels, until he is finally stopped by a locked gate at the fifth heaven, which only the archangel Michael has the ability to open.

The builders of the "tower of strife" are described in terms that could be regarded as demonic – with the faces of cattle, horns of sheep, and feet of goats; while those who commanded them to build it are punished eternally in a separate heaven where they are reincarnated in the forms of dogs, bears or apes. Baruch also witnesses a phoenix, which the text portrays as a singular bird that protects the earth from the rays of the sun.

It is significant that the Old Church Slavonic versions do not contain the Christian overtones of the Greek text, which suggests that the Greek text represents a rewriting in the Christian age.

   1. ^ a  b  Harris, Stephen L., Understanding the Bible. Palo Alto: Mayfield. 1985.
   2. ^ This litrerary trope of Apocalyptic literatureis discussed by Mary Dean-Otting, Heavenly Journeys: A Study of the Motif in Hellenistic Jewish Literature, 1984.

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/3_Baruch
巴路克Baruch3
Prologue.

1 A narrative and revelation of Baruch, concerning those ineffable things which he saw by command of God. Bless Thou, O Lord.

2 A revelation of Baruch, who stood upon the river Gel weeping over the captivity of 3 Jerusalem, when also Abimelech was preserved by the hand of God, at the farm of Agrippa. And he was sitting thus at the beautiful gates, where the Holy of holies lay.

1.       1 Verily I Baruch was weeping in my mind and sorrowing on account of the people, and that 2 Nebuchadnezzar the king was permitted by God to destroy His city, saying: Lord, why didst Thou set on fire Thy vineyard, and lay it waste? Why didst Thou do this? And why, Lord, didst Thou not requite us with another chastisement, but didst deliver us to nations such as these, so that they 3 reproach us and say, Where is their God? And behold as I was weeping and saying such things, I saw an angel of the Lord coming and saying to me: Understand, O man, greatly beloved, and trouble not thyself so greatly concerning the salvation of Jerusalem, for thus saith the Lord God, 4 the Almighty. For He sent me before thee, to make known and to show to thee all (the things) 5, 6 of God. For thy prayer was heard before Him, and entered into the ears of the Lord God. And when he had said these things to me, I was silent. And the angel said to me: Cease to provoke 7 God, and I will show thee other mysteries, greater than these. And I Baruch said, As the Lord God liveth, if thou wilt show me, and I hear a word of thine, I will not continue to speak any longer. 8 God shall add to my judgement in the day of judgement, if I speak hereafter. And the angel of the powers said to me, Come, and I will show thee the mysteries of God.



The First Heaven.

2  1 And he took me and led me where the firmament has been set fast, and where there was a river which no one can cross, nor any strange breeze of all those which God created. And he took me and led me to the first heaven, and showed me a door of great size. And he said to me, Let us enter 3 through it, and we entered as though borne on wings, a distance of about thirty days' journey. And he showed me within the heaven a plain ; and there were men dwelling thereon, with the faces of 4 oxen, and the horns of stags and the feet of goats, and the haunches of lambs. And I Baruch asked the angel, Make known to me, I pray thee, what is the thickness of the heaven in which we journeyed, 5 or what is its extent, or what is the plain, in order that I may also tell the sons of men? And the angel whose name is Phamael said to me: This door which thou seest is the door of heaven, and as great as is the distance from earth to heaven, so great also is its thickness; and again as great as is the distance (from North to South, so great) is the length of the plain which thou didst see. And again the angel of the powers said to me, Come, and I will show thee greater mysteries. But 6, 7  I said, I pray thee show me what are these men. And he said to me, These are they who built the tower of strife against God, and the Lord banished them.



The Second Heaven.
3        1 And the angel of the Lord took me and led me to a second heaven. And he showed me there 2 also a door like the first and said, Let us enter through it. And we entered, being borne on wings 3 a distance of about sixty days' journey. And he showed me there also a plain, and it was full of 4 men, whose appearance was like that of dogs, and whose feet were like those of stags. And I asked 5 the angel: I pray thee, Lord, say to me who are these. And he said, These are they who gave counsel to build the tower, for they whom thou seest drove forth multitudes of both men and women, to make bricks; among whom, a woman making bricks was not allowed to be released in the hour of child-birth, but brought forth while she was making bricks, and carried her child in her apron, and 6 continued to make bricks. And the Lord appeared to them and confused their speech, when they 7 had built the tower to the height of four hundred and sixty-three cubits. And they took a gimlet, and sought to pierce the heaven, saying, Let us see (whether) the heaven is made of clay, or of 8 brass, or of iron. When God saw this He did not permit them, but smote them with blindness and confusion of speech, and rendered them as thou seest.





The Third Heaven.

4        1 And I Baruch said, Behold, Lord, Thou didst show me great and wonderful things; and now 2 show me all things for the sake of the Lord. And the angel said to me, Come, let us proceed. (And I proceeded) with the angel from that place about one hundred and eighty-five days' 3 journey. And he showed me a plain and a serpent, which appeared to be two hundred plethra in length. 4 And he showed me Hades, and its appearance was dark and abominable. And I said, 5 Who is this dragon, and who is this monster around him? And the angel said, The dragon is he 6 who eats the bodies of those who spend their life wickedly, and he is nourished by them. And this is Hades, which itself also closely resembles him, in that it also drinks about a cubit from 7 the sea, which does not sink at all. Baruch said, And how (does this happen)? And the angel said, Hearken, the Lord God made three hundred and sixty rivers, of which the chief of 8 all are Alphias, Abyrus, and the Gericus; and because of these the sea does not sink. And I said, I pray thee show me which is the tree which led Adam astray. And the angel said to me, It is the vine, which the angel Sammael planted, whereat the Lord God was angry, and He cursed him and his plant, while also on this account He did not permit Adam to touch it, and therefore 9 the devil being envious deceived him through his vine. [And I Baruch said, Since also the vine has been the cause of such great evil, and is under judgment of the curse of God, and was the 10 destruction of the first created, how is it now so useful? And the angel said, Thou askest aright. When God caused the deluge upon earth, and destroyed all flesh, and four hundred and nine thousand giants, and the water rose fifteen cubits above the highest mountains, then the water entered into paradise and destroyed every flower; but it removed wholly without the bounds the shoot 11 of the vine and cast it outside. And when the earth appeared out of the water, and Noah came out 12 of the ark, he began to plant of the plants which he found. But he found also the shoot of the vine; and he took it, and was reasoning in himself, What then is it? And I came and spake to 13 him the things concerning it. And he said, Shall I plant it, or what shall I do? Since Adam was destroyed because of it, let me not also meet with the anger of God because of it. And saying 14 these things he prayed that God would reveal to him what he should do concerning it. And when he had completed the prayer which lasted forty days, and having besought many things and wept, 15 he said: Lord, I entreat thee to reveal to me what I shall do concerning this plant. But God sent his angel Sarasael, and said to him, Arise, Noah, and plant the shoot of the vine, for thus saith the Lord : Its bitterness shall be changed into sweetness, and its curse shall become a blessing, and that which is produced from it shall become the blood of God; and as through it the human race obtained condemnation, so again through Jesus Christ the Immanuel will they receive in Him the 16 upward calling, and the entry into paradise]. Know therefore, 0 Baruch, that as Adam through this very tree obtained condemnation, and was divested of the glory of God, so also the men who now drink insatiably the wine which is begotten of it, transgress worse than Adam, and are far from the 17 glory of God, and are surrendering themselves to the eternal fire. For (no) good comes through it. For those who drink it to surfeit do these things: neither does a brother pity his brother, nor a father his son, nor children their parents, but from the drinking of wine come all evils, such as murders, adulteries, fornications, perjuries, thefts, and such like. And nothing good is established by it.



5        1 And I Baruch said to the angel, 2 Let me ask thee one thing, Lord. Since thou didst say to me 3 that the dragon drinks one cubit out of the sea, say to me also, how great is his belly? And the angel said, His belly is Hades; and as far as a plummet is thrown (by) three hundred men, so great is his belly. Come, then, that I may show thee also greater works than these.



6        1 And he took me and led me where the sun goes forth; 2 and he showed me a chariot and four, under which burnt a fire, and in the chariot was sitting a man, wearing a crown of fire, (and) the chariot (was) drawn by forty angels. And behold a bird circling before the sun, about nine 3 cubits away. And I said to the angel, What is this bird? And he said to me, This is the 4, 5 guardian of the earth. And I said, Lord, how is he the guardian of the earth? Teach me. And the angel said to me, This bird flies alongside of the sun, and expanding his wings receives its fiery 6 rays. For if he were not receiving them, the human race would not be preserved, nor any other 7 living creature. But God appointed this bird thereto. And he expanded his wings, and I saw on his right wing very large letters, as large as the space of a threshing-floor, the size of about four 8 thousand modii; and the letters were of gold. And the angel said to me, Read them. And I read 9 and they ran thus: Neither earth nor heaven bring me forth, but wings of fire bring me forth. And I said, Lord, what is this bird, and what is his name? And the angel said to me,  His name is called 11 Phoenix. (And I said), And what does he eat? And he said to me, The manna of heaven and 12 the dew of earth. And I said, Does the bird excrete? And he said to me, He excretes a worm, and the excrement of the worm is cinnamon, which kings and princes use. But wait and thou shalt 13 see the glory of God. And while he was conversing with me, there was as a thunder-clap, and the place was shaken on which we were standing. And I asked the angel, My Lord, what is this sound? And the angel said to me, Even now the angels are opening the three hundred and sixty-five gates 14 of heaven, and the light is being separated from the darkness. And a voice came which said, Light 15 giver, give to the world radiance. And when I heard the noise of the bird, I said, Lord, what is this 16 noise? And he said, This is the bird who awakens from slumber the cocks upon earth. For as men do through the mouth, so also does the cock signify to those in the world, in his own speech. For the sun is made ready by the angels, and the cock crows.



7        1 And I said, And where does the sun begin its labors, after the cock crows? 2 And the angel said to me, Listen, Baruch: All things whatsoever I showed thee are in the first and second heaven, and in the third heaven the sun passes through and gives light to the world. But wait, and thou 3 shalt see the glory of God. And while I was conversing with him, I saw the bird, and he appeared 4 in front, and grew less and less, and at length returned to his full size. And behind him I saw the shining sun, and the angels which draw it, and a crown upon its bead, the sight of which we were 5 not able to gaze Upon, and behold. And as soon as the sun shone, the Phoenix also stretched out his wings. But I, when I beheld such great glory, was brought low with great fear, and I fled and 6 hid in the wings of the angel. And the angel said to me, Fear not, Baruch, but wait and thou shalt also see their setting.



8        1 And he took me and led me towards the west; and when the time of the, setting came, I saw again the bird coming before it, and as soon as lie came I saw the angels, and they lifted the crown 2, 3 from its head. But the bird stood exhausted and with wings contracted. And beholding these things, I said, Lord, wherefore did they lift the crown from the head of the sun, and wherefore is 4 the bird so exhausted? And the angel said to me, The crown of the sun, when it has run through the day-four angels take it, and bear it up to heaven, and renew it, because it and its rays have been defiled upon earth; moreover it is so renewed each day. And I Baruch said, Lord, and wherefore 5 are its beams defiled upon earth? And the angel said to me, Because it beholds the lawlessness and unrighteousness of men, namely fornications, adulteries, thefts, extortions, idolatries, drunkenness, murders, strife, jealousies, evil-speakings, murmurings, whisperings, divinations, and such like, which are not well-pleasing to God. On account of these things is it defiled, and therefore is it renewed. 6 But thou askest concerning the bird, how it is exhausted. Because by restraining the rays of the sun through the fire and burning heat of the whole day, it is exhausted thereby. For, as we said before, unless his wings were screening the rays of the sun, no living creature would be preserved.



9        1 And they having retired, the night also fell, and at the same time came the chariot of the moon, along with the stars. 2 And I Baruch said, Lord, show me it also, I beseech of thee, how 3 it goes forth, where it departs, and in what form it moves along. And the angel said, Wait' and thou shalt see it also shortly. And on the morrow I also saw it in the form of a woman, and sitting on a wheeled chariot. And there were before it oxen and lambs in the chariot, and a multitude of 4 angels in like manner. And I said, Lord, what are the oxen and the lambs? And he said to me, 5 They also are angels. And again I asked, Why is it that it at one time increases, but at another 6 time decreases? And (he said to me), Listen, 0 Baruch: This which thou seest had been written 7 by God beautiful as no other. And at the transgression of the first Adam, it was near to Sammael when he took the serpent as a garment. And it did not hide itself but increased, and God was 8 angry with it, and afflicted it, and shortened its days. And I said, And how does it not also shine always, but only in the night? And the angel said, Listen: as in the presence of a king, the courtiers cannot speak freely, so the moon and the stars cannot shine in the presence of the sun; for the stars are always suspended, but they are screened by the sun, and the moon, although it is uninjured, is consumed by the heat of the sun.



The Fourth Heaven.



10      1 And when I had learnt all these things from the archangel, he took and led me into a fourth 2 3 heaven. And I saw a monotonous plain, and in the middle of it a pool of water. And there were in it multitudes of birds of all kinds, but not like those here on earth. But I saw a crane as great as 4 great oxen; and all the birds were great beyond those in the world. And I asked the angel, What 5 is the plain, and what the pool, and what the multitudes of birds around it? And the angel said, Listen, Baruch : The plain which contains in it the pool and other wonders is the place where the 6 souls of the righteous come, when they hold converse, living together in choirs. But the water is 7 that which the clouds receive, and rain upon the earth, and the fruits increase. And I said again to the angel of the Lord, But (what) are these birds? And he said to me, They are those which 8 continually sing praise to the Lord. And I said, Lord, and how do men say that the water which 9 descends in rain is from the sea? And the angel said, The water which descends in rain-this also is from the sea, and from the waters upon earth; but that which stimulates the fruits is (only) from 10 the latter source. Know therefore henceforth that from this source is what is called the dew of heaven.



The Fifth Heaven.

11        1 And the angel took me and led me thence to a fifth heaven. And the gate was closed. And I said, Lord, is not this gate-way open that we may enter? And the angel said to me, We cannot enter until Michael comes, who holds the keys of the Kingdom of Heaven; but wait and thou shalt see 3 the glory of God. And there was a great sound, as thunder. And I said, Lord, what is this sound? 4 And he said to me, Even now Michael, the commander of the angels, comes down to receive the 5 prayers of men. And behold a voice came, Let the gates be opened. And they opened them, and 6 there was a roar as of thunder. And Michael came, and the angel who was with me came face to 7 face with him and said, Hail, my commander, and that of all our order. And the commander Michael said, Hail thou also, our brother, and the interpreter of the revelations to those who pass through life 8 virtuously. And having saluted one another thus, they stood still. And I saw the commander Michael said, Hail thou also, our brother, and the interpreter of the revelations to those who pass through life 8 virtuously. And having saluted one another thus, they stood still. And I saw the commander Michael, holding an exceedingly great vessel; its depth was as great as the distance from heaven to 9 earth, and its breadth as great as the distance from north to south. And I said, Lord, what is that which Michael the archangel is holding? And he said to me, This is where the merits of the righteous enter, and such good works as they do, which are escorted before the heavenly God.



12      1, And as I was conversing with them, behold angels came bearing baskets full of flowers. And 2 they gave them to Michael. And I asked the angel, Lord, who are these, and what are the things 3 brought hither from beside them? And he said to me, These are angels (who) are over the 4, 5 righteous. And the archangel took the baskets, and cast them into the vessel. And the angel 6 said to me, These flowers are the merits of the righteous. And I saw other angels bearing baskets which were (neither) empty-nor full. And they began to lament, and did not venture to draw near, 7 because they had not the prizes complete. And Michael cried and said, Come hither, also, ye 8 angels, bring what ye have brought. And Michael was exceedingly grieved, and the angel who was with me, because they did not fill the vessel.



13      1 And then came in like manner other angels weeping and bewailing, and saying with fear, Behold how we are overclouded, 0 Lord, for we were delivered to evil men, and we wish to depart from 2 them. And Michael said, Ye cannot depart from them, in order that the enemy may not prevail to 3 the end; but say to me what ye ask. And they said, We pray thee, Michael our commander, transfer us from them, for we cannot abide with wicked and foolish men, for there is nothing good 4 in them, but every kind of unrighteousness and greed. For we do not behold them entering [into Church at all, nor among spiritual fathers, nor] into any good work. But where there is murder, there also are they in the midst, and where are fornications, adulteries, thefts, slanders, perjuries, jealousies, drunkenness, strife, envy, murmurings, whispering, idolatry, divination, and such like, 5 then are they workers of such works, and of others worse. Wherefore we entreat that we may depart from them. And Michael said to the angels, Wait till I learn from the Lord what shall come to pass.



14      1 And in that very hour Michael departed, and the doors were closed. And there was a sound as 2 thunder. And I asked the angel, What is the sound? And he said to me, Michael is even now presenting the merits of men to God.



15      1 And in that very hour Michael descended, and the gate was opened; and he brought oil. 2 And as for the angels which brought the baskets which were full, he filled them with oil, saying, Take it away, reward our friends an hundredfold, and those who have laboriously wrought good works. 3 For those who sowed virtuously, also reap virtuously. And he said also to those bringing the half-empty baskets, Come hither ye also; take away the reward according as ye brought, and 4 deliver it to the sons of men. [Then he said also to those who brought the full and to those who brought the half-empty baskets: Go and bless our friends, and say to them that thus saith the Lord, Ye are faithful over a few things, I will set you over many things; enter into the joy of your Lord.]



16      1 And turning he said also to those who brought nothing: Thus saith the Lord, Be not sad of 2 countenance, and weep not, nor let the sons of men alone. But since they angered me in their works, go and make them envious and angry and provoked against a people that is no people, a 3 people that has no understanding. Further, besides these, send forth the caterpillar and the unwinged locust, and the mildew, and the common locust (and) hail with lightnings and anger, and 4 punish them severely with the sword and with death, and their children with demons. For they did not hearken to my voice, nor did they observe my commandments, nor do them, but were despisers of my commandments, and insolent towards the priests who proclaimed my words to them.



17      1 And while he yet spake, the door was closed, and we withdrew. 2 And the angel took me and 3 restored me to the p/ace where I was at the beginning. And having come to myself, I gave glory 4 to God, who counted me worthy of such honor. Wherefore do ye also, brethren, who obtained such a revelation, yourselves also glorify God, so that He also may glorify you, now and ever, and to all eternity. Amen.

http://web.archive.org/web/20030421102137/http://wesley.nnu.edu/noncanon/ot/pseudo/3baruch.htm
敘利亞文通俗譯本Syriac Peshitta 才會用的聖詠Psalm 152–155維基
Psalms 152 to 155 are additional Psalms found in the Syriac Peshitta  and, for two of them, in the Dead Sea scrolls. Together with Psalm 151 they are also called the 'Five Apocryphal Psalms of David'.

Psalm 152

"Spoken by David when he was contending with the lion and the wolf which took a sheep from his flock."[1]. This text survived only in Syriac and the original language may be Hebrew. The tone is non-rabbinical and it was probably composed in Palestine during the Hellenistic period.

Psalm 153

"Spoken by David when returning thanks to God, who had delivered him from the lion and the wolf and he had slain both of them."[1]. This text survived only in Syriac. Date and provenance are like psalm 152.

Psalm 154

This Psalm survived in the Syriac Peshitta and also was found in Hebrew, in the Dead Sea scroll 11QPs(a)154 (said also 11Q5), a first-century CE manuscript. The main theme is the request to "join yourselves to the good and to the perfect, to glorify the Most High". There is also a hint to common meals, typical of Essenes: "And in their eating shall be satisfying in truth, and in their drinking, when they share together"'.

Psalm 155

This psalm extant in Syriac and also was found in the Dead Sea scroll 11QPs(a)155 (said also 11Q5), a first-century CE Hebrew manuscript. The theme of this psalm is similar to Psalm 22, and due to the lack of peculiarities it is impossible to suggest date and origin.

Notes

   1. ^ a b title from W. Wright Some Apocryphal Psalms in Syriac, Proceedings of the Society of Biblical archaeology 9 [1887] 257–266,

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Psalms_152%E2%80%93155
聖詠Psalm 152–155
    II. The Prayer of Hezekiah when enemies surrounded him.

(1) With a loud voice glorify ye God; in the assembly of many proclaim ye His glory. (2) Amid the multitude of the upright glorify His praise; and speak of His glory with the righteous. (3) Join yourselves (literally, your soul) to the good and to the perfect, to glorify the Most High. (4) Gather yourselves together to make known His strength; and be not slow in showing forth His deliverance [and His strength] and His glory to all babes. (5) That the honour of the Lord may be known, wisdom hath been given; and to tell of His works it hath been made known to men: (6) to make known unto babes His strength, and to make them that lack understanding (literally, heart) to comprehend His glory; (7) who are far from His entrances and distant from His gates: (8) because the Lord of Jacob is exalted, and His glory is upon all His works. (9) And a man who glorifies the Most High, in him will He take pleasure; as in one who offers fine meal, and as in one who offers he-goats and calves; (10) and as in one who makes fat the altar with a multitude of burnt offerings; and as the smell of incense from the hands of the just. (11) From thy upright gates 2 shall be heard His voice, and from the voice of the upright admonition. (12) And |265 in their eating shall be satisfying in truth, and in their drinking, when they share together. (13) Their dwelling is in the law of the Most High, and their speech is to make known His strength. (14) How far from the wicked is speech of Him, and from all transgressors to know Him! (15) Lo, the eye of the Lord taketh pity on the good, and unto them that glorify Him will He multiply mercy, and from the time of evil will He deliver their soul. (16) Blessed be the Lord, who hath delivered the wretched from the hand of the wicked; who raiseth up a horn out of Jacob and a judge of the nations out of Israel; (17) that He may prolong His dwelling in Zion, and may adorn our age in Jerusalem.

    III. When the People obtained permission from Cyrus to return home.

(1) O Lord, I have cried unto Thee; hearken Thou unto me. (2) I have lifted up my hands to Thy holy dwelling-place; incline Thine ear unto me. (3) And grant me my request;3 my prayer withhold not from me. (4) Build up my soul, and destroy it not; and lay it not bare before the wicked. (5) Them that recompense evil things turn Thou away from me, O judge of truth. (6) O Lord, judge me not according to my sins, because no flesh is innocent before Thee. (7) Make plain to me, O Lord, Thy law, and teach me Thy judgments; (8) and many shall hear of Thy works, and the nations shall praise Thine honour. (9) Remember me and forget me not; and lead me not into things that be too hard for me. (10) The sins of my youth make Thou to pass from me, and my chastisement let them not remember against me. (11) Cleanse me, O  Lord, from the evil leprosy, and let it no more come unto me. (12) Dry up its roots in (literally, from) me, and let not its leaves sprout within me. (13) Great art Thou, O Lord; therefore my request shall be fulfilled from before Thee. (14) To whom shall I  complain that he may give unto me? and what can the strength of men add [unto me]? (15) From before Thee, O Lord, is my confidence; I cried unto the Lord and He heard me, and healed the breaking of my heart. (16) I slumbered and slept; I dreamed and was helped, and the Lord sustained me. (17) They sorely pained my heart; I will return thanks because the Lord delivered |266 me. (18) Now will I rejoice in their shame; I have hoped in Thee, and I shall not be ashamed. (19) Give Thou honour for ever, even for ever and ever. (20) Deliver Israel Thine elect, and them of the house of Jacob Thy proved one.

    IV. Spoken by David when he was contending with the lion and the wolf which took a sheep from his flock.

(1) O God, O God, come to my aid; help Thou me and save me; deliver Thou my soul from the slayer. (2) Shall I go down to Sheol by the mouth of the lion? or shall the wolf confound me? (3) Was it not enough for them that they lay in wait for my father's flock, and rent in pieces a sheep of my father's drove, but they were wishing also to destroy my soul? (4) Have pity, O Lord, and save Thy holy one from destruction; that he may rehearse Thy glories in all his times, and may praise Thy great name: (5) when Thou hast delivered him from the hands of the destroying lion and of the ravening wolf, and when Thou hast rescued my captivity from the hands of the wild beasts. (6) Quickly, O my Lord (Adonai), send from before Thee a deliverer, and draw me out of the gaping pit, which imprisons me in its depths.

    V. Spoken by David when returning thanks to God, who had delivered him from the lion and the wolf and he had slain both of them.

(1) Praise the Lord, all ye nations; glorify Him, and bless His name: (2) Who rescued the soul of His elect from the hands of death, and delivered His holy one from destruction: (3) and saved me from the nets of Sheol, and my soul from the pit that cannot be fathomed. (4) Because, ere my deliverance could go forth from before Him, I was well nigh rent in two pieces by two wild beasts. (5) But He sent His angel, and shut up from me the gaping mouths, and rescued my life from destruction. (6) My soul shall glorify Him and exalt Him, because of all His kindnesses which He hath done and will do unto me.

Queens' College, Cambridge,
4th May, 1887.

http://www.tertullian.org/fathers/wright_syriac_apocryphal_psalms.htm
埃塞俄比亞東正教才會用的巴路克Baruch4維基
Rest of the Words of Baruch

For other uses, see Paralipomena.

The Rest of the Words of Baruch or Paralipomena of Baruch (Ethiopian Säqoqawä Eremyas, "Paralipomena of Jeremiah") is the pseudepigraphical text that appears in the Ethiopian Orthodox Church Old Testament Biblical canon. It is not regarded as scripture by Jews or any other Christian group.

This Ethiopian text, first edited by Dillmann in 1866 [1] is formed by[2]:

    * the Book of Lamentations, in its five chapters as in the Hebrew Bible
    * some addition to the Book of Lamentation: the epistle to the captives (Lam. 6) and the prophecy against Pashhur (Lam. 7 v. 1-5))
    * a text very close to the Greek text of 4 Baruch
    * some additional verses of Lamentation (Lam. 7 v. 6-11 v. 63)

Notes

   1. ^ Dillmann A. Liber Baruch in Id Chrestomathia Aethiopica, Leipzig 1866. Also Labdin Th.O The Book of Baruch, in Id. Introduction to classical Ethiopic (Ge'ez), Missoula 1978, 276-297. See also critical edition by P. Piovanelli, Florence 1986
   2. ^ Cowley, R. W. (1974). "The Biblical Canon Of The Ethiopian Orthodox Church Today". Ostkirchliche Studien 23: 318–323. http://web.archive.org/web/20070923084527/www.islamic-awareness.org/Bible/Text/Canon/ethiopican.html. Retrieved 2009-06-30.

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Rest_of_the_Words_of_Baruch
埃塞俄比亞東正教才會用的禧年書Jubilees維基
The Book of Jubilees (Hebrew: ספר היובלים Sefer haYovelim), sometimes called the Lesser Genesis (Leptogenesis), is an ancient Jewish religious work, considered one of the Pseudepigrapha[1]  by most Roman Catholic, Eastern Orthodox and Protestant Christians. It was well known to Early Christian writers in the East and the West, as well as by the Rabbis[citation needed]. Later it was so thoroughly suppressed that no complete Hebrew, Greek or Latin version has survived.[citation needed] It is considered canonical for the Ethiopian Orthodox Church, where it is known as the Book of Division (Ge'ez: Mets'hafe Kufale). In the modern scholarly view, it reworks material found in the biblical books of Genesis and Exodus in the light of concerns of some 2nd century BC Jews.

The Book of Jubilees claims to present "the history of the division of the days of the Law, of the events of the years, the year-weeks, and the jubilees of the world" as secretly revealed to Moses (in addition to the Torah or "Instruction") by Angels while Moses was on Mount Sinai for forty days and forty nights[citation needed]. The chronology given in Jubilees is based on multiples of seven; the jubilees are periods of 49 years, seven 'year-weeks', into which all of time has been divided. According to the author of Jubilees, all proper customs that mankind should follow are determined by God's decree[citation needed].

Manuscripts of Jubilees

Until the discovery of the Dead Sea Scrolls, the only surviving manuscripts of Jubilees were fragmentary quotations in Greek (in a work by Epiphanius, for example), a preserved fragment of a Latin translation of the Greek that contains about a quarter of the whole work, and four Ethiopic manuscripts that date to the 15th and 16th centuries, which are complete.[2] The Ethiopic texts, now numbering twenty-seven, are the primary basis for translations into English. Passages in the texts of Jubilees that are directly parallel to verses in Genesis do not directly reproduce either of the two surviving manuscript traditions;[3] consequently, the lost Hebrew original is thought to have used an otherwise unrecorded text for Genesis and the early chapters of Exodus, one that was independent of either the Masoretic text or the earlier Hebrew text that was the basis for the Septuagint. As the variation among parallel manuscript traditions that are exhibited by the Septuagint compared with the Masoretic text and which are embodied in the further variants among the Dead Sea Scrolls have demonstrated, even canonical Hebrew texts did not possess any single hard and fast 'authorized' manuscript tradition, in the first centuries BC.[4]

A further fragment in Syriac in the British Museum, titled Names of the wives of the patriarchs according to the Hebrew books called Jubilees suggests that there once existed a Syriac translation. How much is missing can be guessed from the Stichometry of Nicephorus, where 4300 stichoi or lines are attributed to The Book of Jubilees.

Between 1947 and 1956 approximately 15 Jubilees scrolls were found in five caves at Qumran, all written in Hebrew. The large quantity of manuscripts (more than for any biblical books except for Psalms, Deuteronomy, Isaiah, Exodus, and Genesis, in descending order) indicates that Jubilees was widely used at Qumran. A comparison of the Qumran texts with the Ethiopic version, performed by James VanderKam, found that the Ethiopic was in most respects an accurate and literalistic translation.

Origins

Before the discovery of the Dead Sea Scrolls, the predominant scholarly view was that expressed by Robert Henry Charles. Based on internal evidence, he maintained that the Book of Jubilees was written in Hebrew between the year that Hyrcanus became high priest (135 BC) and his breach with the Pharisees some years before his death in (105 BC), and that the author was a Pharisee. Jubilees would be the product of the midrash which had already been at work in the Old Testament Chronicles:

    "As the Chronicler had rewritten the history of Israel and Judah from the basis of the Priests' Code, so our author re-edited in turn, from the Pharisaic standpoint of his time, the history of events from the Creation to the publication or, according to the author's view, the republication of the law on Sinai. In the course of re-editing, he incorporated a large body of traditional lore, which the midrashic process had put at his disposal, and also not a few fresh legal enactments that the exigencies of the past had called forth. His work constitutes an enlarged Targum on Genesis and Exodus, solves difficulties in the narrative, gives details that were passed over in the originals, removes all offensive elements that could suggest any blemish in the actions of the patriarchs, and infuses the history with the spirit of Pharisaic Judaism."[2]

After the discovery of the Dead Sea Scrolls, the Pharisaic hypothesis of the origin of the document has been almost completely abandoned. Jubilees also lacks Sadducaic and Essenic concern for cultic and ritual purity (concentrating on moral purity). Its hero Jacob is not a priest; it goes so far as to put Jacob into contact with his dead grandfather.[5]

The majority of scholars locate Jubilees in the context of Jewish apocalypticism.[6]

Subsequent Use

Jubilees was immediately adopted by the Hasmoneans, and became a source for the Aramaic Levi Document.[7] Jubilees remained a point of reference for priestly circles (although they disputed its calendric proposal), and the Temple Scroll and "Epistle of Enoch" (1 Enoch 91:1-10, 92:3-93:10, 91:11-92:2, 93:11-105:3) are based on Jubilees.[8] It is the source for certain of the Testaments of the Twelve Patriarchs, for instance that of Reuben.[9]

There is no official record of it in Pharisaic or Rabbinic sources, and it was among several books that were left out of the canon established by the Sanhedrin (possibly at Yavne, ca. 80 AD). Sub rosa, many of the traditions which Jubilees includes for the first time are echoed in later Jewish sources, including some 12th-century midrashim which may have had access to a Hebrew copy.

The book of Jubilees was evidently held in high regard, and sometimes quoted, by the Early Church Fathers of the Christian Church. In the 4th century, after Bishops had been appointed by the Roman Emperor Constantine, they rejected many of the books that did not appear in the Masoretic version, including Jubilees[citation needed]. The Oriental Orthodox Churches continued to consider Jubilees an important book of the Bible and older than Genesis[citation needed]. The Ethiopian Tewahedo Church accepts the account given in the book itself, of having been given to Moses atop Mt. Sinai. It is only because of its canonical status in the Oriental Orthodox Churches that the book in its entirety has managed to survive at all.

Content

The author of Jubilees looked for the immediate advent of the Messianic kingdom. "This kingdom was to be ruled over by a Messiah sprung, not from Levi — that is, from the Maccabean family — as some of his contemporaries expected — but from Judah. This kingdom would be gradually realized on earth, and the transformation of physical nature would go hand in hand with the ethical transformation of man until there was a new heaven and a new earth. Thus, finally, all sin and pain would disappear and men would live to the age of 1,000 years in happiness and peace, and after death enjoy a blessed immortality in the spirit world."[2]

According to this author, Hebrew was the language originally spoken by all creatures, animals and man, and is the language of Heaven. After the destruction of the tower of Babel, it was forgotten, until Abraham was taught it by the angels. Enoch was the first man initiated by the angels in the art of writing, and wrote down, accordingly, all the secrets of astronomy, of chronology, and of the world's epochs. Four classes of angels are mentioned: angels of the presence, angels of sanctifications, guardian angels over individuals, and angels presiding over the phenomena of nature. As regards demonology, the writer's position is largely that of the deuterocanonical writings from both New and Old Testament times.

The Book of Jubilees narrates the genesis of angels on the first day of Creation and the story of how a group of fallen angels mated with mortal females, giving rise to a race of giants known as the Nephilim. The Ethiopian version states that the "angels" were in fact the disobedient offspring of Seth (Deqiqa Set), while the "mortal females" were daughters of Cain[10]. This is also the view held by most of the earliest commentators. Their hybrid children, the Nephilim in existence during the time of Noah, were wiped out by the great flood.

Biblical references to "giants" found in Numbers, Deuteronomy, and Joshua have confused some who regard these "giants" to be the same as the antediluvian Nephilim; the Hebrew words for "giants" in most of these verses are "Anakim" or "Rephaim". (One such verse, Num. 13:33, does refer to the sons of Anak as 'Nephilim'.) These references do not necessarily contradict the account of the original Nephilim being completely destroyed in the Deluge. However, Jubilees does state that God granted ten percent of the disembodied spirits of the Nephilim to try to lead mankind astray after the flood.

Sources

Jubilees bases its take on Enoch on the "Book of Watchers", 1 Enoch 1-36.[11]

Its sequence of events leading to the Flood match those of the Maccabean-era "Dream Visions", 1 Enoch 83-90. However the direction of dependence is controversial.[12]

Notes

   1. ^ Harris, Stephen L., Understanding the Bible. Palo Alto: Mayfield. 1985.
   2. ^ a b c The Book of Jubilees (Int., tr.), from "The Apocrypha and Pseudepigrapha of the Old Testament", by R. H. Charles. Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1913
   3. ^ "A minute study of the text shows that it attests an independent form of the Hebrew text of Genesis and the early chapters of Exodus. Thus it agrees with individual authorities such as the Samaritan or the LXX, or the Syriac, or the Vulgate, or the Targum of Onkelos against all the rest. Or again it agrees with two or more of these authorities in opposition to the rest, as for instance with the Massoretic and Samaritan against the LXX, Syriac and Vulgate, or with the Massoretic and Onkelos against the Samaritan, LXX, Syriac, and Vulgate, or with the Massoretic, Samaritan and Syriac against the LXX or Vulgate." R.H. Charles, "Textual affinities", in his introduction to his edition of Jubilees, 1913 [1].
   4. ^ Robin Lane Fox, a classicist and historian, discusses these multifarious sources of Old and New Testaments in layman's terms in Unauthorized Version (1992).
   5. ^ James L. Kugel, The Ladder of Jacob (Princeton University Press: 2006), 250-1 n. 36
   6. ^ VanderKam (1989, 2001)
   7. ^ Kugel, 167
   8. ^ Boccacini 99-101, 104-113 respectively
   9. ^ Kugel, 110
  10. ^ Ethiopian Orthodox Church's canonical Amharic version of Jubilees, 5:21 - readable on p. 14 of this file.
  11. ^ Gabriele Boccacini, Beyond the Essene Hypothesis (Eerdmans: 1998)
  12. ^ Kugel, 252, n.37

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Jubilees
禧年書Jubilees
INTRODUCTION

1. SHORT ACCOUNT OF THE BOOK.



The Book of Jubilees is in certain limited aspects the most important book in this volume for the student of religion. Without it we could of course have inferred from Ezra and Nehemiah, the Priests' Code, and the later chapters of Zechariah the supreme position that the law had achieved in Judaism, but without Jubilees we could hardly have imagined such an absolute supremacy as finds expression in this book. This absolute supremacy of the law carried with it, as we have seen in the General Introduction, the suppression of prophecy -at all events of the open exercise of the prophetic gifts. And yet these gifts persisted during all the so-called centuries of silence-from Malachi down to N.T. times, but owing to the fatal incubus of the law these gifts could not find expression save in pseudepigraphic literature. Thus Jubilees represents the triumph of the movement, which had been at work for the past three centuries or more.

And yet this most triumphant manifesto of legalism contained within its pages the element that was destined to dispute its supremacy and finally to reduce the law to the wholly secondary position that alone it could rightly claim. This element of course is apocalyptic, which was the source of the higher theology in Judaism, and subsequently was the parent of Christianity, wherein apocalyptic ceased to be pseudonymous and became one with prophecy.

The Book of Jubilees was written in Hebrew by a Pharisee between the year of the accession of Hyrcanus to the high priesthood in 135 and his breach with the Pharisees some years before his death in 105 B.C. It is the most advanced pre-Christian representative of the midrashic tendency, which has already been at work in the Old Testament Chronicles. As the Chronicler had rewritten the history of Israel and Judah from the basis of the Priests' Code, so our author re-edited from the Pharisaic standpoint of his time the history of events from the creation to the publication, or, according to the author's view, the republication of the law on Sinai. In the course of re-editing he incorporated a large body of traditional lore, which the midrashic process had put at his disposal, and also not a few fresh legal enactments that the exigencies of the past had called forth. His work constitutes an enlarged Targum on Genesis and Exodus, in which difficulties in the biblical narrative are solved, gaps supplied, dogmatically offensive elements removed, and the genuine spirit of later Judaism infused into the primitive history of the world. His object was to defend Judaism against the attacks of the hellenistic spirit that had been in the ascendant one generation earlier and was still powerful, and to prove that the law was of everlasting validity. From our author's contentions and his embittered attacks on the paganisers and apostates, we may infer that Hellenism had urged that the levitical ordinances of the law were only of transitory significance, that they had not been observed by the founders of the nation, and that the time had now come for them to be swept away, and for Israel to take its place in the brotherhood of the nations. Our author regarded all such views as fatal to the very existence of Jewish religion and nationality. But it is not as such that he assailed them, but on the ground of their falsehood. The law, he teaches, is of everlasting validity. Though revealed in time it was superior to time. Before it had been made known in gundry portions to the fathers it had been kept in heaven by the angels, and to its observance henceforward there was no limit in time or in eternity.

Writing in the palmiest days of the Maccabean dominion,in the high-priesthood of John Hyrcanus, looked for the immediate advent of the Messianic kingdom. This kingdom was to be ruled over by a Messiah sprung, not from Levi -that is, from the Maccabean family, as some of his contemporaries expected- but from Judah. This kingdom would be gradually realized on earth, and the transformation of physical nature would go hand in hand with the ethical transformation of man till there was a new heaven and a new earth. Thus, finally, all sin and pain would disappear and men would live to the age of 1,000 years in happiness and peace, and after death enjoy a blessed immortality in the spirit world.

2. VARIOUS TITLES OF THE BOOK.

Our book was known by two distinct titles even in Hebrew. (a) Jubilees

(b) The Little Genesis

(c) Apocalypse of Moses and other alleged names of the book.

(a) Jubilees. This appears from Epiphanius (Haer. xxxix. 6) to have been its usual designation. It is found also in the Syriac Fragment entitled 'Names of the Wives of the Patriarchs according to the Hebrew Book of Jubilees,' first published by Ceriani, Mon. sacra et profana, ii. 1.9-10, and reprinted by the present writer in his edition of The Ethiopic Version of the Hebrew Book of Jubilees. This name admirably describes the book, as it divides into jubilee periods of forty-nine years each the history of the world from the creation to the legislation on Sinai. The writer pursues a perfectly symmetrical development of the heptadic system. Israel enters Canaan at the close of the fiftieth jubilee, i.e. 2450.

(b) The Little Genesis. The epithet 'little' does not refer to the extent of the book, for it is larger than the canonical Genesis, but to its character. It deals more fully with details than the biblical work. The Hebrew title was variously rendered in Greek. 1 [(Gk.) he lepte Genesis (or Lepte Genesis)] as in Epiphanius, Syncellus, Zonaras, Glycas. 2 [(Gk.) he Leptogenesis] in Didymus of Alexandria and in Latin writers, as we may infer from the Decree of Gelasius. 3 [Gk.) ta lepta geneseos] in Syncellus. 4 [(Gk.) Mikrogenesis] in Jerome, who was acquainted with the Hebrew original.

(c) 1 The Apocalypse of Moses.

2 The Testament of Moses.

3 The Book of Adam's Daughters.

4 The Life of Adam.

1 The Apocalypse of Moses. This title had some currency in the time of Synceflus (see i. 5, 49). It forms an appropriate designation since it makes Moses the recipient of all the disclosures in the book. 2 The Testament of Moses. This title is found in the Catena of Nicephorus, i. 175, where it precedes a quotation from x. 21 of our book. It has, however, nothing to do with the Testament of Moses, which has become universally known under the wrong title -the Assumption of Moses. Ronsch and other scholars formerly sought to identify Jubilees with this second Testament of Moses, but this identification is shown to be impossible by the fact that in the Stichometry of Nicephorus 4,300 stichoi are assigned to Jubilees and only 1100 to this Testament of Moses. On the probability of a Testament of Moses having been in circulation -which was in reality an expansion of Jubilees ii-iii see my edition of Jubilees, p. xviii. 3 The Book of Adam's Daughters. This book is identified with Jubilees in the Decree of Gelasius, but it probably consisted merely of certain excerpts from Jubilees dealing with the names and histories of the women mentioned in it. Such a collection, as we have already seen, exists in Syriac, and its Greek prototype was used by the scribe of the LXX MS. no.135 in Holmes and Parsons' edition. 4 The Life of Adam. This title is found in Syncellus i. 7-9. It seems to have been an enlarged edition of the portion of Jubilees, which dealt with the life of Adam.

3. THE ETHIOPIC MSS.

There are four Ethiopic MSS., a b c d, the first and fourth of which belong to the National Library in Paris, the second to the British Museum, and the third to the University Library at Tubingen. Of these a b (of the fifteenth and sixteenth century respectively) are the most trustworthy, though they cannot be followed exclusively. In a, furthermore, the readings of the Ethiopic version of Genesis have replaced the original against bed in iii. 4, 6, 7, 19, 29; iv. 4, 8, &c. For a full description of these MSS. the reader can consult Charles's Ethiopic Version of the Hebrew Book of Jubilees, pp. xii seqq.



4. THE ANCIENT VERSIONS-GREEK, ETHIOPIC, LATIN, SYRIAC.

(a) The Greek Version is lost save for some fragments which survive in Epiphanius [(Gk.) peri Metron kai Stathmon] (ed. Dindorf, vol. iv. 27-8). This fragment, which consists of ii. 2-21, is published with critical notes in Charles's edition of the Ethiopic text. Other fragments of this version are preserved in Justin Martyr, Origen, Diodorus of Antioch, Isidore of Alexandria, Isidore of Seville, Eutychius, Patriarch of Alexandria, John of Malala, Syncellus, Cedrenus. Syncellus attributes to the Canonical Genesis statements derived from our text. This version is the parent of the Ethiopic and Latin Versions.

(b) The Ethiopic Version. This version is most accurate and trustworthy and indeed as a rule servilely literal. It has, of course, suffered from the corruptions naturally incident to transmission through MSS. Thus dittographies are frequent and lacunae are of occasional occurrence, but the version is singularly free from the glosses and corrections of unscrupulous scribes, though the temptation must have been great to bring it into accord with the Ethiopic version of Genesis. To this source, indeed, we must trace a few perversions of the text: 'my wife' in iii. 6 instead of 'wife'; xv 12; xvii. 12 ('her bottle' instead of 'the bottle'); xxiv. 19 (where the words 'a well' are not found in the Latin version of Jubilees, nor in the Mass., Sam., LXX, Syr., and Vulg. of Gen. xxvi. 19). In the above passages the whole version is influenced, but in a much greater degree has this influence operated on MS. a. Thus in iii. 4, 6, 7, 19, 29, iv. 4, 8, v.3, vi. 9, &c., the readings of the Ethiopic version of Genesis have replaced the original text. In the case of b there appears to be only one instance of this nature in xv. 15 (see Charles's Text, pp. xii seqq.).

For instances of corruption native to this version, see Charles on ii. 2, 7, 21, vi. 21, vii. 22, x. 6, 21, xvi. 18, xxiv. 20, 29, xxxi. 2, xxxix. 4, xli. 15, xlv. 4, xlviii. 6.

(c) The Latin Version. This version, of which about one-fourth has been preserved, was first published by Ceriani in his Monnmenta sacra et profana, 1861, tom. i. fase. i. 15-62. It contains the following sections: xiii. 10b-21; xv. 20b-31a; xvi. 5b-xvii. 6a; xviii. 10b-xix. 25; xx. 5b-xxi. 10a; xxii. 2-19a; xxiii. 8b-23a; xxiv. 13-xxv. 1a; xxvi. 8b-23a; xxvii. 11b-24a; xxviii. 16b-27a; xxix. 8b-xxxi. 1a; xxxi. 9b-1 8, 29b-32; xxxii. 1-8a, 18b-xxxiii. 9a, 18b-xxxiv. 5a; xxxv. 3b-12a; xxxvi. 20b-xxxvii. 5a; xxxviii. 1b-16a; xxxix. 9-xl. 8a; xli. 6b-18; xlii. 2b-14a; xlv. 8-xlvi. 1, 12-xlviii. 5; xlix. 7b-22. This version was next edited by Ronsch in 1874, Das Buch der Fubilaen . . . unter Befugung des revidirten Textes der . . . lateinisehen Fragmente. This work attests enormous industry and great learning, but is deficient in judgement and critical acumen. Ronsch was of opinion that this Latin version was made in Egypt or its neighbourhood by a Palestinian Jew about the middle of the fifth century (pp.459-60). In 1895 Charles edited this text afresh in conjunction with the Ethiopic in the Oxford Anecdota (The Ethiopic Version of the Hebrew Book of Jubilees). To this work and that of Ronsch above the reader must be referred for a fuller treatment of this subject. Here we may draw attention to the following points. This version, where it is preserved, is almost of equal value with the Ethiopic. It has, however, suffered more at the hands of correctors. Thus it has been corrected in conformity with the LXX in xlvi. 14, where it adds 'et Oon' against all other authorities. The Ethiopic version of Exod. i. 11 might have been expected to bring about this addition in our Ethiopic text, but it did not. Two similar instances will be found in xvii. 5, xxiv. 20. Again the Latin version seems to have been influenced by the Vulgate in xxix. 13. xlii. II (canos meos where our Ethiopic text = [(Gk.) mou to geras] as in LXX of Gen. xlii. 38); and probably also in xlvii. 7, 8, and certainly in xlv. 12, where it reads 'in tota terra' for 'in terra'. Of course there is the possibility that the Latin has reproduced faithfully the Greek and that the Greek was faulty; or in case it was correct, that it was the Greek presupposed by our Ethiopic version that was at fault.

Two other passages are deserving of attention, xix. 14 and xxxix. 13. In the former the Latin version 'et creverunt et iuvenes facti sunt' agrees with the Ethiopic version of Gen. xxv. 27 against the Ethiopic version of Jubilees and all other authorities on Gen. xxv. 27. Here the peculiar reading can be best explained as having originated in the Greek. In the second passage, the clause 'eorum quae fiebant in carcere' agrees with the Ethiopic version of Gen. xxxix. 23 against the Ethiopic version of Jubilees and all other authorities on Gen. xxxix. 23. On the other hand, there is a large array of passages in which the Latin version preserves the true text over against corruptions or omissions in the Ethiopic version: cf. xvi. 16, xix. 5, 10, 11, xx. 6, 10, xxi. 3, xxii. 3, &c. (see my Text, p. xvi).

(d) The Syriac Version. The evidence as to the existence of a Syriac is not conclusive. It is based on the fact that a British Museum MS. (Add. 12154, fol. 180) contains a Syriac fragment entitled, Names of the Wives of the Patriarchs according to the Hebrew Book called Jubilees.' It was first published by Ceriani in his Monumeitta Sacra, 1861, torn. ii. fasc. i. 9-10, and reprinted by Charles as Appendix III to his Text of Jubilees (p. 183).



5. THE ETHIOPIC AND LATIN VERSIONS-TRANSLATIONS FROM THE GREEK.

Like all the biblical literature in Ethiopic, Jubilees was translated into Ethiopic from the Greek. Greek words such as [drus, balanos, lips, schinos, pharaggs, &c., are transliterated into Ethiopic. Secondly, many passages must be retranslated into Greek before we can discover the source of their corruptions. And finally, many names are transliterated as they appear in Greek and not in Hebrew.

That the Latin is derived directly from the Greek is no less obvious. Thus in xxxix. 12 [(Lt.) timoris = (Gk.) deilias], a corruption of douleias; in xxxviii. 13 [(Lt.) honorem = (Gk.) timen], which should have been rendered by (Lt.) tributum. Another class of mistranslations may be seen in passages where the Greek article is rendered by the Latin demonstrative as in (Lt.) huius Abrahae xxix. i6, huic Istrael xxxi. 15. Other evidence pointing in the same direction is to be found in the Greek constructions which have been reproduced in the Latin; such as xvii. 3 (Lt.) mem or fuit sermones' = (Gk.) hemnesthe tous logous: in xv. 22 (Lt.) consummavit loquens = (Gk.) Sunetelese lalon: in xxii. 8 (Lt.) 'in omnibus quibus dedisti' = en pasin ois edokas.

6. THE GREEK-A TRANSLATION FROM THE HEBREW.

The early date of our book -the second century B.C.- and the fact that it was written in Palestine speak for a Semitic original, and the evidence for such an original is conclusive. But the question at once arises, was the original written in Hebrew or Aramaic? Certain proper names in the Latin version ending in -in seem to bespeak an Aramaic original, as Cettin xxiv. 28; Adurin xxxviii. 8,9; Filistin xxiv. 14-16. But since in all these cases the Ethiopic transliterations end in -n and not in -nit is not improbable that this Aramaising in the Latin version is due to the translator, who, as Ronsch has concluded on other grounds, was a Palestinian Jew. Again, in the list of the twelve trees suitable for burning on the altar some are transliterations of Aramaic names. But in a late Hebrew work -written at the close of the second century B.C.- the popular names of such objects would naturally be used. Moreover, in certain cases the Hebrew may have already been forgotten, or, when the tree had been lately introduced, been non-existent.

But the arguments for a Hebrew original are many and weighty. (1) A work which claims to be from the hand of Moses would naturally be written in Hebrew; for Hebrew, according to our author, was the sacred and national language, xii. 25-6; xliii. 15. (2) The revival of the national spirit is, so far as we know, accompanied by a revival of the national language. (3) The existing text must be retranslated into Hebrew in order to explain unintelligible expressions and restore the true text. Thus (Ar.) la 'eleja in xliii. 11 = (Gk.) en emoi; which is a mistranslation in this context of (Hb.); for (Hb.) here = (Gk.) deomai, 'pray,' as in Gen. xliv. 18. In xlvii. 9 the text = (Lt.) 'domum (= Hb. ) Faraonis', but the context demands (Lt.) 'filiam (= Hb.) Faraonis',though here the argument is not conclusive, since (Hb.) might have been corruptly written for (Hb.) which in Aramaic = 'daughter'. Again in xxxvi. 10 (cp. also xxxix. 6) the text = (Gk.) ouk anabesetai (= ja'arg) (Gk.) eis to biblion tes zoes. But ja'arg must = 'will be recorded'. Now this meaning is unattested elsewhere in Ethiopic, but the difficulty is solved when we find that it is a Hebrew idiom: see I Chron. xxvii. 24, 2 Chron. xx. 34. (4) Many paronomasiae discover themselves on retranslation into Hebrew, as in iv. 9 there is a play on the name Enoch, in iv. 15 on Jared, in viii. 8 on Peleg, &c. (5) Many passages are preserved in Rabbinic writings, and the book has much matter in common with the Testaments xii Patriarchs, 'which was written about the same date in Hebrew. Both books, in fact, use a chronology peculiar to themselves. (6) Fragments of the original Hebrew text or of the sources used by its author are to be found in the Book of Noah and the Midrasch Wajjisau in Jellinek's Beth-ha-Midrasch, iii. 155-6, 3-5, reprinted in Charles's edition of the Ethiopic text on pp. 179-81.

7. TEXTUAL AFFINITIES.

A minute study of the text shows that it attests an independent form of the Hebrew text of Genesis and the early chapters of Exodus. Thus it agrees with individual authorities such as the Samaritan or the LXX, or the Syriac, or the Vulgate, or the Targum of Onkelos against all the rest. Or again it agrees with two or more of these authorities in opposition to the rest, as for instance with the Massoretic and Samaritan against the LXX, Syriac and Vulgate, or with the Massoretic and Onkelos against the Samaritan, LXX, Syriac, and Vulgate, or with the Massoretic, Samaritan and Syriac against the LXX or Vulgate. But the reader must here be referred to Charles's Book of Jubilees (pp. xxxiii--xxxix) for a full classification of these instances. A study of these phenomena proves that our book represents some form of the Hebrew text midway between the forms presupposed by the LXX and the Syriac; for it agrees more frequently with the LXX, or with combinations into which the LXX enters, than with any other single authority. Next to the LXX it agrees most often with the Syriac or with combinations into which the Syriac enters. On the other hand, its independence of the LXX is shown by a large array of readings, where it has the support of the Samaritan and Massoretic, or of these with various combinations of the Syriac, Vulgate and Onkelos. From these and like considerations we may conclude that the textual evidence points to the composition of our book at some period between 250 B.C. and 100 A.D. and at a time nearer the earlier date than the latter. 4

8. THE VALUE OF THE BOOK OF JUBILEES IN THE CRITICISM OF THE MASSORETIC TEXT OF THE BOOK OF GENESIS.



From a study of the facts which are referred to in the preceding Section it will be clear that before and after the Christian era the Hebrew text did not possess any hard and fast tradition. It will further be obvious that the Massoretic form of this text, which has so long been generally as conservative of the most ancient tradition and as therefore final, is after all only one of many phases through which the text passed in the process of over 1,000 years, ie. 400 B.C. till A.D. 600, or thereabouts.

As we pursue the examination of the materials just mentioned we shall see grounds for regarding the Massoretic text as the result partly of conscious recension and partly of unconscious change extending over many centuries. How this process affected the text in the centuries immediately preceding and subsequent to the Christian era, we have some means of determining in the Hebrew-Samaritan text which, however much it may have been tampered with on religious or polemical grounds, still preserves in many cases the older reading, even as it preserves the older of the alphabet. Next we have the LXX of the Pentateuch, to which we may assign the date 200 B.C.; next the Book of Jubilees just before the Christian era; the Syriac Pentateuch before A.D. 100; the Vulgate of the fourth century; the Targums of Onkelos and Ps.-Jon. in their present form A.D. 300-600.

We have above remarked that the evidence of 6 shows that the Massoretic text is only one of the phases through which the Hebrew text has passed; and if we consider afresh the materials of evidence suggested in that Section in connexion with their dates, and given in some fullness in the Introductions to Charles's Text and Commentary, we shall discover that in some respects it is one of the latest phases of the Hebrew Pentateuch that has been stereotyped by Jewish scholars in the Massoretic text.

This conclusion will tally perfectly with the tradition that all existing Massoretic MSS. are derived in the main from one archetype, i.e. the Hebrew Codex left behind him by Ben Asher, who lived in the tenth century, and whose family had lived at Tiberias in the eighth.

We shall now proceed to give a list of readings in the Massoretic text which should be corrected into accord with the readings attested by such great authorities as the Sam., LXX, Jub., Syr., VuIg.

The following list was published in Charles's Ethiopic Version of the Hebrew Book of Jubilees in 1895. More than two-thirds of the emendations of the Book of Genesis here suggested were subsequently accepted independently, on the evidence of the Sam., LXX, Syr., Vulg., without a knowledge of Jubilees, by C.J. Ball in his edition of the Hebrew Text of Genesis, 1896, by Kittel in his edition of the Hebrew Text of Genesis, 1905, and more than half in the recent Commentary of Gunkel.

[What follows contains many phrases written in Hebrew. At the time of scanning there was not an accessible means to accurately reproduce the Hebrew script. If this information is desired please see Mr. Charles book.]



9. DATE OF (a) THE ORIGINAL TEXT AND (b) OF THE VERSIONS.

(a) Jubilees was written between 153 B.C. and the year of Hyrcanus' breach with the Pharisees. (1) It was written during the pontificate of the Maccabean family, and not earlier than 155 B.C., when this office was assumed by Jonathan the Maccabee. For in xxxii. 1, Levi is called a 'priest of the Most High God.' Now the only Jewish high-priests who bore this title were the Maccabean, who appear to have assumed it as reviving the order of Melchizedek when they displaced the Zadokite order of Aaron. Despite the objections of the Pharisees, it was used by the Maccabean princes down to Hyrcanus II (Jos. Ant. xvi. 6.2). (2) It was written before 96 B.C.; for since our author was of the strictest sect a Pharisee and at the same time an upholder of the Maccabean pontificate, Jubilees cannot have been written later than 96, when the Pharisees and Alexander Jannaeus were openly engaged in mortal strife. (3) It was written before the public breach between Hyrcanus and the Pharisees when Hyrcanus joined the Sadducean party. As Hyrcanus died in 105, our book was written between 153 and 105.

But it is possible to define these limits more closely. The book presupposes as its historical background the most flourishing period of the Maccabean hegemony -such as that under Simon and Hyrcanus. The conquest of Edom, which was achieved by the latter, is referred to in xxxviii. 14. Again our text reflects accurately the intense hatred of Judah towards the Philistines in the second century B.C. It declares that they will fall into the hands of the righteous nation, and we learn from I Macc. and Josephus that Ashdod and Gaza were destroyed by Hyrcanus and Alexander Jannaeus respectively. But it is in the destruction of Samaria, which is adumbrated in the destruction of Shechem, xxx. 4-6, that we are to look for the true terminus a quo. Now all accounts agree in representing the destruction of Samaria as effected by Hyrcanus about four years before his death. Hence we conclude that Jubilees was written between 109 and 105 B.C.

Many other phenomena point to the second-century origin of our book, which are given in Charles's edition, pp. lviii-lxvi. Amongst these we might mention the currency of older and severer forms of the halacha than prevailed in the rabbinical schools, or were registered in the Mishnah. The severe halacha regarding the sabbath in 1.8, 12, were indubitably in force in the second century B.C., if not earlier, but were afterwards mitigated by the Mishnah and later Judaism. Again the strict halacha in xv. 14 regarding circumcision on the eighth day was a current, probably the current, view in the second century B.C. and earlier, since it has the support of the Samaritan text and the LXX. This strict law was subsequently relaxed in the Mishnah. In xxxii. 15 the severe law of tithing found in Lev. xxvii. 15 is enforced, but rabbinic tradition sought to weaken the statement. As regards the halacha laid down in iii. 31 regarding the duty of covering one's shame, it is highly probable that such a halacha did exist in the second century B.C., when Judaism was protesting against the exposure of the person in the Greek games. See also iii. 8-14 notes and xx. 4 note.

Other cases of strict rules afterwards relaxed are the limitation of trees for use with burnt offerings (see xxi. 12-15 notes), the restriction of the eating of the passover to the court of the Lords house (see xlix. 20 note), the close adherence to the exacting demand of Lev. xix. 24 that the fourth year's fruit should be holy (see vii. 36 notes), though here we have a variant reading. Note that the rest of the firstfruits belong to the priests, who are to eat them 'before the altar.' On the other hand, the thank-offerings in xxi. 8-10 do not belong to the priest. The computation of the Feast of Weeks is different from the later prevalent Pharisaic reckoning (see xv. 1 note; xvi. 13, xliv. 4-5), while the account of the Feast of Tabernacles in xvi. 21-31 is peculiar to Jubilees.

Finally, we might draw attention to the fact that the Pharisaic regulation about pouring water on the altar (Jer. Sukk. iv. 6; Sukk. 44a) at the feast of tabernacles appears to have been unknown to him. We know that the attempt of the Pharisees to enforce its adoption on Alexander Jannaeus resulted in a massacre of the former. Attention might also be drawn to the fact that the Priests and Levites still numbered in their ranks, as in the days of the author of Chronicles, the masters of the schools and the men of learning, and that these positions were not filled as in the days of Shammai and Hillel by men drawn from the laity. This inference is to be deduced from the fact that the Levites are represented as the guardians of the sacred books and of the secret lore transmitted from the worthies of old time (x. 4, xlv. 16).

(b) Date of the Ethiopic and Latin Versions. There is no evidence for determining the exact date of the Ethiopic version, but since it was practically regarded as a canonical book it was probably made in the sixth century. Ronsch, as we have already pointed out in 4, gives some evidence for regarding the Latin version as made in the fifth century.

10 JUBILEES FROM ONE AUTHOR BUT BASED ON EASTERN BOOKS AND TRADITIONS.



Our book is the work of one author, but is largely based on earlier books and traditions. The narrative of Genesis forms of course the bulk of the book, but much that is characteristic in it is due to his use of many pseudepigraphic and ancient traditions. Amongst the former might be mentioned the Book of Noah, from which in a modified form he borrows vii. 20-39, x. 1-15. In vii. 26-39 he reproduces his source so faithfully that he leaves the persons unchanged, and forgets to adapt this fragment to its new context. Similarly our author lays the Book of Enoch under contribution, and is of great value in this respect in determining the dates of the various sections of this book. See Introd. to I Book of Enoch, in loc. For other authorities and traditions used by our author see Charles's edition, 13.



11. JUBILEES IS A PRODUCT OF THE MIDRASHIC TENDENCY WHICH HAD BEEN ALREADY AT WORK IN THE O.T. BOOKS OF CHRONICLES.

The Chronicler rewrote with an object the earlier history of Israel and Judah already recounted in Samuel and Kings. His object was to represent David and his pious successors as observing all the prescripts of the law according to the Priests' Code. In the course of this process all facts that did not square with the Chronicler's presuppositions were either omitted or transformed. Now the author of Jubilees sought to do for Genesis what the Chronicler had done for Samuel and Kings, and so he rewrote it in such a way as to show that the law was rigorously observed even by the Patriarchs. The author represents his book to be as a whole a revelation of God to Moses, forming a supplement to and an interpretation of the Pentateuch, which he designates 'the first law' (vi. 22). This revelation was in part a secret republication of the traditions handed down from father to son in antediluvian and subsequent times. From the time of Moses onwards it was preserved in the hands of the priesthood, till the time came for its being made known.

Our author's procedure is of course in direct antagonism with the presuppositions of the Priests' Code in Genesis, for according to this code 'Noah may build no altar, Abraham offer no sacrifice, Jacob erect no sacred pillar. No offering is recorded till Aaron and his sons are ready' (Carpenter, The Hexateuch, i. 124). This fact seems to emphasize in the strongest manner how freely our author reinterpreted his authorities for the past. But he was only using to the full a right that had been exercised for nearly four centuries already in regard to Prophecy and for four or thereabouts in regard to the law.



12. OBJECT OF JUBILEES -THE DEFENCE AND EXPOSITION OF JUDAISM FROM THE PHARISAIC STANDPOINT OF THE SECOND CENTURY B.C.

The object of our author was to defend Judaism against the disintegrating effects of Hellenism, and this he did (a) by glorifying the law as an eternal ordinance and representing the patriarchs as models of piety; (b) by glorifying Israel and insisting on its separation from the Gentiles; and (e) by denouncing the Gentiles and particularly Israel's national enemies. In this last respect Judaism regarded its own attitude to the Gentiles as not only justifiable but also just, because it was a reflection of the divine.

But on (a) it is to be observed further that to our author the law, as a whole, was the realization in time of what was in a sense timeless and eternal. It was observed not only on earth by Israel but in heaven. Parts of the law might have only a time reference, to Israel on earth, but in the privileges of circumcision and the Sabbath, as its highest and everlasting expression, the highest orders of archangels in heaven shared with Israel (ii. i8, 19, 21; xv. 26-28). The law, therefore, was supreme, and could admit of no assessor in the form of Prophecy. There was no longer any prophet because the law had made the free exercise of his gift an offence against itself and God. So far, therefore, as Prophecy existed, it could exist only under the guise of pseudonymity. The seer, who had like Daniel and others a message for his time, could only gain a hearing by issuing it under the name of some ancient worthy.



13. THE AUTHOR -A PHARISEE WHO RECOGNIZED THE MACCABEAN PONTIFICATE AND WAS PROBABLY A PRIEST.

Since our author was an upholder of the everlasting validity of the law, and held the strictest views on circumcision, the Sabbath, and the duty of complete separation from the Gentiles, since he believed in angels and demons and a blessed immortality, he was unquestionably a Pharisee of the strictest sect. In the next place, he was a supporter of the Maccabean pontificate. He glorifies Levi's successors as high-priests and civil rulers, and applies to them the title priests of the Most High God '-the title assumed by the Maccabean princes (xxxii. 1). He was not, however, so thoroughgoing an admirer of this dynasty as the authors of Test. Lev. xviii. or Ps. cx, who expected the Messiah to come forth from the Maccabean family. Finally, that our author was a priest might reasonably be inferred from the exaltation of Levi over Judah (xxxi-xxxii), and from the statement in xlv. i6 that the secret traditions, which our author claims to publish, were kept in the hands of Levi's descendants.

14. INFLUENCE ON LATER LITERATURE.

On the influence of Jubilees on I Enoch i-v, xci-civ, Wisdom (?), 4 Ezra, Chronicles of Jerachmeel, Midrash Tadshe, Book of Jasher, the Samaritan Chronicle, on Patristic and other writings, and on the New Testament writers, see Charles's edition, pp. lxxiii-lxxxvi.

15. THEOLOGY. SOME OF OUR AUTHOR'S VIEWS.

Freedom and determinism. The author of Jubilees is a true Pharisee in that he combines belief in Divine omnipotence and providence with the belief in human freedom and responsibility. He would have adopted heartily the statement of the Pss. Sol. ix. 7 (written some sixty years or more later) (Gk.) ta erga emon en ekloge kai exousia tes psuches emon, tou poiesai dikaiosunen kai adikian en ergois cheiron emon: v. 6 anthropos kai e meris autou para soi en stathmo ou prosthesei tou pleonasai para to krima sou, o theos. Thus the path in which a man should walk is ordained for him and the judgement of all men predetermined on the heavenly tablets: 'And the judgment of all is ordained and written on the heavenly tablets in righteousness -even the judgment of all who depart from the path which is ordained for them to walk in' (v.13). This idea of an absolute determinism underlies many conceptions of the heavenly tablets (see Charles's edition, iii. 10 note). On the other hand, man's freedom and responsibility are fully recognized: 'If they walk not therein, judgment is written down for every creature' (v. 13): 'Beware lest thou walk in their ways, And tread in their paths, And sin a sin unto death before the Most High God. Else He will give thee back into the hand of thy transgression.' Even when a man has sinned deeply he can repent and be forgiven (xli. 24 seq.), but the human will needs the strengthening of a moral dynamic: 'May the Most High God . . . strengthen thee to do His will' (xxi. 25, xxii. 10).

The Fall. The effects of the Fall were limited to Adam and the animal creation. Adam was driven from the garden (iii. 17 seqq.) and the animal creation was robbed of the power of speech (iii. 28). But the subsequent depravity of the human race is not traced to the Fall but to the seduction of the daughters of men by the angels, who had been sent down to instruct men (v.1-4), and to the solicitations of demonic spirits (vii. 27). The evil engendered by the former was brought to an end by the destruction of all the descendants of the angels and of their victims by the Deluge, but the incitement to sin on the part of the demons was to last to the final judgement (vii. 27, x. 1-15, xi. 4 seq., xii. 20). This last view appears in I Enoch and the N.T.

The Law. The law was of eternal validity. It was not the expression of the religious consciousness of one or of several ages, but the revelation in time of what was valid from the beginning and unto all eternity. The various enactments of the law moral and ritual, were written on the heavenly tablets (iii. 31, vi. 17, &c.) and revealed to man through the mediation of angels (i. 27). This conception of the law, as I have already pointed out, made prophecy impossible unless under the guise of pseudonymity. Since the law was the ultimate and complete expression of absolute truth, there was no room for any further revelation: much less could any such revelation, were it conceivable, supersede a single jot or tittle of the law as already revealed. The ideal of the faithful Jew was to be realized in the fulfilment of the moral and ritual precepts of this law: the latter were of no less importance than the former. Though this view of morality tends to be mainly external, our author strikes a deeper note when he declares that, when Israel turned to God with their whole heart, He would circumcise the foreskin of their heart and create a right spirit within them and cleanse them, so that they would not turn away from Him for ever (i. 23). Our author specially emphasizes certain elements of the law such as circumcision (xvi. 14, xv. 26, 29), the Sabbath (ii. 18 seq., 31 seq.), eating of blood (vi. 14), tithing of the tithe (xxxii. 10), Feast of Tabernacles (xvi. 29), Feast of Weeks (vi. 17), the absolute prohibition of mixed marriages (xx. 4, xxii. 20, xxv. 1-10). In connexion with many of these he enunciates halacha which belong to an earlier date than those in the Mishnah, but which were either modified or abrogated by later authorities.

The Messiah. Although our author is an upholder of the Maccabean dynasty he still clings like the writer of I Enoch lxxxiii-xc to the hope of a Messiah sprung from Judah. He makes, however, only one reference to this Messiah, and no role of any importance is assigned to him (see Charles's edition, xxxi. 18 n.). The Messianic expectation showed no vigorous life throughout this century till it was identified with the Maccabean family. If we are right in regarding the Messianic kingdom as of temporary duration, this is the first instance in which the Messiah is associated with a temporary Messianic kingdom.

The Messianic kingdom. According to our author (i. 29, xxiii. 30) this kingdom was to be brought about gradually by the progressive spiritual development of man and a corresponding transformation of nature. Its members were to attain to the full limit of 1,000 years in happiness and peace. During its continuance the powers of evil were to be restrained (xxiii. 29). The last judgement was apparently to take place at its close (xxiii. 30). This view was possibly derived from Mazdeism.

The writer of Jubilees, we can hardly doubt, thought that the era of the Messianic kingdom had already set in. Such an expectation was often cherished in the prosperous days of the Maccabees. Thus it was entertained by the writer of I Enoch lxxxiii-xc in the days of Judas before 161 B.C. Whether Jonathan was looked upon as the divine agent for introducing the kingdom we cannot say, but as to Simon being regarded in this light there is no doubt. Indeed, his contemporaries came to regard him as the Messiah himself, as we see from Psalm cx, or Hyrcanus in the noble Messianic hymn in Test. Levi 18. The tame effus1on in 1 Macc. xiv. 8-15 is a relic of such literature, which was emasculated by its Sadducean editor. Simon was succeeded by John Hyrcanus in 135 B.C. and this great prince seemed to his countrymen to realize the expectations of the past; for according to a contemporary writer (Test. Levi 8) he embraced in his own person the triple office of prophet, priest, and civil ruler (xxxi. i5), while according to the Test. Reuben 6 he was to 'die on behalf of Israel in wars seen and unseen'. In both these passages he seems to be accorded the Messianic office, but not so in our author, as we have seen above. Hyrcanus is only to introduce the Messianic kingdom, over which the Messiah sprung from Judah is to rule.

Priesthood of Melchizedek. That there was originally an account of Melchizedek in our text we have shown in the note on xiii. 2,5, and, that the Maccabean high-priests deliberately adopted the title applied to him in Gen. xiv, we have pointed out in the note on xxxii. I. It would be interesting to inquire how far the writer of Hebrews was indebted to the history of the great Maccabean king-priests for the idea of the Melchizedekian priesthood of which he has made so fruitful a use in chap. vii as applied to our Lord.

The Future Life. In our text all hope of a resurrection of the body is abandoned. The souls of the righteous will enjoy a blessed immortality after death (xxiii. 31). This is the earliest attested instance of this expectation in the last two centuries B.C. It is next found in Enoch xci-civ.

The Jewish Calendar. For our author's peculiar views see Charles's edition 18 and the notes on vi. 29-30, 32, xv. I.

Angelology. We shall confine our attention here to notable parallels between our author and the New Testament. Besides the angels of the presence and the angels of sanctification there are the angels who are set over natural phenomena (ii. 2). These angels are inferior to the former. They do not observe the Sabbath as the higher orders; for they are necessarily always engaged in their duties (ii. 18). It is the higher orders that are generally referred to in the New Testament but the angels over natural phenomena are referred to in Revelation: angels of the winds in vii. 1, 2, the angel of fire in xiv. 18, the angel of the waters in xvi. 5 (cf. Jub. ii. 2). Again, the guardian angels of individuals, which the New Testament refers to in Matt. xviii. 10 (Acts xii. 15), are mentioned, for the first time in Jubilees xxxv. 17. On the angelology of our author see Charles's edition.

Demonology. The demonology of our author reappears for the most part in the New Testament:

(a) The angels which kept not their first estate, Jude 6 ; 2 Peter ii. 4, are the angelic watchers who, though sent down to instruct mankind (Jub. iv. 15), fell from lusting after the daughters of men. Their fall and punishment are recorded in Jub. iv. 22, v.1-9.

(b) The demons are the spirits which went forth from the souls of the giants who were the children of the fallen angels, Jub. v. 7, 9. These demons attacked men and ruled over them (x. 3, 6). Their purpose is to corrupt and lead astray and destroy the wicked (x. 8). They are subject to the prince Mastema (x. 9), or Satan. Men sacrifice to them as gods (xxii. 17). They are to pursue their work of moral ruin till the judgement of Mastema (x. 8) or the setting up of the Messianic kingdom, when Satan will be no longer able to injure mankind (xxiii. 29).

So in the New Testament, the demons are disembodied spirits (Matt. xii. 43-5; Luke xi. 24-6). Their chief is Satan (Mark iii. 22). They are treated as divinities of the heathen (I Cor. x. 20). They are not to be punished till the final judgement (Matt. viii. 29). On the advent of the Millennium Satan will be bound (Rev. xx. 2-3).

Judgement. The doctrine of retribution is strongly enforced by our author. It is to be individual and national in this world and in the next. As regards the individual the law of exact retribution is according to our author not merely an enactment of human justice -the ancient lex talionis, eye for eye, tooth for tooth; it is observed by God in His government of the world. The penalty follows in the line of the sin. This view is enforced in 2 Macc. v. 10, where it is said of Jason, that, as he robbed multitudes of the rites of sepulture, so he himself was deprived of them in turn, and in xv. 32 seq. it is recounted of Nicanor that he was punished in those members with which he had sinned. So also in our text in reference to Cain iv. 31 seq. and the Egyptians xlviii. 14. Taken crassly and mechanically the above law is without foundation, but spiritually conceived it represented the profound truth of the kinship of the penalty to the sin enunciated repeatedly in the New Testament: 'Whatsoever a man sows that shall he also reap' (Gal. vi.;); 'he that doeth wrong shall receive again the wrong that he hath done' (Col. iii. 25, &c.). Again in certain cases the punishment was to follow instantaneously on the transgression (xxxvii. 17).

The final judgement was to take place at the close of the Messianic kingdom (xxiii. 30). This judgement embraces the human and superhuman worlds (v. 10 seq., 14). At this judgement there will be no respect of persons, but all will be judged according to their opportunities and abilities (v. 15 seq.). From the standpoint of our author there could be no hope for the Gentiles.

16. BIBLIOGRAPHY.

(a) Greek Version: see above, 4 (a). Ethiopic Version: this text was first edited by Dillmann from two MSS. cd in 1859, and by R. H. Charles from four MSS. abcd. The Ethiopic Version of the Hebrew Book of Jubilees with the Hebrew, Syriac, Greek, and Latin Fragments, Oxford, 1895. Latin Version: see above, 4 (a).

(b) Translations. Dillrnann, Das Buch der Jubilaen . . . aus dem Aethiopischen ubersetzt (Ewald's Jahrbucher d. bibl. Wissensch., 1850-1, ii. 230-56; iii. 1-96). This translation is based on only one MS. Schodde, The Book of Jubilees, translated from the Ethiopic ('Bibliotheca Sacra,' 1885-7): Charles, The Book of Jubilees, translated from a text based on two hitherto uncollated Ethiopic MSS. (Jewish Quarterly Review, 1893, v. 703-8; 1894, vi. 184-217, 710-45; 1895, vii. 297-328): Littmann, Das Buch der Jubilaen (Kantzsch's Apokryphen und Pseudepigraphen des A. T., 1900, ii. 31-119). This translation is based on Charles's text.

(c) Commentaries. Charles, The Book ofjubilees, 1902. Ronsch published a Commentary on the Latin Version. See above, 4.

(d) Critical Inquiries. Dillmann, 'Pseudepigraphen des A. T.,' Herzog's R. E.2, xii. 364-5; 'Beitrage aus dem Buche der Jubilaen zur Kritik des Pentateuch-Textes' (Sitzungsberichte der kgl. preussischen Akad., 1883); Beer, Das Buch der Jubilaen, 1856; Singer, Das Buck der Jubilaen, 1898; Bohn, 'Die Pedeutung des Buches der Jubilaen' (Theol. Stud. u. Kritiken, 1900, 167-84). For a full bibliography see Charles's Commentary or Schurer.

THE BOOK OF JUBILEES



[Notes and dates added by Mr. Charles will not be given due to length and difficulty in scanning and editing. If this information is desired, please see his book.]



THIS is the history of the division of the days of the law and of the testimony, of the events of the years, of their (year) weeks, of their Jubilees throughout all the years of the world, as the Lord spake to Moses on Mount Sinai when he went up to receive the tables of the law and of the commandment, according to the voice of God as he said unto him, 'Go up to the top of the Mount.'

[Chapter 1]


1 And it came to pass in the first year of the exodus of the children of Israel out of Egypt, in the third month, on the sixteenth day of the month, [2450 Anno Mundi] that God spake to Moses, saying: 'Come up to Me on the Mount, and I will give thee two tables of stone of the law and of the commandment, which
2 I have written, that thou mayst teach them.' And Moses went up into the mount of God, and the
3 glory of the Lord abode on Mount Sinai, and a cloud overshadowed it six days. And He called to Moses on the seventh day out of the midst of the cloud, and the appearance of the glory of the
4 Lord was like a flaming fire on the top of the mount. And Moses was on the Mount forty days and forty nights, and God taught him the earlier and the later history of the division of all the days
5 of the law and of the testimony. And He said: 'Incline thine heart to every word which I shall speak to thee on this mount, and write them in a book in order that their generations may see how I have not forsaken them for all the evil which they have wrought in transgressing the covenant
6 which I establish between Me and thee for their generations this day on Mount Sinai. And thus it will come to pass when all these things come upon them, that they will recognise that I am more righteous than they in all their judgments and in all their actions, and they will recognise that
7 I have been truly with them. And do thou write for thyself all these words which I declare unto, thee this day, for I know their rebellion and their stiff neck, before I bring them into the land of which I sware to their fathers, to Abraham and to Isaac and to Jacob, saying: ' Unto your seed
8 will I give a land flowing with milk and honey. And they will eat and be satisfied, and they will turn to strange gods, to (gods) which cannot deliver them from aught of their tribulation: and this witness shall be heard for a witness against them. For they will forget all My commandments, (even) all that I command them, and they will walk after the Gentiles, and after their uncleanness, and after their shame, and will serve their gods, and these will
10 prove unto them an offence and a tribulation and an affliction and a snare. And many will perish and they will be taken captive, and will fall into the hands of the enemy, because they have forsaken My ordinances and My commandments, and the festivals of My covenant, and My sabbaths, and My holy place which I have hallowed for Myself in their midst, and My tabernacle, and My sanctuary, which I have hallowed for Myself in the midst of the land, that I should set my name
11 upon it, and that it should dwell (there). And they will make to themselves high places and groves and graven images, and they will worship, each his own (graven image), so as to go astray, and they
12 will sacrifice their children to demons, and to all the works of the error of their hearts. And I will send witnesses unto them, that I may witness against them, but they will not hear, and will slay the witnesses also, and they will persecute those who seek the law, and they will abrogate and change
13 everything so as to work evil before My eyes. And I will hide My face from them, and I will deliver them into the hand of the Gentiles for captivity, and for a prey, and for devouring, and I will remove them from the midst of the land, and I will scatter them amongst the Gentiles.
14 And they will forget all My law and all My commandments and all My judgments, and will go
15 astray as to new moons, and sabbaths, and festivals, and jubilees, and ordinances. And after this they will turn to Me from amongst the Gentiles with all their heart and with all their soul and with all their strength, and I will gather them from amongst all the Gentiles, and they will seek me, so
16 that I shall be found of them, when they seek me with all their heart and with all their soul. And I will disclose to them abounding peace with righteousness, and I will remove them the plant of uprightness, with all My heart and with all My soul, and they shall be for a blessing and not for
17 a curse, and they shall be the head and not the tail. And I will build My sanctuary in their midst, and I will dwell with them, and I will be their God and they shall be My people in truth and
18, 19 righteousness. And I will not forsake them nor fail them; for I am the Lord their God.' And Moses fell on his face and prayed and said, 'O Lord my God, do not forsake Thy people and Thy inheritance, so that they should wander in the error of their hearts, and do not deliver them into the hands of their enemies, the Gentiles, lest they should rule over them and cause them to sin against
20 Thee. Let thy mercy, O Lord, be lifted up upon Thy people, and create in them an upright spirit, and let not the spirit of Beliar rule over them to accuse them before Thee, and to ensnare them
21 from all the paths of righteousness, so that they may perish from before Thy face. But they are Thy people and Thy inheritance, which thou hast delivered with thy great power from the hands of the Egyptians: create in them a clean heart and a holy spirit, and let them not be ensnared in
22 their sins from henceforth until eternity.' And the Lord said unto Moses: 'I know their contrariness and their thoughts and their stiffneckedness, and they will not be obedient till they confess
23 their own sin and the sin of their fathers. And after this they will turn to Me in all uprightness and with all (their) heart and with all (their) soul, and I will circumcise the foreskin of their heart and the foreskin of the heart of their seed, and I will create in them a holy spirit, and I will cleanse them so that they shall not turn away from Me from that day unto eternity.
24 And their souls will cleave to Me and to all My commandments, and they will fulfil My
25 commandments, and I will be their Father and they shall be My children. And they all shall be called children of the living God, and every angel and every spirit shall know, yea, they shall know that these are My children, and that I am their Father in uprightness and righteousness, and that
26 I love them. And do thou write down for thyself all these words which I declare unto thee on this mountain, the first and the last, which shall come to pass in all the divisions of the days in the law and in the testimony and in the weeks and the jubilees unto eternity, until I descend and dwell
27 with them throughout eternity.' And He said to the angel of the presence: Write for Moses from
28 the beginning of creation till My sanctuary has been built among them for all eternity. And the Lord will appear to the eyes of all, and all shall know that I am the God of Israel and the Father of all the children of Jacob, and King on Mount Zion for all eternity. And Zion and Jerusalem shall
29 be holy.' And the angel of the presence who went before the camp of Israel took the tables of the divisions of the years -from the time of the creation- of the law and of the testimony of the weeks of the jubilees, according to the individual years, according to all the number of the jubilees [according, to the individual years], from the day of the [new] creation when the heavens and the earth shall be renewed and all their creation according to the powers of the heaven, and according to all the creation of the earth, until the sanctuary of the Lord shall be made in Jerusalem on Mount Zion, and all the luminaries be renewed for healing and for peace and for blessing for all the elect of Israel, and that thus it may be from that day and unto all the days of the earth.

[Chapter 2]


1 And the angel of the presence spake to Moses according to the word of the Lord, saying: Write the complete history of the creation, how in six days the Lord God finished all His works and all that He created, and kept Sabbath on the seventh day and hallowed it for all ages, and
2 appointed it as a sign for all His works. For on the first day He created the heavens which are above and the earth and the waters and all the spirits which serve before him -the angels of the presence, and the angels of sanctification, and the angels [of the spirit of fire and the angels] of the spirit of the winds, and the angels of the spirit of the clouds, and of darkness, and of snow and of hail and of hoar frost, and the angels of the voices and of the thunder and of the lightning, and the angels of the spirits of cold and of heat, and of winter and of spring and of autumn and of summer and of all the spirits of his creatures which are in the heavens and on the earth, (He created) the abysses and the darkness, eventide (and night), and the light, dawn and day, which He hath
3 prepared in the knowledge of his heart. And thereupon we saw His works, and praised Him, and lauded before Him on account of all His works; for seven great works did He create on the first day.
4 And on the second day He created the firmament in the midst of the waters, and the waters were divided on that day -half of them went up above and half of them went down below the firmament (that was) in the midst over the face of the whole earth. And this was the only work (God) created
5 on the second day. And on the third day He commanded the waters to pass from off the face of
6 the whole earth into one place, and the dry land to appear. And the waters did so as He commanded them, and they retired from off the face of the earth into one place outside of this firmament,
7 and the dry land appeared. And on that day He created for them all the seas according to their separate gathering-places, and all the rivers, and the gatherings of the waters in the mountains and on all the earth, and all the lakes, and all the dew of the earth, and the seed which is sown, and all sprouting things, and fruit-bearing trees, and trees of the wood, and the garden of Eden, in Eden
8 and all . These four great works God created on the third day. And on the fourth day He created the sun and the moon and the stars, and set them in the firmament of the heaven, to give light upon all the earth, and to rule over the day and the night, and divide the
9 light from the darkness. And God appointed the sun to be a great sign on the earth for days and
10 for sabbaths and for months and for feasts and for years and for sabbaths of years and for jubilees and for all seasons of the years. And it divideth the light from the darkness [and] for prosperity, that all things may prosper which shoot and grow on the earth. These three kinds He made on the fourth day. And on the fifth day He created great sea monsters in the depths of the waters, for these were the first things of flesh that were created by his hands, the fish and everything that moves in the
12 waters, and everything that flies, the birds and all their kind. And the sun rose above them to prosper (them), and above everything that was on the earth, everything that shoots out of the earth, and all
13 fruit-bearing trees, and all flesh. These three kinds He created on the fifth day. And on the sixth day
14 He created all the animals of the earth, and all cattle, and everything that moves on the earth. And after all this He created man, a man and a woman created He them, and gave him dominion over all that is upon the earth, and in the seas, and over everything that flies, and over beasts and over cattle, and over everything that moves on the earth, and over the whole earth, and over all this He gave
15 him dominion. And these four kinds He created on the sixth day. And there were altogether
16 two and twenty kinds. And He finished all his work on the sixth day -all that is in the heavens and on the earth, and in the seas and in the abysses, and in the light and in the darkness, and in
17 everything. And He gave us a great sign, the Sabbath day, that we should work six days, but
18 keep Sabbath on the seventh day from all work. And all the angels of the presence, and all the angels of sanctification, these two great classes -He hath bidden us to keep the Sabbath with Him
19 in heaven and on earth. And He said unto us: 'Behold, I will separate unto Myself a people from among all the peoples, and these shall keep the Sabbath day, and I will sanctify them unto Myself as My people, and will bless them; as I have sanctified the Sabbath day and do sanctify (it) unto
20 Myself, even so will I bless them, and they shall be My people and I will be their God. And I have chosen the seed of Jacob from amongst all that I have seen, and have written him down as My first-born son,and have sanctified him unto Myself for ever and ever; and I will teach them the
21 Sabbath day, that they may keep Sabbath thereon from all work.' And thus He created therein a sign in accordance with which they should keep Sabbath with us on the seventh day, to eat and to drink, and to bless Him who has created all things as He has blessed and sanctified unto Himself
22 a peculiar people above all peoples, and that they should keep Sabbath together with us. And He caused His commands to ascend as a sweet savour acceptable before Him all the days . . .
23 There (were) two and twenty heads of mankind from Adam to Jacob, and two and twenty kinds of work were made until the seventh day; this is blessed and holy; and the former also is blessed and
24 holy; and this one serves with that one for sanctification and blessing. And to this (Jacob and his seed) it was granted that they should always be the blessed and holy ones of the first testimony
25 and law, even as He had sanctified and blessed the Sabbath day on the seventh day. He created heaven and earth and everything that He created in six days, and God made the seventh day holy, for all His works; therefore He commanded on its behalf that, whoever does any work thereon
26 shall die, and that he who defiles it shall surely die. Wherefore do thou command the children of Israel to observe this day that they may keep it holy and not do thereon any work, and not to
27 defile it, as it is holier than all other days. And whoever profanes it shall surely die, and whoever does thereon any work shall surely die eternally, that the children of Israel may observe this day throughout their generations, and not be rooted out of the land; for it is a holy day and a blessed
28 day. And every one who observes it and keeps Sabbath thereon from all his work, will be holy and
29 blessed throughout all days like unto us. Declare and say to the children of Israel the law of this day both that they should keep Sabbath thereon, and that they should not forsake it in the error of their hearts; (and) that it is not lawful to do any work thereon which is unseemly, to do thereon their own pleasure, and that they should not prepare thereon anything to be eaten or drunk, and (that it is not lawful) to draw water, or bring in or take out thereon through their gates any burden,
30 which they had not prepared for themselves on the sixth day in their dwellings. And they shall not bring in nor take out from house to house on that day; for that day is more holy and blessed than any jubilee day of the jubilees; on this we kept Sabbath in the heavens before it was made
31 known to any flesh to keep Sabbath thereon on the earth. And the Creator of all things blessed it, but he did not sanctify all peoples and nations to keep Sabbath thereon, but Israel alone: them
32 alone he permitted to eat and drink and to keep Sabbath thereon on the earth. And the Creator of all things blessed this day which He had created for blessing and holiness and glory above all
33 days. This law and testimony was given to the children of Israel as a law for ever unto their generations.

[Chapter 3]


1 And on the six days of the second week we brought, according to the word of God, unto Adam all the beasts, and all the cattle, and all the birds, and everything that moves on the earth, and everything that moves in the water, according to their kinds, and according to their types: the beasts on the first day; the cattle on the second day; the birds on the third day; and all that which moves on the earth on the fourth day; and that which moves in the water on the fifth day.
2 And Adam named them all by their respective names, and as he called them, so was their name.
3 And on these five days Adam saw all these, male and female, according to every kind that was on
4 the earth, but he was alone and found no helpmeet for him. And the Lord said unto us: 'It is not
5 good that the man should be alone: let us make a helpmeet for him.' And the Lord our God caused a deep sleep to fall upon him, and he slept, and He took for the woman one rib from amongst
6 his ribs, and this rib was the origin of the woman from amongst his ribs, and He built up the flesh in its stead, and built the woman. And He awaked Adam out of his sleep and on awaking he rose on the sixth day, and He brought her to him, and he knew her, and said unto her: 'This is now bone of my bones and flesh of my flesh; she shall be called
7 [my] wife; because she was taken from her husband.' Therefore shall man and wife be one and therefore shall a man leave his father and his mother, and cleave unto his wife, and they shall be
8 one flesh. In the first week was Adam created, and the rib -his wife: in the second week He showed her unto him: and for this reason the commandment was given to keep in their defilement,
9 for a male seven days, and for a female twice seven days. And after Adam had completed forty days in the land where he had been created, we brought him into the garden of Eden to till and keep it, but his wife they brought in on the eightieth day, and after this she entered into the garden
10 of Eden. And for this reason the commandment is written on the heavenly tablets in regard to her that gives birth: 'if she bears a male, she shall remain in her uncleanness seven days according to the first week of days, and thirty and three days shall she remain in the blood of her purifying, and she shall not touch any hallowed thing, nor enter into the sanctuary, until she accomplishes these
11 days which (are enjoined) in the case of a male child. But in the case of a female child she shall remain in her uncleanness two weeks of days, according to the first two weeks, and sixty-six days
12 in the blood of her purification, and they will be in all eighty days.' And when she had completed these eighty days we brought her into the garden of Eden, for it is holier than all the earth besides and
13 every tree that is planted in it is holy. Therefore, there was ordained regarding her who bears a male or a female child the statute of those days that she should touch no hallowed thing, nor
14 enter into the sanctuary until these days for the male or female child are accomplished. This is the law and testimony which was written down for Israel, in order that they should observe (it) all the
15 days. And in the first week of the first jubilee, [1-7 A.M.] Adam and his wife were in the garden of Eden for seven years tilling and keeping it, and we gave him work and we instructed him to do everything
16 that is suitable for tillage. And he tilled (the garden), and was naked and knew it not, and was not ashamed, and he protected the garden from the birds and beasts and cattle, and gathered its fruit, and eat, and put aside the residue for himself and for his wife [and put aside that which was
17 being kept]. And after the completion of the seven years, which he had completed there, seven years exactly, [8 A.M.] and in the second month, on the seventeenth day (of the month), the serpent came and approached the woman, and the serpent said to the woman, 'Hath God commanded you,
18 saying, Ye shall not eat of every tree of the garden?' And she said to it, 'Of all the fruit of the trees of the garden God hath said unto us, Eat; but of the fruit of the tree which is in the midst of the garden God hath said unto us, Ye shall not eat thereof, neither shall ye touch it, lest ye die.' And the serpent said unto the woman, 'Ye shall not surely die: for God doth know that on the day ye shall eat thereof, your eyes will be opened, and ye will be as gods, and ye will know good and
20 evil. And the woman saw the tree that it was agreeable and pleasant to the eye, and that its fruit
21 was good for food, and she took thereof and eat. And when she had first covered her shame with figleaves, she gave thereof to Adam and he eat, and his eyes were opened, and he saw that he was
22 naked. And he took figleaves and sewed (them) together, and made an apron for himself, and
23, 24 covered his shame. And God cursed the serpent, and was wroth with it for ever . . . And He was wroth with the woman, because she harkened to the voice of the serpent, and did eat; and He said unto her: 'I will greatly multiply thy sorrow and thy pains: in sorrow thou shalt bring forth
25 children, and thy return shall be unto thy husband, and he will rule over thee.' And to Adam also he said, ' Because thou hast harkened unto the voice of thy wife, and hast eaten of the tree of which I commanded thee that thou shouldst not eat thereof, cursed be the ground for thy sake: thorns and thistles shall it bring forth to thee, and thou shalt eat thy bread in the sweat of thy face, till thou returnest to the earth from whence thou wast taken; for earth thou art, and unto earth shalt
26 thou return.' And He made for them coats of skin, and clothed them, and sent them forth from
27 the Garden of Eden. And on that day on which Adam went forth from the Garden, he offered as a sweet savour an offering, frankincense, galbanum, and stacte, and spices in the morning with the
28 rising of the sun from the day when he covered his shame. And on that day was closed the mouth of all beasts, and of cattle, and of birds, and of whatever walks, and of whatever moves, so that they could no longer speak: for they had all spoken one with another with one lip and with one tongue.
29 And He sent out of the Garden of Eden all flesh that was in the Garden of Eden, and all flesh was scattered according to its kinds, and according to its types unto the places which had been created
30 for them. And to Adam alone did He give (the wherewithal) to cover his shame, of all the beasts and
31 cattle. On this account, it is prescribed on the heavenly tablets as touching all those who know the judgment of the law, that they should cover their shame, and should not uncover themselves as the
32 Gentiles uncover themselves. And on the new moon of the fourth month, Adam and his wife went
33 forth from the Garden of Eden, and they dwelt in the land of Elda in the land of their creation. And
34 Adam called the name of his wife Eve. And they had no son till the first jubilee, [8 A.M.] and after this he
35 knew her. Now he tilled the land as he had been instructed in the Garden of Eden.

[Chapter 4]


1 And in the third week in the second jubilee she gave birth to Cain, and in the fourth she gave birth to Abel, and in the fifth she gave birth to her daughter Awan. And in the first (year) of the third jubilee, Cain slew Abel because (God) accepted the sacrifice of Abel, and did not accept
3 the offering of Cain. And he slew him in the field: and his blood cried from the ground to heaven,
4 complaining because he had slain him. And the Lord reproved Cain because of Abel, because he had slain him, and he made him a fugitive on the earth because of the blood of his brother, and he
5 cursed him upon the earth. And on this account it is written on the heavenly tables, 'Cursed is ,he who smites his neighbour treacherously, and let all who have seen and heard say, So be it; and
6 the man who has seen and not declared (it), let him be accursed as the other.' And for this reason we announce when we come before the Lord our God all the sin which is committed in heaven and
7 on earth, and in light and in darkness, and everywhere. And Adam and his wife mourned for Abel four weeks of years, [99-127 A.M] and in the fourth year of the fifth week [130 A.M.] they became joyful, and Adam knew his wife again, and she bare him a son, and he called his name Seth; for he said 'GOD has
8 raised up a second seed unto us on the earth instead of Abel; for Cain slew him.' And in the sixth
9 week [134-40 A.M.] he begat his daughter Azura. And Cain took Awan his sister to be his wife and she bare him Enoch at the close of the fourth jubilee. [190-196 A.M.] And in the first year of the first week of the fifth jubilee, [197 A.M.] houses were built on the earth, and Cain built a city, and called its name after the name of
10, 11 his son Enoch. And Adam knew Eve his wife and she bare yet nine sons. And in the fifth week of the fifth jubilee [225-31 A.M.] Seth took Azura his sister to be his wife, and in the fourth (year of the sixth
12,13 week) [235 A.M.] she bare him Enos. He began to call on the name of the Lord on the earth. And in the seventh jubilee in the third week [309-15 A.M.] Enos took Noam his sister to be his wife, and she bare him a son
14 in the third year of the fifth week, and he called his name Kenan. And at the close of the eighth jubilee [325, 386-3992 A.M.] Kenan took Mualeleth his sister to be his wife, and she bare him a son in the ninth jubilee,
15 in the first week in the third year of this week, [395 A.M] and he called his name Mahalalel. And in the second week of the tenth jubilee [449-55 A.M.] Mahalalel took unto him to wife DinaH, the daughter of Barakiel the daughter of his father's brother, and she bare him a son in the third week in the sixth year, [461 A.M.] and he called his name Jared, for in his days the angels of the Lord descended on the earth, those who are named the Watchers, that they should instruct the children of men, and that they should do
16 judgment and uprightness on the earth. And in the eleventh jubilee [512-18 A.M.] Jared took to himself a wife, and her name was Baraka, the daughter of Rasujal, a daughter of his father's brother, in the fourth week of this jubilee, [522 A.M.] and she bare him a son in the fifth week, in the fourth year of the jubilee, and
17 he called his name Enoch. And he was the first among men that are born on earth who learnt writing and knowledge and wisdom and who wrote down the signs of heaven according to the order of their months in a book, that men might know the seasons of the years according to the order of
18 their separate months. And he was the first to write a testimony and he testified to the sons of men among the generations of the earth, and recounted the weeks of the jubilees, and made known to them the days of the years, and set in order the months and recounted the Sabbaths of the years
19 as we made (them), known to him. And what was and what will be he saw in a vision of his sleep, as it will happen to the children of men throughout their generations until the day of judgment; he saw and understood everything, and wrote his testimony, and placed the testimony on earth for all
20 the children of men and for their generations. And in the twelfth jubilee, [582-88] in the seventh week thereof, he took to himself a wife, and her name was Edna, the daughter of Danel, the daughter of his father's brother, and in the sixth year in this week [587 A.M.] she bare him a son and he called his name
21 Methuselah. And he was moreover with the angels of God these six jubilees of years, and they showed him everything which is on earth and in the heavens, the rule of the sun, and he wrote down
22 everything. And he testified to the Watchers, who had sinned with the daughters of men; for these had begun to unite themselves, so as to be defiled, with the daughters of men, and Enoch
23 testified against (them) all. And he was taken from amongst the children of men, and we conducted him into the Garden of Eden in majesty and honour, and behold there he writes down the con-
24 demnation and judgment of the world, and all the wickedness of the children of men. And on account of it (God) brought the waters of the flood upon all the land of Eden; for there he was set as a sign and that he should testify against all the children of men, that he should recount all the
25 deeds of the generations until the day of condemnation. And he burnt the incense of the sanctuary,
26 (even) sweet spices acceptable before the Lord on the Mount. For the Lord has four places on the earth, the Garden of Eden, and the Mount of the East, and this mountain on which thou art this day, Mount Sinai, and Mount Zion (which) will be sanctified in the new creation for a sanctification of the earth; through it will the earth be sanctified from all (its) guilt and its uncleanness through-
27 out the generations of the world. And in the fourteenth jubilee [652 A.M.] Methuselah took unto himself a wife, Edna the daughter of Azrial, the daughter of his father's brother, in the third week, in the
28 first year of this week, [701-7 A.M.] and he begat a son and called his name Lamech. And in the fifteenth jubilee in the third week Lamech took to himself a wife, and her name was Betenos the daughter of Baraki'il, the daughter of his father's brother, and in this week she bare him a son and he called his name Noah, saying, 'This one will comfort me for my trouble and all my work, and for the ground
29 which the Lord hath cursed.' And at the close of the nineteenth jubilee, in the seventh week in the sixth year [930 A.M.] thereof, Adam died, and all his sons buried him in the land of his creation, and he
30 was the first to be buried in the earth. And he lacked seventy years of one thousand years; for one thousand years are as one day in the testimony of the heavens and therefore was it written concerning the tree of knowledge: 'On the day that ye eat thereof ye shall die.' For this reason he
31 did not complete the years of this day; for he died during it. At the close of this jubilee Cain was killed after him in the same year; for his house fell upon him and he died in the midst of his house, and he was killed by its stones; for with a stone he had killed Abel, and by a stone was he killed in
32 righteous judgment. For this reason it was ordained on the heavenly tablets: With the instrument with which a man kills his neighbour with the same shall he be killed; after the manner that
33 he wounded him, in like manner shall they deal with him.' And in the twenty-fifth [1205 A.M.] jubilee Noah took to himself a wife, and her name was Emzara, the daughter of Rake'el, the daughter of his father's brother, in the first year in the fifth week [1207 A.M.]: and in the third year thereof she bare him Shem, in the fifth year thereof [1209 A.M.] she bare him Ham, and in the first year in the sixth week [1212 A.M.] she bare him Japheth.

[Chapter 5]


1 And it came to pass when the children of men began to multiply on the face of the earth and daughters were born unto them, that the angels of God saw them on a certain year of this jubilee, that they were beautiful to look upon; and they took themselves wives of all whom they
2 chose, and they bare unto them sons and they were giants. And lawlessness increased on the earth and all flesh corrupted its way, alike men and cattle and beasts and birds and everything that walks on the earth -all of them corrupted their ways and their orders, and they began to devour each other, and lawlessness increased on the earth and every imagination of the thoughts of all men
3 (was) thus evil continually. And God looked upon the earth, and behold it was corrupt, and all flesh had corrupted its orders, and all that were upon the earth had wrought all manner of evil
4 before His eyes. And He said that He would destroy man and all flesh upon the face of the earth
5,6 which He had created. But Noah found grace before the eyes of the Lord. And against the angels whom He had sent upon the earth, He was exceedingly wroth, and He gave commandment to root them out of all their dominion, and He bade us to bind them in the depths of the earth, and
7 behold they are bound in the midst of them, and are (kept) separate. And against their sons went forth a command from before His face that they should be smitten with the sword, and be removed
8 from under heaven. And He said 'My spirit shall not always abide on man; for they also are flesh
9 and their days shall be one hundred and twenty years'. And He sent His sword into their midst that each should slay his neighbour, and they began to slay each other till they all fell by the sword
10 and were destroyed from the earth. And their fathers were witnesses (of their destruction), and after this they were bound in the depths of the earth for ever, until the day of the great condemnation, when judgment is executed on all those who have corrupted their ways and their works before
11 the Lord. And He destroyed all from their places, and there was not left one of them whom
12 He judged not according to all their wickedness. And he made for all his works a new and righteous nature, so that they should not sin in their whole nature for ever, but should be all
13 righteous each in his kind alway. And the judgment of all is ordained and written on the heavenly tablets in righteousness -even (the judgment of) all who depart from the path which is ordained for them to walk in; and if they walk not therein, judgment is written down for every creature and
14 for every kind. And there is nothing in heaven or on earth, or in light or in darkness, or in Sheol or in the depth, or in the place of darkness (which is not judged); and all their judgments are
15 ordained and written and engraved. In regard to all He will judge,the great according to his
16 greatness, and the small according to his smallness, and each according to his way. And He is not one who will regard the person (of any), nor is He one who will receive gifts, if He says that He will execute judgment on each: if one gave everything that is on the earth, He will not regard the
17 gifts or the person (of any), nor accept anything at his hands, for He is a righteous judge. [And of the children of Israel it has been written and ordained: If they turn to him in righteousness He will forgive all their transgressions and pardon all their sins. It is written and ordained that
19 He will show mercy to all who turn from all their guilt once each year.] And as for all those who corrupted their ways and their thoughts before the flood, no man's person was accepted save that of Noah alone; for his person was accepted in behalf of his sons, whom (God) saved from the waters of the flood on his account; for his heart was righteous in all his ways, according as it was com-
20 manded regarding him, and he had not departed from aught that was ordained for him. And the Lord said that he would destroy everything which was upon the earth, both men and cattle, and
21 beasts, and fowls of the air, and that which moveth on the earth. And He commanded Noah to
22 make him an ark, that he might save himself from the waters of the flood. And Noah made the ark in all respects as He commanded him, in the twenty-seventh jubilee of years, in the fifth week
23 in the fifth year (on the new moon of the first month). [1307 A.M.] And he entered in the sixth (year) thereof, [1308 A.M.] in the second month, on the new moon of the second month, till the sixteenth; and he entered, and all that we brought to him, into the ark, and the Lord closed it from without on the seventeenth evening.
24 And the Lord opened seven flood-gates of heaven,
And the mouths of the fountains of the great deep, seven mouths in number.
25 And the flood-gates began to pour down water from the heaven forty days and forty nights,
And the fountains of the deep also sent up waters, until the whole world was full of water.
26 And the waters increased upon the earth: Fifteen cubits did the waters rise above all the high mountains, And the ark was lift up above the earth,
And it moved upon the face of the waters.
27 And the water prevailed on the face of the earth five months -one hundred and fifty days.
28, 29 And the ark went and rested on the top of Lubar, one of the mountains of Ararat. And (on the new moon) in the fourth month the fountains of the great deep were closed and the flood-gates of heaven were restrained; and on the new moon of the seventh month all the mouths of the abysses
30 of the earth were opened, and the water began to descend into the deep below. And on the new moon of the tenth month the tops of the mountains were seen, and on the new moon of the first 31 month the earth became visible. And the waters disappeared from above the earth in the fifth week in the seventh year [1309 A.M.] thereof, and on the seventeenth day in the second month the earth was dry.
32 And on the twenty-seventh thereof he opened the ark, and sent forth from it beasts, and cattle, and birds, and every moving thing.

[Chapter 6]


1 And on the new moon of the third month he went forth from the ark, and built an altar on
2 that mountain. And he made atonement for the earth, and took a kid and made atonement by its blood for all the guilt of the earth; for everything that had been on it had been destroyed, save
3 those that were in the ark with Noah. And he placed the fat thereof on the altar, and he took an ox, and a goat, and a sheep and kids, and salt, and a turtle-dove, and the young of a dove, and placed a burnt sacrifice on the altar, and poured thereon an offering mingled with oil, and sprinkled wine and strewed frankincense over everything, and caused a goodly savour to arise, acceptable before
4 the Lord. And the Lord smelt the goodly savour, and He made a covenant with him that there should not be any more a flood to destroy the earth; that all the days of the earth seed-time and harvest should never cease; cold and heat, and summer and winter, and day and night should not
5 change their order, nor cease for ever. 'And you, increase ye and multiply upon the earth, and become many upon it, and be a blessing upon it. The fear of you and the dread of you I will
6 inspire in everything that is on earth and in the sea. And behold I have given unto you all beasts, and all winged things, and everything that moves on the earth, and the fish in the waters, and all
7 things for food; as the green herbs, I have given you all things to eat. But flesh, with the life thereof, with the blood, ye shall not eat; for the life of all flesh is in the blood, lest your blood of your lives be required. At the hand of every man, at the hand of every (beast) will I require the
8 blood of man. Whoso sheddeth man's blood by man shall his blood be shed, for in the image of
9,10 God made He man. And you, increase ye, and multiply on the earth.' And Noah and his sons swore that they would not eat any blood that was in any flesh, and he made a covenant before the
11 Lord God for ever throughout all the generations of the earth in this month. On this account He spake to thee that thou shouldst make a covenant with the children of Israel in this month upon the mountain with an oath, and that thou shouldst sprinkle blood upon them because of all the words
12 of the covenant, which the Lord made with them for ever. And this testimony is written concerning you that you should observe it continually, so that you should not eat on any day any blood of beasts or birds or cattle during all the days of the earth, and the man who eats the blood of beast or of cattle or of birds during all the days of the earth, he and his seed shall be rooted out of the land.
13 And do thou command the children of Israel to eat no blood, so that their names and their seed
14 may be before the Lord our God continually. And for this law there is no limit of days, for it is for ever. They shall observe it throughout their generations, so that they may continue supplicating on your behalf with blood before the altar; every day and at the time of morning and evening they shall seek forgiveness on your behalf perpetually before the Lord that they may keep
15 it and not be rooted out. And He gave to Noah and his sons a sign that there should not again
16 be a flood on the earth. He set His bow in the cloud for a sign of the eternal covenant that there
17 should not again be a flood on the earth to destroy it all the days of the earth. For this reason it is ordained and written on the heavenly tablets, that they should celebrate the feast of weeks in this
18 month once a year, to renew the covenant every year. And this whole festival was celebrated in heaven from the day of creation till the days of Noah -twenty-six jubilees and five weeks of years [1309-1659 A.M.]: and Noah and his sons observed it for seven jubilees and one week of years, till the day of Noah's death, and from the day of Noah's death his sons did away with (it) until the days of Abraham, and
19 they eat blood. But Abraham observed it, and Isaac and Jacob and his children observed it up to thy days, and in thy days the children of Israel forgot it until ye celebrated it anew on this mountain.
20 And do thou command the children of Israel to observe this festival in all their generations for a
21 commandment unto them: one day in the year in this month they shall celebrate the festival. For it is the feast of weeks and the feast of first fruits: this feast is twofold and of a double nature:
22 according to what is written and engraven concerning it, celebrate it. For I have written in the book of the first law, in that which I have written for thee, that thou shouldst celebrate it in its season, one day in the year, and I explained to thee its sacrifices that the children of Israel should remember and should celebrate it throughout their generations in this month, one day in every year.
23 And on the new moon of the first month, and on the new moon of the fourth month, and on the new moon of the seventh month, and on the new moon of the tenth month are the days of remembrance, and the days of the seasons in the four divisions of the year. These are written and ordained
24 as a testimony for ever. And Noah ordained them for himself as feasts for the generations for ever,
25 so that they have become thereby a memorial unto him. And on the new moon of the first month he was bidden to make for himself an ark, and on that (day) the earth became dry and he opened
26 (the ark) and saw the earth. And on the new moon of the fourth month the mouths of the depths of the abyss beneath were closed. And on the new moon of the seventh month all the mouths of
27 the abysses of the earth were opened, and the waters began to descend into them. And on the new
28 moon of the tenth month the tops of the mountains were seen, and Noah was glad. And on this account he ordained them for himself as feasts for a memorial for ever, and thus are they ordained.
29 And they placed them on the heavenly tablets, each had thirteen weeks; from one to another (passed) their memorial, from the first to the second, and from the second to the third, and from the
30 third to the fourth. And all the days of the commandment will be two and fifty weeks of days, and (these will make) the entire year complete. Thus it is engraven and ordained on the heavenly
31 tablets. And there is no neglecting (this commandment) for a single year or from year to year.
32 And command thou the children of Israel that they observe the years according to this reckoning- three hundred and sixty-four days, and (these) will constitute a complete year, and they will not disturb its time from its days and from its feasts; for everything will fall out in them according to
33 their testimony, and they will not leave out any day nor disturb any feasts. But if they do neglect and do not observe them according to His commandment, then they will disturb all their seasons and the years will be dislodged from this (order), [and they will disturb the seasons and the years
34 will be dislodged] and they will neglect their ordinances. And all the children of Israel will forget and will not find the path of the years, and will forget the new moons, and seasons, and sabbaths
35 and they will go wrong as to all the order of the years. For I know and from henceforth will I declare it unto thee, and it is not of my own devising; for the book (lies) written before me, and on the heavenly tablets the division of days is ordained, lest they forget the feasts of the covenant
36 and walk according to the feasts of the Gentiles after their error and after their ignorance. For there will be those who will assuredly make observations of the moon -how (it) disturbs the
37 seasons and comes in from year to year ten days too soon. For this reason the years will come upon them when they will disturb (the order), and make an abominable (day) the day of testimony, and an unclean day a feast day, and they will confound all the days, the holy with the unclean, and the unclean day with the holy; for they will go wrong as to the months and sabbaths and feasts and
38 jubilees. For this reason I command and testify to thee that thou mayst testify to them; for after thy death thy children will disturb (them), so that they will not make the year three hundred and sixty-four days only, and for this reason they will go wrong as to the new moons and seasons and sabbaths and festivals, and they will eat all kinds of blood with all kinds of flesh.

[Chapter 7]


1 And in the seventh week in the first year [1317 A.M.] thereof, in this jubilee, Noah planted vines on the mountain on which the ark had rested, named Lubar, one of the Ararat Mountains, and they produced fruit in the fourth year, [1320 A.M.] and he guarded their fruit, and gathered it in this year in the
2 seventh month. And he made wine therefrom and put it into a vessel, and kept it until the fifth
3 year, [1321 A.M.] until the first day, on the new moon of the first month. And he celebrated with joy the day of this feast, and he made a burnt sacrifice unto the Lord, one young ox and one ram, and seven sheep, each a year old, and a kid of the goats, that he might make atonement thereby for himself
4 and his sons. And he prepared the kid first, and placed some of its blood on the flesh that was on the altar which he had made, and all the fat he laid on the altar where he made the burnt sacrifice,
5 and the ox and the ram and the sheep, and he laid all their flesh upon the altar. And he placed all their offerings mingled with oil upon it, and afterwards he sprinkled wine on the fire which he had previously made on the altar, and he placed incense on the altar and caused a sweet savour to
6 ascend acceptable before the Lord his God. And he rejoiced and drank of this wine, he and his
7 children with joy. And it was evening, and he went into his tent, and being drunken he lay down
8 and slept, and was uncovered in his tent as he slept. And Ham saw Noah his father naked, and
9 went forth and told his two brethren without. And Shem took his garment and arose, he and Japheth, and they placed the garment on their shoulders and went backward and covered the shame
10 of their father, and their faces were backward. And Noah awoke from his sleep and knew all that his younger son had done unto him, and he cursed his son and said: 'Cursed be Canaan; an
11 enslaved servant shall he be unto his brethren.' And he blessed Shem, and said: 'Blessed be the
12 Lord God of Shem, and Canaan shall be his servant. God shall enlarge Japheth, and God shall
13 dwell in the dwelling of Shem, and Canaan shall be his servant.' And Ham knew that his father had cursed his younger son, and he was displeased that he had cursed his son. and he parted from
14 his father, he and his sons with him, Cush and Mizraim and Put and Canaan. And he built for
15 himself a city and called its name after the name of his wife Ne'elatama'uk. And Japheth saw it, and became envious of his brother, and he too built for himself a city, and he called its name after
16 the name of his wife 'Adataneses. And Shem dwelt with his father Noah, and he built a city close to his father on the mountain, and he too called its name after the name of his wife Sedeqetelebab.
17 And behold these three cities are near Mount Lubar; Sedeqetelebab fronting the mountain on its
18 east; and Na'eltama'uk on the south; 'Adatan'eses towards the west. And these are the sons of Shem: Elam, and Asshur, and Arpachshad -this (son) was born two years after the flood- and
19 Lud, and Aram. The sons of Japheth: Gomer and Magog and Madai and Javan, Tubal and
20 Meshech and Tiras: these are the sons of Noah. And in the twenty-eighth jubilee [1324-1372 A.M.] Noah began to enjoin upon his sons' sons the ordinances and commandments, and all the judgments that he knew, and he exhorted his sons to observe righteousness, and to cover the shame of their flesh, and to bless their Creator, and honour father and mother, and love their neighbour, and guard their souls
21 from fornication and uncleanness and all iniquity. For owing to these three things came the flood upon the earth, namely, owing to the fornication wherein the Watchers against the law of their ordinances went a whoring after the daughters of men, and took themselves wives of all which they
22 chose: and they made the beginning of uncleanness. And they begat sons the Naphidim, and they were all unlike, and they devoured one another: and the Giants slew the Naphil, and the
23 Naphil slew the Eljo, and the Eljo mankind, and one man another. And every one sold himself
24 to work iniquity and to shed much blood, and the earth was filled with iniquity. And after this they sinned against the beasts and birds, and all that moves and walks on the earth: and much blood was shed on the earth, and every imagination and desire of men imagined vanity and evil
25 continually. And the Lord destroyed everything from off the face of the earth; because of the wickedness of their deeds, and because of the blood which they had shed in the midst of the earth
26 He destroyed everything. 'And we were left, I and you, my sons, and everything that entered with us into the ark, and behold I see your works before me that ye do not walk in righteousness: for in the path of destruction ye have begun to walk, and ye are parting one from another, and are envious one of another, and (so it comes) that ye are not in harmony, my sons, each with his brother.
27 For I see, and behold the demons have begun (their) seductions against you and against your children and now I fear on your behalf, that after my death ye will shed the blood of men upon the earth,
28 and that ye, too, will be destroyed from the face of the earth. For whoso sheddeth man's blood, and whoso eateth the blood of any flesh, shall all be destroyed from the earth.
29 And there shall not be left any man that eateth blood,
or that sheddeth the blood of man on the earth,
Nor shall there be left to him any seed or descendants living under heaven;
For into Sheol shall they go, And into the place of condemnation shall they descend,
And into the darkness of the deep shall they all be removed by a violent death.
30 There shall be no blood seen upon you of all the blood there shall be all the days in which ye have killed any beasts or cattle or whatever flies upon the earth, and work ye a good work to your
31 souls by covering that which has been shed on the face of the earth. And ye shall not be like him who eats with blood, but guard yourselves that none may eat blood before you: cover the blood,
32 for thus have I been commanded to testify to you and your children, together with all flesh. And suffer not the soul to be eaten with the flesh, that your blood, which is your life, may not be required
33 at the hand of any flesh that sheds (it) on the earth. For the earth will not be clean from the blood which has been shed upon it; for (only) through the blood of him that shed it will the earth be
34 purified throughout all its generations. And now, my children, harken: work judgment and righteousness that ye maybe planted in righteousness over the face of the whole earth, and your
35 glory lifted up before my God, who saved me from the waters of the flood. And behold, ye will go and build for yourselves cities, and plant in them all the plants that are upon the earth, and moreover
36 all fruit-bearing trees. For three years the fruit of everything that is eaten will not be gathered: and in the fourth year its fruit will be accounted holy [and they will offer the first-fruits], acceptable before the Most High God, who created heaven and earth and all things. Let them offer in abundance the first of the wine and oil (as) first-fruits on the altar of the Lord, who receives it, and
37 what is left let the servants of the house of the Lord eat before the altar which receives (it). And in the fifth year

make ye the release so that ye release it in righteousness and uprightness, and ye shall bc righteous,
38 and all that you plant shall prosper. For thus did Enoch, the father of your father command Methuselah, his son, and Methuselah his son Lamech, and Lamech commanded me all the things
39 which his fathers commanded him. And I also will give you commandment, my sons, as Enoch commanded his son in the first jubilees: whilst still living, the seventh in his generation, he commanded and testified to his son and to his son's sons until the day of his death.'

[Chapter 8]


1 In the twenty-ninth jubilee, in the first week, [1373 A.M.] in the beginning thereof Arpachshad took to himself a wife and her name was Rasu'eja, the daughter of Susan, the daughter of Elam, and she
2 bare him a son in the third year in this week, [1375 A.M.] and he called his name Kainam. And the son grew, and his father taught him writing, and he went to seek for himself a place where he might seize for
3 himself a city. And he found a writing which former (generations) had carved on the rock, and he read what was thereon, and he transcribed it and sinned owing to it; for it contained the teaching of the Watchers in accordance with which they used to observe the omens of the sun and moon and
4 stars in all the signs of heaven. And he wrote it down and said nothing regarding it; for he was
5 afraid to speak to Noah about it lest he should be angry with him on account of it. And in the thirtieth jubilee, [1429 A.M.] in the second week, in the first year thereof, he took to himself a wife, and her name was Melka, the daughter of Madai, the son of Japheth, and in the fourth year [1432 A.M.] he begat a son, and
6 called his name Shelah; for he said: 'Truly I have been sent.' [And in the fourth year he was born], and Shelah grew up and took to himself a wife, and her name was Mu'ak, the daughter of Kesed, his father's brother, in the one and thirtieth jubilee, in the fifth week, in the first year [1499 A.M.]

7 thereof. And she bare him a son in the fifth year [1503 A.M.] thereof, and he called his name Eber: and he took unto himself a wife, and her name was 'Azurad, the daughter of Nebrod, in the thirty-second
8 jubilee, in the seventh week, in the third year thereof. [1564 A.M.] And in the sixth year [1567 A.M.] thereof, she bare him son, and he called his name Peleg; for in the days when he was born the children of Noah began
9 to divide the earth amongst themselves: for this reason he called his name Peleg. And they
10 divided (it) secretly amongst themselves, and told it to Noah. And it came to pass in the beginning of the thirty-third jubilee [1569 A.M.] that they divided the earth into three parts, for Shem and Ham and Japheth, according to the inheritance of each, in the first year in the first week, when one of us
11 who had been sent, was with them. And he called his sons, and they drew nigh to him, they and their children, and he divided the earth into the lots, which his three sons were to take in possession, and they reached forth their hands, and took the writing out of the bosom of Noah, their father.
12 And there came forth on the writing as Shem's lot the middle of the earth which he should take as an inheritance for himself and for his sons for the generations of eternity, from the middle of the mountain range of Rafa, from the mouth of the water from the river Tina, and his portion goes towards the west through the midst of this river, and it extends till it reaches the water of the abysses, out of which this river goes forth and pours its waters into the sea Me'at, and this river flows into the great sea. And all that is towards the north is Japheth's, and all that is towards the
13 south belongs to Shem. And it extends till it reaches Karaso: this is in the bosom of the tongue
14 which looks towards the south. And his portion extends along the great sea, and it extends in a straight line till it reaches the west of the tongue which looks towards the south: for this sea is
15 named the tongue of the Egyptian Sea. And it turns from here towards the south towards the mouth of the great sea on the shore of (its) waters, and it extends to the west to 'Afra, and it extends till it reaches the waters of the river Gihon, and to the south of the waters of Gihon, to the
16 banks of this river. And it extends towards the east, till it reaches the Garden of Eden, to the south thereof, [to the south] and from the east of the whole land of Eden and of the whole east, it turns to the east and proceeds till it reaches the east of the mountain named Rafa, and it descends
17 to the bank of the mouth of the river Tina. This portion came forth by lot for Shem and his sons,
18 that they should possess it for ever unto his generations for evermore. And Noah rejoiced that this portion came forth for Shem and for his sons, and he remembered all that he had spoken with his mouth in prophecy; for he had said:
'Blessed be the Lord God of Shem
And may the Lord dwell in the dwelling of Shem.'
19 And he knew that the Garden of Eden is the holy of holies, and the dwelling of the Lord, and Mount Sinai the centre of the desert, and Mount Zion -the centre of the navel of the earth: these three
20 were created as holy places facing each other. And he blessed the God of gods, who had put the
21 word of the Lord into his mouth, and the Lord for evermore. And he knew that a blessed portion and a blessing had come to Shem and his sons unto the generations for ever -the whole land of Eden and the whole land of the Red Sea, and the whole land of the east and India, and on the Red Sea and the mountains thereof, and all the land of Bashan, and all the land of Lebanon and the islands of Kaftur, and all the mountains of Sanir and 'Amana, and the mountains of Asshur in the north, and all the land of Elam, Asshur, and Babel, and Susan and Ma'edai, and all the mountains of Ararat, and all the region beyond the sea, which is beyond the mountains of Asshur towards the
22 north, a blessed and spacious land, and all that is in it is very good. And for Ham came forth the second portion, beyond the Gihon towards the south to the right of the Garden, and it extends towards the south and it extends to all the mountains of fire, and it extends towards the west to the sea of 'Atel and it extends towards the west till it reaches the sea of Ma'uk -that (sea) into which
23 everything which is not destroyed descends. And it goes forth towards the north to the limits of Gadir, and it goes forth to the coast of the waters of the sea to the waters of the great sea till it draws near to the river Gihon, and goes along the river Gihon till it reaches the right of the Garden
24 of Eden. And this is the land which came forth for Ham as the portion which he was to occupy
25 for ever for himself and his sons unto their generations for ever. And for Japheth came forth the third portion beyond the river Tina to the north of the outflow of its waters, and it extends north-
26 easterly to the whole region of Gog, and to all the country east thereof. And it extends northerly to the north, and it extends to the mountains of Qelt towards the north, and towards the sea of
27 Ma'uk, and it goes forth to the east of Gadir as far as the region of the waters of the sea. And it extends until it approaches the west of Fara and it returns towards 'Aferag, and it extends easterly
28 to the waters of the sea of Me'at. And it extends to the region of the river Tina in a north-easterly direction until it approaches the boundary of its waters towards the mountain Rafa, and it turns
29 round towards the north. This is the land which came forth for Japheth and his sons as the portion of his inheritance which he should possess for himself and his sons, for their generations for ever;
30 five great islands, and a great land in the north. But it is cold, and the land of Ham is hot, and the land of Shem is neither hot nor cold, but it is of blended cold and heat.

[Chapter 9]


1 And Ham divided amongst his sons, and the first portion came forth for Cush towards the east, and to the west of him for Mizraim, and to the west of him for Put, and to the west of him
2 [and to the west thereof] on the sea for Canaan. And Shem also divided amongst his sons, and the first portion came forth for Ham and his sons, to the east of the river Tigris till it approachcs the east, the whole land of India, and on the Red Sea on its coast, and the waters of Dedan, and all the mountains of Mebri and Ela, and all the land of Susan and all that is on the side of Pharnak
3 to the Red Sea and the river Tina. And for Asshur came forth the second Portion, all the land of
4 Asshur and Nineveh and Shinar and to the border of India, and it ascends and skirts the river. And for Arpachshad came forth the third portion, all the land of the region of the Chaldees to the east of the Euphrates, bordering on the Red Sea, and all the waters of the desert close to the tongue of the sea which looks towards Egypt, all the land of Lebanon and Sanir and 'Amana to the border of the
5 Euphrates. And for Aram there came forth the fourth portion, all the land of Mesopotamia between the Tigris and the Euphrates to the north of the Chaldees to the border of the mountains
6 of Asshur and the land of 'Arara. And there came forth for Lud the fifth portion, the mountains of Asshur and all appertaining to them till it reaches the Great Sea, and till it reaches the east of
7, 8 Asshur his brother. And Japheth also divided the land of his inheritance amongst his sons. And the first portion came forth for Gomer to the east from the north side to the river Tina; and in the north there came forth for Magog all the inner portions of the north until it reaches to the sea of
9 Me'at. And for Madai came forth as his portion that he should posses from the west of his two
10 brothers to the islands, and to the coasts of the islands. And for Javan came forth the fourth
11 portion every island and the islands which are towards the border of Lud. And for Tubal there came forth the fifth portion in the midst of the tongue which approaches towards the border of the portion of Lud to the second tongue, to the region beyond the second tongue unto the third tongue.
12 And for Meshech came forth the sixth portion, all the region beyond the third tongue till it
13 approaches the east of Gadir. And for Tiras there came forth the seventh portion, four great islands in the midst of the sea, which reach to the portion of Ham [and the islands of Kamaturi
14 came out by lot for the sons of Arpachshad as his inheritance]. And thus the sons of Noah divided unto their sons in the presence of Noah their father, and he bound them all by an oath, imprecating
15 a curse on every one that sought to seize the portion which had not fallen (to him) by his lot. And they all said, 'So be it; so be it ' for themselves and their sons for ever throughout their generations till the day of judgment, on which the Lord God shall judge them with a sword and with fire for all the unclean wickedness of their errors, wherewith they have filled the earth with transgression and uncleanness and fornication and sin.

[Chapter 10]


1 And in the third week of this jubilee the unclean demons began to lead astray the children of
2 the sons of Noah, and to make to err and destroy them. And the sons of Noah came to Noah their father, and they told him concerning the demons which were leading astray and blinding and
3 slaying his sons' sons. And he prayed before the Lord his God, and said:
'God of the spirits of all flesh, who hast shown mercy unto me
And hast saved me and my sons from the waters of the flood,
And hast not caused me to perish as Thou didst the sons of perdition;

For Thy grace has been great towards me,
And great has been Thy mercy to my soul;

Let Thy grace be lift up upon my sons,
And let not wicked spirits rule over them
Lest they should destroy them from the earth.

4 But do Thou bless me and my sons, that we may increase and Multiply and replenish the earth.
5 And Thou knowest how Thy Watchers, the fathers of these spirits, acted in my day: and as for these spirits which are living, imprison them and hold them fast in the place of condemnation, and let them not bring destruction on the sons of thy servant, my God; for these are malignant, and
6 created in order to destroy. And let them not rule over the spirits of the living; for Thou alone canst exercise dominion over them. And let them not have power over the sons of the righteous
7,8 from henceforth and for evermore.' And the Lord our God bade us to bind all. And the chief of the spirits, Mastema, came and said: 'Lord, Creator, let some of them remain before me, and let them harken to my voice, and do all that I shall say unto them; for if some of them are not left to me, I shall not be able to execute the power of my will on the sons of men; for these are for corruption and leading astray before my judgment, for great is the wickedness of the sons of men.'
9 And He said: Let the tenth part of them remain before him, and let nine parts descend into the
10 place of condemnation.' And one of us He commanded that we should teach Noah all their
11 medicines; for He knew that they would not walk in uprightness, nor strive in righteousness. And we did according to all His words: all the malignant evil ones we bound in the place of condemna-
12 tion and a tenth part of them we left that they might be subject before Satan on the earth. And we explained to Noah all the medicines of their diseases, together with their seductions, how he
13 might heal them with herbs of the earth. And Noah wrote down all things in a book as we instructed him concerning every kind of medicine. Thus the evil spirits were precluded from
14 (hurting) the sons of Noah. And he gave all that he had written to Shem, his eldest son; for he
15 loved him exceedingly above all his sons. And Noah slept with his fathers, and was buried on
16 Mount Lubar in the land of Ararat. Nine hundred and fifty years he completed in his life, nineteen
17 jubilees and two weeks and five years. [1659 A.M.] And in his life on earth he excelled the children of men save Enoch because of the righteousness, wherein he was perfect. For Enoch's office was ordained for a testimony to the generations of the world, so that he should recount all the deeds of generation
18 unto generation, till the day of judgment. And in the three and thirtieth jubilee, in the first year in the second week, Peleg took to himself a wife, whose name was Lomna the daughter of Sina'ar, and she bare him a son in the fourth year of this week, and he called his name Reu; for he said: 'Behold the children of men have become evil through the wicked purpose of building for themselves
19 a city and a tower in the land of Shinar.' For they departed from the land of Ararat eastward to Shinar; for in his days they built the city and the tower, saying, 'Go to, let us ascend thereby into
20 heaven.' And they began to build, and in the fourth week they made brick with fire, and the bricks served them for stone, and the clay with which they cemented them together was asphalt which
21 comes out of the sea, and out of the fountains of water in the land of Shinar. And they built it: forty and three years [1645-1688 A.M.] were they building it; its breadth was 203 bricks, and the height (of a brick) was the third of one; its height amounted to 5433 cubits and 2 palms, and (the extent of one wall
22 was) thirteen stades (and of the other thirty stades). And the Lord our God said unto us: Behold, they are one people, and (this) they begin to do, and now nothing will be withholden from them. Go to, let us go down and confound their language, that they may not understand one another's speech, and they may be dispersed into cities and nations, and one purpose will no longer abide with
23 them till the day of judgment.' And the Lord descended, and we descended with him to see the
24 city and the tower which the children of men had built. And he confounded their language, and they no longer understood one another's speech, and they ceased then to build the city and the
25 tower. For this reason the whole land of Shinar is called Babel, because the Lord did there confound all the language of the children of men, and from thence they were dispersed into their
26 cities, each according to his language and his nation. And the Lord sent a mighty wind against the tower and overthrew it upon the earth, and behold it was between Asshur and Babylon in the
27 land of Shinar, and they called its name 'Overthrow'. In the fourth week in the first year [1688 A.M.] in the beginning thereof in the four and thirtieth jubilee, were they dispersed from the land of Shinar.
28 And Ham and his sons went into the land which he was to occupy, which he acquired as his portion
29 in the land of the south. And Canaan saw the land of Lebanon to the river of Egypt, that it was very good, and he went not into the land of his inheritance to the west (that is to) the sea, and he dwelt in the land of Lebanon, eastward and westward from the border of Jordan and from the border
30 of the sea. And Ham, his father, and Cush and Mizraim his brothers said unto him: 'Thou hast settled in a land which is not thine, and which did not fall to us by lot: do not do so; for if thou dost do so, thou and thy sons will fall in the land and (be) accursed through sedition; for by sedition
31 ye have settled, and by sedition will thy children fall, and thou shalt be rooted out for ever. Dwell
32 not in the dwelling of Shem; for to Shem and to his sons did it come by their lot. Cursed art thou, and cursed shalt thou be beyond all the sons of Noah, by the curse by which we bound our-
33 selves by an oath in the presence of the holy judge, and in the presence of Noah our father.' But he did not harken unto them, and dwelt in the land of Lebanon from Hamath to the entering of
34,35 Egypt, he and his sons until this day. And for this reason that land is named Canaan. And Japheth and his sons went towards the sea and dwelt in the land of their portion, and Madai saw the land of the sea and it did not please him, and he begged a (portion) from Ham and Asshur and Arpachshad, his wife's brother, and he dwelt in the land of Media, near to his wife's brother until
36 this day. And he called his dwelling-place, and the dwelling-place of his sons, Media, after the name of their father Madai.

[Chapter 11]


1 And in the thirty-fifth jubilee, in the third week, in the first year [1681 A.M.] thereof, Reu took to himself a wife, and her name was 'Ora, the daughter of 'Ur, the son of Kesed, and she bare him a son, and
2 he called his name Seroh, in the seventh year of this week in this jubilee. [1687 A.M.] And the sons of Noah began to war on each other, to take captive and to slay each other, and to shed the blood of men on the earth, and to eat blood, and to build strong cities, and walls, and towers, and individuals (began) to exalt themselves above the nation, and to found the beginnings of kingdoms, and to go to war people against people, and nation against nation, and city against city, and all (began) to do evil, and to acquire arms, and to teach their sons war, and they began to capture cities, and to sell
3 male and female slaves. And 'Ur, the son of Kesed, built the city of 'Ara of the Chaldees, and called its name after his own name and the name of his father. And they made for themselves molten images, and they worshipped each the idol, the molten image which they had made for themselves, and they began to make graven images and unclean simulacra, and malignant spirits
5 assisted and seduced (them) into committing transgression and uncleanness. And the prince Mastema exerted himself to do all this, and he sent forth other spirits, those which were put under his hand, to do all manner of wrong and sin, and all manner of transgression, to corrupt and destroy,
6 and to shed blood upon the earth. For this reason he called the name of Seroh, Serug, for every one
7 turned to do all manner of sin and transgression. And he grew up, and dwelt in Ur of the Chaldees, near to the father of his wife's mother, and he worshipped idols, and he took to himself a wife in the thirty-sixth jubilee, in the fifth week, in the first year thereof, [1744 A.M.] and her name was Melka, the daughter
8 of Kaber, the daughter of his father's brother. And she bare him Nahor, in the first year of this week, and he grew and dwelt in Ur of the Chaldees, and his father taught him the researches of the
9 Chaldees to divine and augur, according to the signs of heaven. And in the thirty-seventh jubilee in the sixth week, in the first year thereof, [1800 A.M.] he took to himself a wife, and her name was 'Ijaska, the
10 daughter of Nestag of the Chaldees. And she bare him Terah in the seventh year of this week. [1806 A.M.]

11 And the prince Mastema sent ravens and birds to devour the seed which was sown in the land, in order to destroy the land, and rob the children of men of their labours. Before they could plough
12 in the seed, the ravens picked (it) from the surface of the ground. And for this reason he called his name Terah because the ravens and the birds reduced them to destitution and devoured their
13 seed. And the years began to be barren, owing to the birds, and they devoured all the fruit of the trees from the trees: it was only with great effort that they could save a little of all the fruit of the
14 earth in their days. And in this thirty-ninth jubilee, in the second week in the first year, [1870 A.M.] Terah took to himself a wife, and her name was 'Edna, the daughter of 'Abram, the daughter of his father's sister. And in the seventh year of this week [1876 A.M.] she bare him a son, and he called his name Abram,
15 by the name of the father of his mother; for he had died before his daughter had conceived a son.
16 And the child began to understand the errors of the earth that all went astray after graven images and after uncleanness, and his father taught him writing, and he was two weeks of years old, [1890 A.M.] and he
17 separated himself from his father, that he might not worship idols with him. And he began to pray to the Creator of all things that He might save him from the errors of the children of men, and that
18 his portion should not fall into error after uncleanness and vileness. And the seed time came for the sowing of seed upon the land, and they all went forth together to protect their seed against the
19 ravens, and Abram went forth with those that went, and the child was a lad of fourteen years. And a cloud of ravens came to devour the seed, and Abram ran to meet them before they settled on the ground, and cried to them before they settled on the ground to devour the seed, and said, ' Descend
20 not: return to the place whence ye came,' and they proceeded to turn back. And he caused the clouds of ravens to turn back that day seventy times, and of all the ravens throughout all the land
21 where Abram was there settled there not so much as one. And all who were with him throughout all the land saw him cry out, and all the ravens turn back, and his name became great in all the
22 land of the Chaldees. And there came to him this year all those that wished to sow, and he went with them until the time of sowing ceased: and they sowed their land, and that year they brought
23 enough grain home and eat and were satisfied. And in the first year of the fifth week [1891 A.M.] Abram taught those who made implements for oxen, the artificers in wood, and they made a vessel above the ground, facing the frame of the plough, in order to put the seed thereon, and the seed fell down therefrom upon the share of the plough, and was hidden in the earth, and they no longer feared the
24 ravens. And after this manner they made (vessels) above the ground on all the frames of the ploughs, and they sowed and tilled all the land, according as Abram commanded them, and they no longer feared the birds.

[Chapter 12]


1 And it came to pass in the sixth week, in the seventh year thereof, [1904 A.M.] that Abram said to Terah his
2 father, saying, 'Father!' And he said, 'Behold, here am I, my son.' And he said,

'What help and profit have we from those idols which thou dost worship,
And before which thou dost bow thyself?

3 For there is no spirit in them,
For they are dumb forms, and a misleading of the heart.
Worship them not:

4 Worship the God of heaven,
Who causes the rain and the dew to descend on the earth
And does everything upon the earth,

And has created everything by His word,
And all life is from before His face.

5 Why do ye worship things that have no spirit in them?
For they are the work of (men's) hands,

And on your shoulders do ye bear them,
And ye have no help from them,

But they are a great cause of shame to those who make them,
And a misleading of the heart to those who worship them:
Worship them not.'

6 And his father said unto him, I also know it, my son, but what shall I do with a people who have
7 made me to serve before them? And if I tell them the truth, they will slay me; for their soul cleaves to them to worship them and honour them. Keep silent, my son, lest they slay thee.' And
9 these words he spake to his two brothers, and they were angry with him and he kept silent. And in the fortieth jubilee, in the second week, in the seventh year thereof, [1925 A.M.] Abram took to himself a wife,
10 and her name was Sarai, the daughter of his father, and she became his wife. And Haran, his brother, took to himself a wife in the third year of the third week, [1928 A.M.] and she bare him a son in the
11 seventh year of this week, [1932 A.M.] and he called his name Lot. And Nahor, his brother, took to himself
12 a wife. And in the sixtieth year of the life of Abram, that is, in the fourth week, in the fourth year thereof, [1936 A.M.] Abram arose by night, and burned the house of the idols, and he burned all that was in the
13 house and no man knew it. And they arose in the night and sought to save their gods from the
14 midst of the fire. And Haran hasted to save them, but the fire flamed over him, and he was burnt in the fire, and he died in Ur of the Chaldees before Terah his father, and they buried him in Ur of
15 the Chaldees. And Terah went forth from Ur of the Chaldees, he and his sons, to go into the land of Lebanon and into the land of Canaan, and he dwelt in the land of Haran, and Abram dwelt with
16 Terah his father in Haran two weeks of years. And in the sixth week, in the fifth year thereof, [1951 A.M.] Abram sat up throughout the night on the new moon of the seventh month to observe the stars from the evening to the morning, in order to see what would be the character of the year with regard
17 to the rains, and he was alone as he sat and observed. And a word came into his heart and he said: All the signs of the stars, and the signs of the moon and of the sun are all in the hand of the Lord. Why do I search (them) out?

18 If He desires, He causes it to rain, morning and evening;
And if He desires, He withholds it,
And all things are in his hand.'

19 And he prayed that night and said,
'My God, God Most High, Thou alone art my God,
And Thee and Thy dominion have I chosen.
And Thou hast created all things,
And all things that are the work of thy hands.

20 Deliver me from the hands of evil spirits who have dominion over the thoughts of men's hearts,
And let them not lead me astray from Thee, my God.

And stablish Thou me and my seed for ever
That we go not astray from henceforth and for evermore.'

21 And he said, 'Shall I return unto Ur of the Chaldees who seek my face that I may return to them, am I to remain here in this place? The right path before Thee prosper it in the hands of Thy servant that he may fulfil (it) and that I may not walk in the deceitfulness of my heart, O my God.'
22 And he made an end of speaking and praying, and behold the word of the Lord was sent to him through me, saying: 'Get thee up from thy country, and from thy kindred and from the house of thy father unto a land which I will show thee, and I shall make thee a great and numerous nation.

23 And I will bless thee
And I will make thy name great,
And thou shalt be blessed in the earth,
And in Thee shall all families of the earth be blessed,
And I will bless them that bless thee,
And curse them that curse thee.

24 And I will be a God to thee and thy son, and to thy son's son, and to all thy seed: fear not, from
25 henceforth and unto all generations of the earth I am thy God.' And the Lord God said: 'Open his mouth and his ears, that he may hear and speak with his mouth, with the language which has been revealed'; for it had ceased from the mouths of all the children of men from the day of the
26 overthrow (of Babel). And I opened his mouth, and his ears and his lips, and I began to speak
27 with him in Hebrew in the tongue of the creation. And he took the books of his fathers, and these were written in Hebrew, and he transcribed them, and he began from henceforth to study them, and I made known to him that which he could not (understand), and he studied them during the six
28 rainy months. And it came to pass in the seventh year of the sixth week [1953 A.M.] that he spoke to his father and informed him, that he would leave Haran to go into the land of Canaan to see it and
29 return to him. And Terah his father said unto him; Go in peace:

May the eternal God make thy path straight.
And the Lord [(be) with thee, and] protect thee from all evil,
And grant unto thee grace, mercy and favour before those who see thee,
And may none of the children of men have power over thee to harm thee;
Go in peace.

30 And if thou seest a land pleasant to thy eyes to dwell in, then arise and take me to thee and take
31 Lot with thee, the son of Haran thy brother as thine own son: the Lord be with thee. And Nahor thy brother leave with me till thou returnest in peace, and we go with thee all together.'

[Chapter 13]


1 And Abram journeyed from Haran, and he took Sarai, his wife, and Lot, his brother Haran's son, to the land of Canaan, and he came into Asshur, and proceeded to Shechem, and dwelt near
2 a lofty oak. And he saw, and, behold, the land was very pleasant from the entering of Hamath to
3 the lofty oak. And the Lord said to him: 'To thee and to thy seed will I give this land.' And
4 he built an altar there, and he offered thereon a burnt sacrifice to the Lord, who had appeared to
5 him. And he removed from thence unto the mountain . . . Bethel on the west and Ai on the
6 east, and pitched his tent there. And he saw and behold, the land was very wide and good, and everything grew thereon -vines and figs and pomegranates, oaks and ilexes, and terebinths and oil trees, and cedars and cypresses and date trees, and all trees of the field, and there was water on the
7 mountains. And he blessed the Lord who had led him out of Ur of the Chaldees, and had brought
8 him to this land. And it came to pass in the first year, in the seventh week, on the new moon of the first month, 1954 A.M.] that he built an altar on this mountain, and called on the name of the Lord: 'Thou,
9 the eternal God, art my God.' And he offered on the altar a burnt sacrifice unto the Lord that He
10 should be with him and not forsake him all the days of his life. And he removed from thence and went towards the south, and he came to Hebron and Hebron was built at that time, and he dwelt there two years, and he went (thence) into the land of the south, to Bealoth, and there was a famine
11 in the land. And Abram went into Egypt in the third year of the week, and he dwelt in Egypt
12 five years before his wife was torn away from him. Now Tanais in Egypt was at that time built-
13 seven years after Hebron. And it came to pass when Pharaoh seized Sarai, the wife of Abram that the Lord plagued Pharaoh and his house with great plagues because of Sarai, Abram's wife.
14 And Abram was very glorious by reason of possessions in sheep, and cattle, and asses, and horses, and camels, and menservants, and maidservants, and in silver and gold exceedingly. And Lot also
15 his brother's son, was wealthy. And Pharaoh gave back Sarai, the wife of Abram, and he sent him out of the land of Egypt, and he journeyed to the place where he had pitched his tent at the beginning, to the place of the altar, with Ai on the east, and Bethel on the west, and he blessed the
16 Lord his God who had brought him back in peace. And it came to pass in the forty-first jubilee in the third year of the first week, [1963 A.M.] that he returned to this place and offered thereon a burnt sacrifice, and called on the name of the Lord, and said: 'Thou, the most high God, art my God for ever
17 and ever.' And in the fourth year of this week [1964 A.M.] Lot parted from him, and Lot dwelt in Sodom, and
18 the men of Sodom were sinners exceedingly. And it grieved him in his heart that his brother's
19 son had parted from him; for he had no children. In that year when Lot was taken captive, the Lord said unto Abram, after that Lot had parted from him, in the fourth year of this week: 'Lift up thine eyes from the place where thou art dwelling, northward and southward, and westward and
20 eastward. For all the land which thou seest I will give to thee and to thy seed for ever, and I will make thy seed as the sand of the sea: though a man may number the dust of the earth, yet
21 thy seed shall not be numbered. Arise, walk (through the land) in the length of it and the breadth of it, and see it all; for to thy seed will I give it.' And Abram went to Hebron, and dwelt there.
22 And in this year came Chedorlaomer, king of Elam, and Amraphel, king of Shinar, and Arioch king of Sellasar, and Tergal, king of nations, and slew the king of Gomorrah, and the king of Sodom
23 fled, and many fell through wounds in the vale of Siddim, by the Salt Sea. And they took captive Sodom and Adam and Zeboim, and they took captive Lot also, the son of Abram's brother, and
24 all his possessions, and they went to Dan. And one who had escaped came and told Abram that
25 his brother's son had been taken captive and (Abram) armed his household servants . . .
. . . . for Abram, and for his seed, a tenth of the first fruits to the Lord, and the Lord ordained it as an ordinance for ever that they should give it to the priests
26 who served before Him, that they should possess it for ever. And to this law there is no limit of days; for He hath ordained it for the generations for ever that they should give to the Lord the tenth of everything, of the seed and of the wine and of the oil and of the cattle and of the sheep.
27,28 And He gave (it) unto His priests to eat and to drink with joy before Him. And the king of Sodom came to him and bowed himself before him, and said: 'Our Lord Abram, give unto us the
29 souls which thou hast rescued, but let the booty be thine.' And Abram said unto him: 'I lift up my hands to the Most High God, that from a thread to a shoe-latchet I shall not take aught that is thine lest thou shouldst say, I have made Abram rich; save only what the young men have eaten, and the portion of the men who went with me -Aner, Eschol, and Mamre. These shall take their portion.'

[Chapter 14]


1 After these things, in the fourth year of this week, on the new moon of the third month, the word of the Lord came to Abram in a dream, saying: 'Fear not, Abram; I am thy defender, and
2 thy reward will be exceeding great.' And he said: 'Lord, Lord, what wilt thou give me, seeing I go hence childless, and the son of Maseq, the son of my handmaid, is the Dammasek Eliezer: he
3 will be my heir, and to me thou hast given no seed.' And he said unto him: 'This (man) will not
4 be thy heir, but one that will come out of thine own bowels; he will be thine heir.' And He brought him forth abroad, and said unto him: 'Look toward heaven and number the stars if thou
5 art able to number them.' And he looked toward heaven, and beheld the stars. And He said
6 unto him: 'So shall thy seed be.' And he believed in the Lord, and it was counted to him for
7 righteousness. And He said unto him: 'I am the Lord that brought thee out of Ur of the Chaldees, to give thee the land of the Canaanites to possess it for ever; and I will be God unto thee and to
8 thy seed after thee.' And he said: 'Lord, Lord, whereby shall I know that I shall inherit (it)?'
9 And He said unto him: 'Take Me an heifer of three years, and a goat of three years, and a sheep
10 of three years, and a turtle-dove, and a pigeon.' And he took all these in the middle of the month
11 and he dwelt at the oak of Mamre, which is near Hebron. And he built there an altar, and sacrificed all these; and he poured their blood upon the altar, and divided them in the midst, and
12 laid them over against each other; but the birds divided he not. And birds came down upon the
13 pieces, and Abram drove them away, and did not suffer the birds to touch them. And it came to pass, when the sun had set, that an ecstasy fell upon Abram, and lo ! an horror of great darkness fell upon him, and it was said unto Abram: 'Know of a surety that thy seed shall be a stranger in a land (that is) not theirs, and they shall bring them into bondage, and afflict them four hundred
14 years. And the nation also to whom they will be in bondage will I judge, and after that they shall
15 come forth thence with much substance. And thou shalt go to thy fathers in peace, and be buried
16 in a good old age. But in the fourth generation they shall return hither; for the iniquity of the
17 Amorites is not yet full.' And he awoke from his sleep, and he arose, and the sun had set; and there was a flame, and behold ! a furnace was smoking, and a flame of fire passed between the
18 pieces. And on that day the Lord made a covenant with Abram, saying: 'To thy seed will I give this land, from the river of Egypt unto the great river, the river Euphrates, the Kenites, the Kenizzites, the Kadmonites, the Perizzites, and the Rephaim, the Phakorites, and the Hivites, and the
19 Amorites, and the Canaanites, and the Girgashites, and the Jebusites. And the day passed, and Abram offered the pieces, and the birds, and their fruit offerings, and their drink offerings, and
20 the fire devoured them. And on that day we made a covenant with Abram, according as we had covenanted with Noah in this month; and Abram renewed the festival and ordinance for himself
21 for ever. And Abram rejoiced, and made all these things known to Sarai his wife; and he believed
22 that he would have seed, but she did not bear. And Sarai advised her husband Abram, and said unto him: 'Go in unto Hagar, my Egyptian maid: it may be that I shall build up seed unto thee
23 by her.' And Abram harkened unto the voice of Sarai his wife, and said unto her, 'Do (so).' And Sarai took Hagar, her maid, the Egyptian, and gave her to Abram, her husband, to be his
24 wife. And he went in unto her, and she conceived and bare him a son, and he called his name Ishmael, in the fifth year of this week [1965 A.M.]; and this was the eighty-sixth year in the life of Abram.

[Chapter 15]


1 And in the fifth year of the fourth week of this jubilee, [1979 A.M.] in the third month, in the middle of the
2 month, Abram celebrated the feast of the first-fruits of the grain harvest. And he offered new offerings on the altar, the first-fruits of the produce, unto the Lord, an heifer and a goat and a sheep on the altar as a burnt sacrifice unto the Lord; their fruit offerings and their drink offerings he
3 offered upon the altar with frankincense. And the Lord appeared to Abram, and said unto him:
4 'I am God Almighty; approve thyself before me and be thou perfect. And I will make My covenant between Me and thee, and I will multiply thee exceedingly.' And Abram fell on his face, and God talked with him, and said:

6 'Behold my ordinance is with thee,
And thou shalt be the father of many nations.

7 Neither shall thy name any more be called Abram,
But thy name from henceforth, even for ever, shall be Abraham.
For the father of many nations have I made thee.

And I will make thee very great,
And I will make thee into nations,
And kings shall come forth from thee.

9 And I shall establish My covenant between Me and thee, and thy seed after thee, throughout their generations, for an eternal covenant, so that I may be a God unto thee, and to thy seed after thee.
10 the land where thou hast been a sojourner,
11 the land of Canaan, that thou mayst possess it for ever, and I will be their God.' And the Lord said unto Abraham: 'And as for thee, do thou keep my covenant, thou and thy seed after thee: and circumcise ye every male among you, and circumcise your foreskins, and it shall be a token of
12 an eternal covenant between Me and you. And the child on the eighth day ye shall circumcise, every male throughout your generations, him that is born in the house, or whom ye have bought
13 with money from any stranger, whom ye have acquired who is not of thy seed. He that is born in thy house shall surely be circumcised, and those whom thou hast bought with money shall be circum-
14 cised, and My covenant shall be in your flesh for an eternal ordinance. And the uncircumcised male who is not circumcised in the flesh of his foreskin on the eighth day, that soul shall be cut off from
15 his people, for he has broken My covenant.' And God said unto Abraham: 'As for Sarai thy wife,
16 her name shall no more be called Sarai, but Sarah shall be her name. And I will bless her, and give thee a son by her, and I will bless him, and he shall become a nation, and kings of nations shall
17 proceed from him.' And Abraham fell on his face, and rejoiced, and said in his heart: 'Shall a son be born to him that is a hundred years old, and shall Sarah, who is ninety years old, bring forth?'
18,19 And Abraham said unto God: 'O that Ishmael might live before thee!' And God said: 'Yea, and Sarah also shall bear thee a son, and thou shalt call his name Isaac, and I will establish My
20 covenant with him, an everlasting covenant, and for his seed after him. And as for Ishmael also have I heard thee, and behold I will bless him, and make him great, and multiply him exceedingly,
21 and he shall beget twelve princes, and I will make him a great nation. But My covenant will
22 I establish with Isaac, whom Sarah shall bear to thee, in these days, in the next year.' And He left
23 off speaking with him, and God went up from Abraham. And Abraham did according as God had said unto him, and he took Ishmael his son, and all that were born in his house, and whom he had
24 bought with his money, every male in his house, and circumcised the flesh of their foreskin. And on the selfsame day was Abraham circumcised, and all the men of his house, , and all those, whom he had bought with money from the children of the stranger, were
25 circumcised with him. This law is for all the generations for ever, and there is no circumcision of the days, and no omission of one day out of the eight days; for it is an eternal ordinance, ordained
26 and written on the heavenly tablets. And every one that is born, the flesh of whose foreskin is not circumcised on the eighth day, belongs not to the children of the covenant which the Lord made with Abraham, but to the children of destruction; nor is there, moreover, any sign on him that he is the Lord's, but (he is destined) to be destroyed and slain from the earth, and to be rooted out of
27 the earth, for he has broken the covenant of the Lord our God. For all the angels of the presence and all the angels of sanctification have been so created from the day of their creation, and before the angels of the presence and the angels of sanctification He hath sanctified Israel, that they should
28 be with Him and with His holy angels. And do thou command the children of Israel and let them observe the sign of this covenant for their generations as an eternal ordinance, and they will not be
29 rooted out of the land. For the command is ordained for a covenant, that they should observe it
30 for ever among all the children of Israel. For Ishmael and his sons and his brothers and Esau, the Lord did not cause to approach Him, and he chose them not because they are the children of
31 Abraham, because He knew them, but He chose Israel to be His people. And He sanctified it, and gathered it from amongst all the children of men; for there are many nations and many peoples, and all are His, and over all hath He placed spirits in authority to lead them astray from Him.
32 But over Israel He did not appoint any angel or spirit, for He alone is their ruler, and He will preserve them and require them at the hand of His angels and His spirits, and at the hand of all His powers in order that He may preserve them and bless them, and that they may be His and He
33 may be theirs from henceforth for ever. And now I announce unto thee that the children of Israel will not keep true to this ordinance, and they will not circumcise their sons according to all this law; for in the flesh of their circumcision they will omit this circumcision of their sons, and all of them,
34 sons of Beliar, will leave their sons uncircumcised as they were born. And there will be great wrath from the Lord against the children of Israel. because they have forsaken His covenant and turned aside from His word, and provoked and blasphemed, inasmuch as they do not observe the ordinance of this law; for they have treated their members like the Gentiles, so that they may be removed and rooted out of the land. And there will no more be pardon or forgiveness unto them [so that there should be forgiveness and pardon] for all the sin of this eternal error.

[Chapter 16]


1 And on the new moon of the fourth month we appeared unto Abraham, at the oak of Mamre, and we talked with him, and we announced to him that a son would be given to him by Sarah his wife.
2 And Sarah laughed, for she heard that we had spoken these words with Abraham, and we admonished
3 her, and she became afraid, and denied that she had laughed on account of the words. And we told her the name of her son, as his name is ordained and written in the heavenly tablets (i.e.) Isaac,
4,5 And (that) when we returned to her at a set time, she would have conceived a son. And in this month the Lord executed his judgments on Sodom, and Gomorrah, and Zeboim, and all the region of the Jordan, and He burned them with fire and brimstone, and destroyed them until this day, even as [lo] I have declared unto thee all their works, that they are wicked and sinners exceedingly, and that they defile themselves and commit fornication in their flesh, and work uncleanness on the earth.
6 And, in like manner, God will execute judgment on the places where they have done according to
7 the uncleanness of the Sodomites, like unto the judgment of Sodom. But Lot we saved; for God
8 remembered Abraham, and sent him out from the midst of the overthrow. And he and his daughters committed sin upon the earth, such as had not been on the earth since the days of Adam till his
9 time; for the man lay with his daughters. And, behold, it was commanded and engraven concerning all his seed, on the heavenly tablets, to remove them and root them out, and to execute judgment upon them like the judgment of Sodom, and to leave no seed of the man on earth on the day
10 of condemnation. And in this month Abraham moved from Hebron, and departed and dwelt between
11 Kadesh and Shur in the mountains of Gerar. And in the middle of the fifth month he moved from
12 thence, and dwelt at the Well of the Oath. And in the middle of the sixth month the Lord visited
13 Sarah and did unto her as He had spoken and she conceived. And she bare a son in the third month, and in the middle of the month, at the time of which the Lord had spoken to Abraham, on
14 the festival of the first fruits of the harvest, Isaac was born. And Abraham circumcised his son on the eighth day: he was the first that was circumcised according to the covenant which is ordained
15 for ever. And in the sixth year of the fourth week we came to Abraham, to the Well of the Oath, and we appeared unto him [as we had told Sarah that we should return to her, and she would have
16 conceived a son. And we returned in the seventh month, and found Sarah with child before us] and we blessed him, and we announced to him all the things which had been decreed concerning him, that he should not die till he should beget six sons more, and should see (them) before he died; but
17 (that) in Isaac should his name and seed be called: And (that) all the seed of his sons should be Gentiles, and be reckoned with the Gentiles; but from the sons of Isaac one should become a holy
18 seed, and should not be reckoned among the Gentiles. For he should become the portion of the Most High, and all his seed had fallen into the possession of God, that it should be unto the Lord a people for (His) possession above all nations and that it should become a kingdom and priests and
19 a holy nation. And we went our way, and we announced to Sarah all that we had told him, and
20 they both rejoiced with exceeding great joy. And he built there an altar to the Lord who had delivered him, and who was making him rejoice in the land of his sojourning, and he celebrated a festival of joy in this month seven days, near the altar which he had built at the Well of the Oath.
21 And he built booths for himself and for his servants on this festival, and he was the first to celebrate
22 the feast of tabernacles on the earth. And during these seven days he brought each day to the altar a burnt offering to the Lord, two oxen, two rams, seven sheep, one he-goat, for a sin offering,
23 that he might atone thereby for himself and for his seed. And, as a thank-offering, seven rams, seven kids, seven sheep, and seven he-goats, and their fruit offerings and their drink offerings; and he burnt all the fat thereof on the altar, a chosen offering unto the Lord for a sweet smelling savour.
24 And morning and evening he burnt fragrant substances, frankincense and galbanum, and stackte, and nard, and myrrh, and spice, and costum; all these seven he offered, crushed, mixed together in
25 equal parts (and) pure. And he celebrated this feast during seven days, rejoicing with all his heart and with all his soul, he and all those who were in his house, and there was no stranger with him,
26 nor any that was uncircumcised. And he blessed his Creator who had created him in his generation, for He had created him according to His good pleasure; for He knew and perceived that from him would arise the plant of righteousness for the eternal generations, and from him a holy seed, so that it
27 should become like Him who had made all things. And he blessed and rejoiced, and he called the
28 name of this festival the festival of the Lord, a joy acceptable to the Most High God. And we blessed him for ever, and all his seed after him throughout all the generations of the earth, because
29 he celebrated this festival in its season, according to the testimony of the heavenly tablets. For this reason it is ordained on the heavenly tablets concerning Israel, that they shall celebrate the feast of tabernacles seven days with joy, in the seventh month, acceptable before the Lord -a statute for
30 ever throughout their generations every year. And to this there is no limit of days; for it is ordained for ever regarding Israel that they should celebrate it and dwell in booths, and set wreaths upon
31 their heads, and take leafy boughs, and willows from the brook. And Abraham took branches of palm trees, and the fruit of goodly trees, and every day going round the altar with the branches seven times [a day] in the morning, he praised and gave thanks to his God for all things in joy.

[Chapter 17]


1 And in the first year of the fifth week Isaac was weaned in this jubilee, [1982 A.M.] and Abraham made
2 a great banquet in the third month, on the day his son Isaac was weaned. And Ishmael, the son of Hagar, the Egyptian, was before the face of Abraham, his father, in his place, and Abraham rejoiced
3 and blessed God because he had seen his sons and had not died childless. And he remembered the words which He had spoken to him on the day on which Lot had parted from him, and he rejoiced because the Lord had given him seed upon the earth to inherit the earth, and he blessed with all his
4 mouth the Creator of all things. And Sarah saw Ishmael playing and dancing, and Abraham rejoicing with great joy, and she became jealous of Ishmael and said to Abraham, 'Cast out this
5 bondwoman and her son; for the son of this bondwoman will not be heir with my son, Isaac.' And the thing was grievous in Abraham's sight, because of his maidservant and because of his son,
6 that he should drive them from him. And God said to Abraham 'Let it not be grievous in thy sight, because of the child and because of the bondwoman; in all that Sarah hath said unto thee,
7 harken to her words and do (them); for in Isaac shall thy name and seed be called. But as for
8 the son of this bondwoman I will make him a great nation, because he is of thy seed.' And Abraham rose up early in the morning, and took bread and a bottle of water, and placed them on the shoulders
9 of Hagar and the child, and sent her away. And she departed and wandered in the wilderness of Beersheba, and the water in the bottle was spent, and the child thirsted, and was not able to go on,
10 and fell down. And his mother took him and cast him under an olive tree, and went and sat her down over against him, at the distance of a bow-shot; for she said, 'Let me not see the death of my
11 child,' and as she sat she wept. And an angel of God, one of the holy ones, said unto her, 'Why weepest thou, Hagar? Arise take the child, and hold him in thine hand; for God hath heard thy
12 voice, and hath seen the child.' And she opened her eyes, and she saw a well of water, and she went and filled her bottle with water, and she gave her child to drink, and she arose and went towards
13 the wilderness of Paran. And the child grew and became an archer, and God was with him, and his
14 mother took him a wife from among the daughters of Egypt. And she bare him a son, and he called
15 his name Nebaioth; for she said, 'The Lord was nigh to me when I called upon him.' And it came to pass in the seventh week, in the first year thereof, [2003 A.M.] in the first month in this jubilee, on the twelfth of this month, there were voices in heaven regarding Abraham, that he was faithful in all that He
16 told him, and that he loved the Lord, and that in every affliction he was faithful. And the prince Mastema came and said before God, 'Behold, Abraham loves Isaac his son, and he delights in him above all things else; bid him offer him as a burnt-offering on the altar, and Thou wilt see if he will do this command, and Thou wilt know if he is faithful in everything wherein Thou dost try him.
17 And the Lord knew that Abraham was faithful in all his afflictions; for He had tried him through his country and with famine, and had tried him with the wealth of kings, and had tried him again through his wife, when she was torn (from him), and with circumcision; and had tried him through
18 Ishmael and Hagar, his maid-servant, when he sent them away. And in everything wherein He had tried him, he was found faithful, and his soul was not impatient, and he was not slow to act; for he was faithful and a lover of the Lord.


[Chapter 18]


1,2 And God said to him, 'Abraham, Abraham'; and he said, Behold, (here) am I.' And he said, Take thy beloved son whom thou lovest, (even) Isaac, and go unto the high country, and offer him
3 on one of the mountains which I will point out unto thee.' And he rose early in the morning and saddled his ass, and took his two young men with him, and Isaac his son, and clave the wood of the
4 burnt offering, and he went to the place on the third day, and he saw the place afar off. And he came to a well of water, and he said to his young men, 'Abide ye here with the ass, and I and the
5 lad shall go (yonder), and when we have worshipped we shall come again to you.' And he took the wood of the burnt-offering and laid it on Isaac his son, and he took in his hand the fire and the
6 knife, and they went both of them together to that place. And Isaac said to his father, 'Father;' and he said, 'Here am I, my son.' And he said unto him, 'Behold the fire, and the knife, and the
7 wood; but where is the sheep for the burnt-offering, father?' And he said, 'God will provide for himself a sheep for a burnt-offering, my son.' And he drew near to the place of the mount of
8 God. And he built an altar, and he placed the wood on the altar, and bound Isaac his son, and placed him on the wood which was upon the altar, and stretched forth his hand to take the knife
9 to slay Isaac his son. And I stood before him, and before the prince Mastema, and the Lord said, 'Bid him not to lay his hand on the lad, nor to do anything to him, for I have shown that he fears
10 the Lord.' And I called to him from heaven, and said unto him: 'Abraham, Abraham;' and he
11 was terrified and said: 'Behold, (here) am I.' And I said unto him: 'Lay not thy hand upon the lad, neither do thou anything to him; for now I have shown that thou fearest the Lord, and hast
12 not withheld thy son, thy first-born son, from me.' And the prince Mastema was put to shame; and Abraham lifted up his eyes and looked, and, behold a ram caught . . . by his horns, and Abraham
13 went and took the ram and offered it for a burnt-offering in the stead of his son. And Abraham called that place 'The Lord hath seen', so that it is said the Lord hath seen: that is
14 Mount Sion. And the Lord called Abraham by his name a second time from heaven, as he caused
15 us to appear to speak to him in the name of the Lord. And he said: 'By Myself have I sworn, saith the Lord,

Because thou hast done this thing,
And hast not withheld thy son, thy beloved son, from Me,
That in blessing I will bless thee,

And in multiplying I will multiply thy seed
As the stars of heaven, And as the sand which is on the seashore.

And thy seed shall inherit the cities of its enemies,
16 And in thy seed shall all nations of the earth be blessed;

Because thou hast obeyed My voice,
And I have shown to all that thou art faithful unto Me in all that I have said unto thee:
Go in peace.'

17 And Abraham went to his young men, and they arose and went together to Beersheba, and Abraham [2010 A.M.]

18 dwelt by the Well of the Oath. And he celebrated this festival every year, seven days with joy, and he called it the festival of the Lord according to the seven days during which he went and
19 returned in peace. And accordingly has it been ordained and written on the heavenly tablets regarding Israel and its seed that they should observe this festival seven days with the joy of festival.

[Chapter 19]


1 And in the first year of the first week in the forty-second jubilee, Abraham returned and dwelt
2 opposite Hebron, that is Kirjath Arba, two weeks of years. And in the first year of the third week
3 of this jubilee the days of the life of Sarah were accomplished, and she died in Hebron. And Abraham went to mourn over her and bury her, and we tried him [to see] if his spirit were patient and he were not indignant in the words of his mouth; and he was found patient in this, and was not
4 disturbed. For in patience of spirit he conversed with the children of Heth, to the intent that they
5 should give him a place in which to bury his dead. And the Lord gave him grace before all who saw him, and he besought in gentleness the sons of Heth, and they gave him the land of the double
6 cave over against Mamre, that is Hebron, for four hundred pieces of silver. And they besought him saying, We shall give it to thee for nothing; but he would not take it from their hands for nothing, for he gave the price of the place, the money in full, and he bowed down before them twice, and after
7 this he buried his dead in the double cave. And all the days of the life of Sarah were one hundred and twenty-seven years, that is, two jubilees and four weeks and one year: these are the days of the
8 years of the life of Sarah. This is the tenth trial wherewith Abraham was tried, and he was found
9 faithful, patient in spirit. And he said not a single word regarding the rumour in the land how that God had said that He would give it to him and to his seed after him, and he begged a place there to bury his dead; for he was found faithful, and was recorded on the heavenly tablets as the friend of
10 God. And in the fourth year thereof he took a wife for his son Isaac and her name was Rebecca [2020 A.M.] [the daughter of Bethuel, the son of Nahor, the brother of Abraham] the sister of Laban and daughter of Bethuel; and Bethuel was the son of Melca, who was the wife of Nahor, the brother of Abraham.
11 And Abraham took to himself a third wife, and her name was Keturah, from among the daughters of his household servants, for Hagar had died before Sarah. And she bare him six sons, Zimram,
12 and Jokshan, and Medan, and Midian, and Ishbak, and Shuah, in the two weeks of years. And in
13 the sixth week, in the second year thereof, Rebecca bare to Isaac two sons, Jacob and Esau, and [2046 A.M.] Jacob was a smooth and upright man, and Esau was fierce, a man of the field, and hairy, and Jacob
14 dwelt in tents. And the youths grew, and Jacob learned to write; but Esau did not learn, for he
15 was a man of the field and a hunter, and he learnt war, and all his deeds were fierce. And Abraham
16 loved Jacob, but Isaac loved Esau. And Abraham saw the deeds of Esau, and he knew that in Jacob should his name and seed be called; and he called Rebecca and gave commandment regarding
17 Jacob, for he knew that she (too) loved Jacob much more than Esau. And he said unto her:

My daughter, watch over my son Jacob,
For he shall be in my stead on the earth,
And for a blessing in the midst of the children of men,
And for the glory of the whole seed of Shem.

18 For I know that the Lord will choose him to be a people for possession unto Himself, above all
19 peoples that are upon the face of the earth. And behold, Isaac my son loves Esau more than Jacob, but I see that thou truly lovest Jacob.

20 Add still further to thy kindness to him,
And let thine eyes be upon him in love;
For he shall be a blessing unto us on the earth from henceforth unto all generations of the earth.

21 Let thy hands be strong
And let thy heart rejoice in thy son Jacob;
For I have loved him far beyond all my sons.

He shall be blessed for ever,
And his seed shall fill the whole earth.

22 If a man can number the sand of the earth,
His seed also shall be numbered.

23 And all the blessings wherewith the Lord hath blessed me and my seed shall belong to Jacob and
24 his seed alway. And in his seed shall my name be blessed, and the name of my fathers, Shem, and
25 Noab, and Enoch, and Mahalalel, and Enos, and Seth, and Adam. And these shall serve

To lay the foundations of the heaven,
And to strengthen the earth,
And to renew all the luminaries which are in the firmament.

26 And he called Jacob before the eyes of Rebecca his mother, and kissed him, and blessed him, and
27 said: 'Jacob, my beloved son, whom my soul loveth, may God bless thee from above the firmament, and may He give thee all the blessings wherewith He blessed Adam, and Enoch, and Noah, and Shem; and all the things of which He told me, and all the things which He promised to give me, may he cause to cleave to thee and to thy seed for ever, according to the days of heaven above the
28 earth. And the Spirits of Mastema shall not rule over thee or over thy seed to turn thee from the
29 Lord, who is thy God from henceforth for ever. And may the Lord God be a father to thee and
30 thou the first-born son, and to the people alway. Go in peace, my son.' And they both went forth
31 together from Abraham. And Rebecca loved Jacob, with all her heart and with all her soul, very much more than Esau; but Isaac loved Esau much more than Jacob.

[Chapter 20]


1 And in the forty-second jubilee, in the first year of the seventh week, Abraham called Ishmael, [2052 (2045?) A.M.]

2 and his twelve sons, and Isaac and his two sons, and the six sons of Keturah, and their sons. And he commanded them that they should observe the way of the Lord; that they should work righteousness, and love each his neighbour, and act on this manner amongst all men; that they should each
3 so walk with regard to them as to do judgment and righteousness on the earth. That they should circumcise their sons, according to the covenant which He had made with them, and not deviate to the right hand or the left of all the paths which the Lord had commanded us; and that we should keep ourselves from all fornication and uncleanness, [and renounce from amongst us all fornication and
4 uncleanness]. And if any woman or maid commit fornication amongst you, burn her with fire and let them not commit fornication with her after their eyes and their heart; and let them not take to themselves wives from the daughters of Canaan; for the seed of Canaan will be rooted out of
5 the land. And he told them of the judgment of the giants, and the judgment of the Sodomites, how they had been judged on account of their wickedness, and had died on account of their fornication, and uncleanness, and mutual corruption through fornication.

6 'And guard yourselves from all fornication and uncleanness,
And from all pollution of sin,

Lest ye make our name a curse,
And your whole life a hissing,

And all your sons to be destroyed by the sword,
And ye become accursed like Sodom,
And all your remnant as the sons of Gomorrah.

7 I implore you, my sons, love the God of heaven
And cleave ye to all His commandments.

And walk not after their idols, and after their uncleannesses,
8 And make not for yourselves molten or graven gods;

For they are vanity,
And there is no spirit in them;

For they are work of (men's) hands,
And all who trust in them, trust in nothing.

9 Serve them not, nor worship them,
But serve ye the most high God, and worship Him continually:
And hope for His countenance always,
And work uprightness and righteousness before Him,

That He may have pleasure in you and grant you His mercy,
And send rain upon you morning and evening,

And bless all your works which ye have wrought upon the earth,
And bless thy bread and thy water,

And bless the fruit of thy womb and the fruit of thy land,
And the herds of thy cattle, and the flocks of thy sheep.

10 And ye will be for a blessing on the earth,
And all nations of the earth will desire you,

And bless your sons in my name,
That they may be blessed as I am.

11 And he gave to Ishmael and to his sons, and to the sons of Keturah, gifts, and sent them away
12 from Isaac his son, and he gave everything to Isaac his son. And Ishmael and his sons, and the sons of Keturah and their sons, went together and dwelt from Paran to the entering in of Babylon in
13 all the land which is towards the East facing the desert. And these mingled with each other, and their name was called Arabs, and Ishmaelites.

[Chapter 21]


1 And in the sixth year of the seventh week of this jubilee Abraham called Isaac his son, and [2057 (2050?) A.M.] commanded him: saying, 'I am become old, and know not the day of my death, and am full of my
2 days. And behold, I am one hundred and seventy-five years old, and throughout all the days of my life I have remembered the Lord, and sought with all my heart to do His will, and to walk uprightly
3 in all His ways. My soul has hated idols,
4 given my heart and spirit> that I might observe to do the will of Him who created me. For He is the living God, and He is holy and faithful, and He is righteous beyond all, and there is with Him no accepting of (men's) persons and no accepting of gifts; for God is righteous, and executeth judg-
5 ment on all those who transgress His commandments and despise His covenant. And do thou, my son, observe His commandments and His ordinances and His judgments, and walk not after the
6 abominations and after the graven images and after the molten images. And eat no blood at all of
7 animals or cattle, or of any bird which flies in the heaven. And if thou dost slay a victim as an acceptable peace offering, slay ye it, and pour out its blood upon the altar, and all the fat of the offering offer on the altar with fine flour and the meat offering mingled with oil, with its drink offering -offer them all together on the altar of burnt offering; it is a sweet savour before the Lord.
8 And thou wilt offer the fat of the sacrifice of thank offerings on the fire which is upon the altar, and the fat which is on the belly, and all the fat on the inwards and the two kidneys, and all the fat that
9 is upon them, and upon the loins and liver thou shalt remove, together with the kidneys. And offer all these for a sweet savour acceptable before the Lord, with its meat-offering and with its drink-
10 offering, for a sweet savour, the bread of the offering unto the Lord. And eat its meat on that day and on the second day, and let not the sun on the second day go down upon it till it is eaten, and let nothing be left over for the third day; for it is not acceptable [for it is not approved] and let it no longer be eaten, and all who eat thereof will bring sin upon themselves; for thus I have found it written in the books of my forefathers, and in the words of Enoch, and in the words of Noah.
11 And on all thy oblations thou shalt strew salt, and let not the salt of the covenant be lacking in all
12 thy oblations before the Lord. And as regards the wood of the sacrifices, beware lest thou bring (other) wood for the altar in addition to these: cypress, bay, almond, fir, pine, cedar, savin, fig, olive,
13 myrrh, laurel, aspalathus. And of these kinds of wood lay upon the altar under the sacrifice, such as have been tested as to their appearance, and do not lay (thereon) any split or dark wood, (but) hard and clean, without fault, a sound and new growth; and do not lay (thereon) old wood, [for its
14 fragrance is gone] for there is no longer fragrance in it as before. Besides these kinds of wood there is none other that thou shalt place (on the altar), for the fragrance is dispersed, and the smell of its
15 fragrance goes not up to heaven. Observe this commandment and do it, my son, that thou mayst
16 be upright in all thy deeds. And at all times be clean in thy body, and wash thyself with water before thou approachest to offer on the altar, and wash thy hands and thy feet before thou drawest
17 near to the altar; and when thou art done sacrificing, wash again thy hands and thy feet. And let no blood appear upon you nor upon your clothes; be on thy guard, my son, against blood, be on thy
18 guard exceedingly; cover it with dust. And do not eat any blood for it is the soul; eat no blood whatever. And take no gifts for the blood of man, lest it be shed with impunity, without judgment; for it is the blood that is shed that causes the earth to sin, and the earth cannot be cleansed from the
20 blood of man save by the blood of him who shed it. And take no present or gift for the blood of man: blood for blood, that thou mayest be accepted before the Lord, the Most High God; for He is the defence of the good: and that thou mayest be preserved from all evil, and that He may save thee from every kind of death.

21 I see, my son,
That all the works of the children of men are sin and wickedness,
And all their deeds are uncleanness and an abomination and a pollution,
And there is no righteousness with them.

22 Beware, lest thou shouldest walk in their ways
And tread in their paths,
And sin a sin unto death before the Most High God.

Else He will [hide His face from thee
And] give thee back into the hands of thy transgression,
And root thee out of the land, and thy seed likewise from under heaven,
And thy name and thy seed shall perish from the whole earth.

23 Turn away from all their deeds and all their uncleanness,
And observe the ordinance of the Most High God,
And do His will and be upright in all things.

24 And He will bless thee in all thy deeds,
And will raise up from thee a plant of righteousness through all the earth, throughout all generations of the earth,
And my name and thy name shall not be forgotten under heaven for ever.

25 Go, my son in peace.
May the Most High God, my God and thy God, strengthen thee to do His will,
And may He bless all thy seed and the residue of thy seed for the generations for ever, with all righteous blessings,
That thou mayest be a blessing on all the earth.'

26 And he went out from him rejoicing.

[Chapter 22]


1 And it came to pass in the first week in the forty-fourth jubilee, in the second year, that is, the year in which Abraham died, that Isaac and Ishmael came from the Well of the Oath to celebrate the feast of weeks -that is, the feast of the first fruits of the harvest-to Abraham, their
2 father, and Abraham rejoiced because his two sons had come. For Isaac had many possessions in
3 Beersheba, and Isaac was wont to go and see his possessions and to return to his father. And in those days Ishmael came to see his father, and they both came together, and Isaac offered a sacrifice
4 for a burnt offering, and presented it on the altar of his father which he had made in Hebron. And he offered a thank offering and made a feast of joy before Ishmael, his brother: and Rebecca made new cakes from the new grain, and gave them to Jacob, her son, to take them to Abraham, his father, from the first fruits of the land, that he might eat and bless the Creator of all things before he died.
5 And Isaac, too, sent by the hand of Jacob to Abraham a best thank offering, that he might eat and
6 drink. And he eat and drank, and blessed the Most High God,
Who hath created heaven and earth,
Who hath made all the fat things of the earth,
And given them to the children of men
That they might eat and drink and bless their Creator.

7 'And now I give thanks unto Thee, my God, because thou hast caused me to see this day: behold, I am one hundred three score and fifteen years, an old man and full of days, and all my days have
8 been unto me peace. The sword of the adversary has not overcome me in all that Thou hast given
9 me and my children all the days of my life until this day. My God, may Thy mercy and Thy peace be upon Thy servant, and upon the seed of his sons, that they may be to Thee a chosen nation and an inheritance from amongst all the nations of the earth from henceforth unto all the days of the
10 generations of the earth, unto all the ages.' And he called Jacob and said: 'My son Jacob, may the God of all bless thee and strengthen thee to do righteousness, and His will before Him, and may He choose thee and thy seed that ye may become a people for His inheritance according to His will
11 alway. And do thou, my son, Jacob, draw near and kiss me.' And he drew near and kissed him, and he said:

'Blessed be my son Jacob
And all the sons of God Most High, unto all the ages:

May God give unto thee a seed of righteousness;
And some of thy sons may He sanctify in the midst of the whole earth;

May nations serve thee,
And all the nations bow themselves before thy seed.

12 Be strong in the presence of men,
And exercise authority over all the seed of Seth.

Then thy ways and the ways of thy sons will be justified,
So that they shall become a holy nation.

13 May the Most High God give thee all the blessings
Wherewith He has blessed me

And wherewith He blessed Noah and Adam;
May they rest on the sacred head of thy seed from generation to generation for ever.

14 And may He cleanse thee from all unrighteousness and impurity,
That thou mayest be forgiven all the transgressions; which thou hast committed ignorantly.

And may He strengthen thee,
And bless thee.
And mayest thou inherit the whole earth,

15 And may He renew His covenant with thee.
That thou mayest be to Him a nation for His inheritance for all the ages,
And that He may be to thee and to thy seed a God in truth and righteousness throughout all the days of the earth.

16 And do thou, my son Jacob, remember my words,
And observe the commandments of Abraham, thy father:

Separate thyself from the nations,
And eat not with them:

And do not according to their works,
And become not their associate;

For their works are unclean,
And all their ways are a Pollution and an abomination and uncleanness.

17 They offer their sacrifices to the dead
And they worship evil spirits,

And they eat over the graves,
And all their works are vanity and nothingness.

18 They have no heart to understand
And their eyes do not see what their works are,

And how they err in saying to a piece of wood: 'Thou art my God,'
And to a stone: 'Thou art my Lord and thou art my deliverer.'
[And they have no heart.]


19 And as for thee, my son Jacob,
May the Most High God help thee
And the God of heaven bless thee
And remove thee from their uncleanness and from all their error.

20 Be thou ware, my son Jacob, of taking a wife from any seed of the daughters of Canaan;
For all his seed is to be rooted out of the earth.

21 For, owing to the transgression of Ham, Canaan erred,
And all his seed shall be destroyed from off the earth and all the residue thereof,
And none springing from him shall be saved on the day of judgment.

22 And as for all the worshippers of idols and the profane
(b) There shall be no hope for them in the land of the living;
(c) And there shall be no remembrance of them on the earth;
(c) For they shall descend into Sheol,
(d) And into the place of condemnation shall they go,

As the children of Sodom were taken away from the earth
So will all those who worship idols be taken away.

23 Fear not, my son Jacob,
And be not dismayed, O son of Abraham:

May the Most High God preserve thee from destruction,
And from all the paths of error may he deliver thee.

24 This house have I built for myself that I might put my name upon it in the earth: [it is given to thee and to thy seed for ever], and it will be named the house of Abraham; it is given to thee and to thy seed for ever; for thou wilt build my house and establish my name before God for ever: thy seed and thy name will stand throughout all generations of the earth.'
25,26 And he ceased commanding him and blessing him. And the two lay together on one bed, and Jacob slept in the bosom of Abraham, his father's father and he kissed him seven times, and his
27 affection and his heart rejoiced over him. And he blessed him with all his heart and said: 'The Most High God, the God of all, and Creator of all, who brought me forth from Ur of the Chaldees that he might give me this land to inherit it for ever, and that I might establish a holy seed-blessed
28 be the Most High for ever.' And he blessed Jacob and said: 'My son, over whom with all my heart and my affection I rejoice, may Thy grace and Thy mercy be lift up upon him and upon his seed
29 alway. And do not forsake him, nor set him at nought from henceforth unto the days of eternity, and may Thine eyes be opened upon him and upon his seed, that Thou mayst preserve him, and
30 bless him, and mayest sanctify him as a nation for Thine inheritance; And bless him with all Thy blessings from henceforth unto all the days of eternity, and renew Thy covenant and Thy grace with him and with his seed according to all Thy good pleasure unto all the generations of the earth.'

[Chapter 23]


1 And he placed two fingers of Jacob on his eyes, and he blessed the God of gods, and he covered his face and stretched out his feet and slept the sleep of eternity, and was gathered to his fathers.
2 And notwithstanding all this Jacob was lying in his bosom, and knew not that Abraham, his father's
3 father, was dead. And Jacob awoke from his sleep, and behold Abraham was cold as ice, and he
4 said 'Father, father'; but there was none that spake, and he knew that he was dead. And he arose from his bosom and ran and told Rebecca, his mother; and Rebecca went to Isaac in the night, and told him; and they went together, and Jacob with them, and a lamp was in his hand, and
5 when they had gone in they found Abraham lying dead. And Isaac fell on the face of his father
6 and wept and kissed him. And the voices were heard in the house of Abraham, and Ishmael his son arose, and went to Abraham his father, and wept over Abraham his father, he and all the house
7 of Abraham, and they wept with a great weeping. And his sons Isaac and Ishmael buried him in the double cave, near Sarah his wife, and they wept for him forty days, all the men of his house, and Isaac and Ishmael, and all their sons, and all the sons of Keturah in their places; and the days of
8 weeping for Abraham were ended. And he lived three jubilees and four weeks of years, one hundred
9 and seventy-five years, and completed the days of his life, being old and full of days. For the days of the forefathers, of their life, were nineteen jubilees; and after the Flood they began to grow less than nineteen jubilees, and to decrease in jubilees, and to grow old quickly, and to be full of their days by reason of manifold tribulation and the wickedness of their ways, with the exception of
10 Abraham. For Abraham was perfect in all his deeds with the Lord, and well-pleasing in righteousness all the days of his life; and behold, he did not complete four jubilees in his life, when he had
11 grown old by reason of the wickedness, and was full of his days. And all the generations which shall arise from this time until the day of the great judgment shall grow old quickly, before they complete two jubilees, and their knowledge shall forsake them by reason of their old age Land all their know-
12 ledge shall vanish away]. And in those days, if a man live a jubilee and a-half of years, they shall say regarding him: 'He has lived long, and the greater part of his days are pain and sorrow and
13 tribulation, and there is no peace: For calamity follows on calamity, and wound on wound, and tribulation on tribulation, and evil tidings on evil tidings, and illness on illness, and all evil judgments such as these, one with another, illness and overthrow, and snow and frost and ice, and fever, and chills, and torpor, and famine, and death, and sword, and captivity, and all kinds of calamities and
14 pains.' And all these shall come on an evil generation, which transgresses on the earth: their works
15 are uncleanness and fornication, and pollution and abominations. Then they shall say: 'The days of the forefathers were many (even), unto a thousand years, and were good; but behold, the days of our life, if a man has lived many, are three score years and ten, and, if he is strong, four score years,
16 and those evil, and there is no peace in the days of this evil generation.' And in that generation the sons shall convict their fathers and their elders of sin and unrighteousness, and of the words of their mouth and the great wickednesses which they perpetrate, and concerning their forsaking the covenant which the Lord made between them and Him, that they should observe and do all His commandments and His ordinances and all His laws, without departing either to the right hand or the left.
17 For all have done evil, and every mouth speaks iniquity and all their works are an uncleanness and
18 an abomination, and all their ways are pollution, uncleanness and destruction. Behold the earth shall be destroyed on account of all their works, and there shall be no seed of the vine, and no oil; for their works are altogether faithless, and they shall all perish together, beasts and cattle and birds, and
19 all the fish of the sea, on account of the children of men. And they shall strive one with another, the young with the old, and the old with the young, the poor with the rich, the lowly with the great, and the beggar with the prince, on account of the law and the covenant; for they have forgotten commandment, and covenant, and feasts, and months, and Sabbaths, and jubilees, and all judgments.
20 And they shall stand swords and war to turn them back into the way; but they shall
21 not return until much blood has been shed on the earth, one by another. And those who have escaped shall not return from their wickedness to the way of righteousness, but they shall all exalt themselves to deceit and wealth, that they may each take all that is his neighbour's, and they shall name the great name, but not in truth and not in righteousness, and they shall defile the holy of
22 holies with their uncleanness and the corruption of their pollution. And a great punishment shall befall the deeds of this generation from the Lord, and He will give them over to the sword and to
23 judgment and to captivity, and to be plundered and devoured. And He will wake up against them the sinners of the Gentiles, who have neither mercy nor compassion, and who shall respect the person of none, neither old nor young, nor any one, for they are more wicked and strong to do evil than all the children of men.

And they shall use violence against Israel and transgression against Jacob,
And much blood shall be shed upon the earth,
And there shall be none to gather and none to bury.

24 In those days they shall cry aloud,
And call and pray that they may be saved from the hand of the sinners, the Gentiles;
But none shall be saved.

25 And the heads of the children shall be white with grey hair,
And a child of three weeks shall appear old like a man of one hundred years,
And their stature shall be destroyed by tribulation and oppression.

26 And in those days the children shall begin to study the laws,
And to seek the commandments,
And to return to the path of righteousness.

27 And the days shall begin to grow many and increase amongst those children of men
Till their days draw nigh to one thousand years.
And to a greater number of years than (before) was the number of the days.

28 And there shall be no old man
Nor one who is satisfied with his days,
For all shall be (as) children and youths.

29 And all their days they shall complete and live in peace and in joy,
And there shall be no Satan nor any evil destroyer;
For all their days shall be days of blessing and healing.

30 And at that time the Lord will heal His servants,
And they shall rise up and see great peace,
And drive out their adversaries.

And the righteous shall see and be thankful,
And rejoice with joy for ever and ever,
And shall see all their judgments and all their curses on their enemies.

31 And their bones shall rest in the earth,
And their spirits shall have much joy,
And they shall know that it is the Lord who executes judgment,
And shows mercy to hundreds and thousands and to all that love Him

32 And do thou, Moses, write down these words; for thus are they written, and they record (them) on the heavenly tablets for a testimony for the generations for ever.

[Chapter 24]


1 And it came to pass after the death of Abraham, that the Lord blessed Isaac his son, and he arose from Hebron and went and dwelt at the Well of the Vision in the first year of the third week [2073 A.M.]

2 of this jubilee, seven years. And in the first year of the fourth week a famine began in the land, [2080 A.M.]

3 besides the first famine, which had been in the days of Abraham. And Jacob sod lentil pottage, and Esau came from the field hungry. And he said to Jacob his brother: 'Give me of this red pottage.' And Jacob said to him: 'Sell to me thy [primogeniture, this] birthright and I will give
4 thee bread, and also some of this lentil pottage.' And Esau said in his heart: 'I shall die; of
5 what profit to me is this birthright? 'And he said to Jacob: 'I give it to thee.' And Jacob said:
6 'Swear to me, this day,' and he sware unto him. And Jacob gave his brother Esau bread and pottage, and he eat till he was satisfied, and Esau despised his birthright; for this reason was Esau's name
7 called Edom, on account of the red pottage which Jacob gave him for his birthright. And Jacob became
8 the elder, and Esau was brought down from his dignity. And the famine was over the land, and Isaac departed to go down into Egypt in the second year of this week, and went to the king of the Philis-
9 tines to Gerar, unto Abimelech. And the Lord appeared unto him and said unto him: 'Go not down into Egypt; dwell in the land that I shall tell thee of, and sojourn in this land, and I will
10 be with thee and bless thee. For to thee and to thy seed will I give all this land, and I will establish My oath which I sware unto Abraham thy father, and I will multiply thy seed as the
11 stars of heaven, and will give unto thy seed all this land. And in thy seed shall all the nations of the earth be blessed, because thy father obeyed My voice, and kept My charge and My commandments, and My laws, and My ordinances, and My covenant; and now obey My voice and dwell in
12,13 this land.' And he dwelt in Gelar three weeks of years. And Abimelech charged concerning him, [2080-2101 A.M.] and concerning all that was his, saying: 'Any man that shall touch him or aught that is his shall
14 surely die.' And Isaac waxed strong among the Philistines, and he got many possessions, oxen
15 and sheep and camels and asses and a great household. And he sowed in the land of the Philistines and brought in a hundred-fold, and Isaac became exceedingly great, and the Philistines envied him.
16 Now all the wells which the servants of Abraham had dug during the life of Abraham, the Philistines
17 had stopped them after the death of Abraham, and filled them with earth. And Abimelech said unto Isaac: 'Go from us, for thou art much mightier than we', and Isaac departed thence in
18 the first year of the seventh week, and sojourned in the valleys of Gerar. And they digged again the wells of water which the servants of Abraham, his father, had digged, and which the Philistines had closed after the death of Abraham his father, and he called their names as Abraham his father
19 had named them. And the servants of Isaac dug a well in the valley, and found living water, and the shepherds of Gerar strove with the shepherds of Isaac, saying: 'The water is ours'; and Isaac
20 called the name of the well 'Perversity', because they had been perverse with us. And they dug a second well, and they strove for that also, and he called its name 'Enmity'. And he arose from thence and they digged another well, and for that they strove not, and he called the name of it 'Room', and Isaac said: 'Now the Lord hath made room for us, and we have increased in the
21 land.' And he went up from thence to the Well of the Oath in the first year of the first week in the [2108 A.M.]

22 forty-fourth jubilee. And the Lord appeared to him that night, on the new moon of the first month, and said unto him: 'I am the God of Abraham thy father; fear not, for I am with thee, and shall bless thee and shall surely multiply thy seed as the sand of the earth, for the sake of Abraham my
23 servant.' And he built an altar there, which Abraham his father had first built, and he called upon
24 the name of the Lord, and he offered sacrifice to the God of Abraham his father. And they digged
25 a well and they found living water. And the servants of Isaac digged another well and did not find water, and they went and told Isaac that they had not found water, and Isaac said: 'I have sworn
26 this day to the Philistines and this thing has been announced to us.' And he called the name of that place the Well of the Oath; for there he had sworn to Abimelech and Ahuzzath his friend and
27 Phicol the prefect Or his host. And Isaac knew that day that under constraint he had sworn to them
28 to make peace with them. And Isaac on that day cursed the Philistines and said: 'Cursed be the Philistines unto the day of wrath and indignation from the midst of all nations; may God make them a derision and a curse and an object of wrath and indignation in the hands of the sinners the
29 Gentiles and in the hands of the Kittim. And whoever escapes the sword of the enemy and the Kittim, may the righteous nation root out in judgment from under heaven; for they shall be the enemies and foes of my children throughout their generations upon the earth.

30 And no remnant shall be left to them,
Nor one that shall be saved on the day of the wrath of judgment;
For destruction and rooting out and expulsion from the earth is the whole seed of the Philistines (reserved),
And there shall no longer be left for these Caphtorim a name or a seed on the earth.

31 For though he ascend unto heaven,
Thence shall he be brought down,

And though he make himself strong on earth,
Thence shall he be dragged forth,

And though he hide himself amongst the nations,
Even from thence shall he be rooted out;

And though he descend into Sheol,
There also shall his condemnation be great,
And there also he shall have no peace.
32 And if he go into captivity,
By the hands of those that seek his life shall they slay him on the way,
And neither name nor seed shall be left to him on all the earth;
For into eternal malediction shall he depart.'

33 And thus is it written and engraved concerning him on the heavenly tablets, to do unto him on the day of judgment, so that he may be rooted out of the earth.

[Chapter 25]


1 And in the second year of this week in this jubilee, Rebecca called Jacob her son, and spake unto [2109 A.M.] him, saying: 'My son, do not take thee a wife of the daughters of Canaan, as Esau, thy brother, who took him two wives of the daughters of Canaan, and they have embittered my soul with all their unclean deeds: for all their deeds are fornication and lust, and there is no righteousness with them,
2 for (their deeds) are evil. And I, my son, love thee exceedingly, and my heart and my affection
3 bless thee every hour of the day and watch of the night. And now, my son, hearken to my voice, and do the will of thy mother, and do not take thee a wife of the daughters of this land, but only of the house of my father, and of my father's kindred. Thou shalt take thee a wife of the house of my father, and the Most High God will bless thee, and thy children shall be a righteous generation and
4 a holy seed.' And then spake Jacob to Rebecca, his mother, and said unto her: 'Behold, mother, I am nine weeks of years old, and I neither know nor have I touched any woman, nor have I betrothed
5 myself to any, nor even think of taking me a wife of the daughters of Canaan. For I remember, mother, the words of Abraham, our father, for he commanded me not to take a wife of the daughters
6 of Canaan, but to take me a wife from the seed of my father's house and from my kindred. I have heard before that daughters have been born to Laban, thy brother, and I have set my heart on them
7 to take a wife from amongst them. And for this reason I have guarded myself in my spirit against sinning or being corrupted in all my ways throughout all the days of my life; for with regard to lust
8 and fornication, Abraham, my father, gave me many commands. And, despite all that he has commanded me, these two and twenty years my brother has striven with me, and spoken frequently to me and said: 'My brother, take to wife a sister of my two wives'; but I refuse to do as he has done.
9 I swear before thee, mother, that all the days of my life I will not take me a wife from the daughters
10 of the seed of Canaan, and I will not act wickedly as my brother has done. Fear not, mother; be
11 assured that I shall do thy will and walk in uprightness, and not corrupt my ways for ever.' And thereupon she lifted up her face to heaven and extended the fingers of her hands, and opened her mouth and blessed the Most High God, who had created the heaven and the earth, and she gave Him
12 thanks and praise. And she said: 'Blessed be the Lord God, and may His holy name be blessed for ever and ever, who has given me Jacob as a pure son and a holy seed; for he is Thine, and Thine
13 shall his seed be continually and throughout all the generations for evermore. Bless him, O Lord,
14 and place in my mouth the blessing of righteousness, that I may bless him.' And at that hour, when the spirit of righteousness descended into her mouth, she placed both her hands on the head of Jacob, and said:

15 Blessed art thou, Lord of righteousness and God of the ages
And may He bless thee beyond all the generations of men.

May He give thee, my Son, the path of righteousness,
And reveal righteousness to thy seed.

16 And may He make thy sons many during thy life,
And may they arise according to the number of the months of the year.
And may their sons become many and great beyond the stars of heaven,
And their numbers be more than the sand of the sea.

17 And may He give them this goodly land -as He said He would give it to Abraham and to his seed after him alway-
And may they hold it as a possession for ever.

18 And may I see (born) unto thee, my son, blessed children during my life,
And a blessed and holy seed may all thy seed be.

19 And as thou hast refreshed thy mother's spirit during her life,
The womb of her that bare thee blesses thee thus,

[My affection] and my breasts bless thee
And my mouth and my tongue praise thee greatly.

20 Increase and spread over the earth,
And may thy seed be perfect in the joy of heaven and earth for ever;

And may thy seed rejoice,
And on the great day of peace may it have peace.

21 And may thy name and thy seed endure to all the ages,
And may the Most High God be their God,

And may the God of righteousness dwell with them,
And by them may His sanctuary be built unto all the ages.

22 Blessed be he that blesseth thee,
And all flesh that curseth thee falsely, may it be cursed.'

23 And she kissed him, and said to him;
'May the Lord of the world love thee
As the heart of thy mother and her affection rejoice in thee and bless thee.'
And she ceased from blessing.

[Chapter 26]


1 And in the seventh year of this week Isaac called Esau, his elder Son, and said unto him: ' I am [2114 A.M.]

2 old, my son, and behold my eyes are dim in seeing, and I know not the day of my death. And now take thy hunting weapons thy quiver and thy bow, and go out to the field, and hunt and catch me (venison), my son, and make me savoury meat, such as my soul loveth, and bring it to me that I may
3 eat, and that my soul may bless thee before I die.' But Rebecca heard Isaac speaking to Esau.
4,5 And Esau went forth early to the field to hunt and catch and bring home to his father. And Rebecca called Jacob, her son, and said unto him: 'Behold, I heard Isaac, thy father, speak unto Esau, thy brother, saying: "Hunt for me, and make me savoury meat, and bring (it) to me that
6 I may eat and bless thee before the Lord before I die." And now, my son, obey my voice in that which I command thee: Go to thy flock and fetch me two good kids of the goats, and I will make them savoury meat for thy father, such as he loves, and thou shalt bring (it) to thy father that he
7 may eat and bless thee before the Lord before he die, and that thou mayst be blessed.' And Jacob said to Rebecca his mother: 'Mother, I shall not withhold anything which my father would eat, and which would please him: only I fear, my mother, that he will recognise my voice and wish to touch
8 me. And thou knowest that I am smooth, and Esau, my brother, is hairy, and I shall appear before his eyes as an evildoer, and shall do a deed which he had not commanded me, and he will be
9 wroth with me, and I shall bring upon myself a curse, and not a blessing.' And Rebecca, his
10 mother, said unto him: 'Upon me be thy curse, my son, only obey my voice.' And Jacob obeyed the voice of Rebecca, his mother, and went and fetched two good and fat kids of the goats, and
11 brought them to his mother, and his mother made them ~savoury meat~ such as he loved. And Rebecca took the goodly rainment of Esau, her elder son, which was with her in the house, and she clothed Jacob, her younger son, (with them), and she put the skins of the kids upon his hands and on
12 the exposed parts of his neck. And she gave the meat and the bread which she had prepared into
13 the hand of her son Jacob. And Jacob went in to his father and said: 'I am thy son: I have done according as thou badest me: arise and sit and eat of that which I have caught, father, that thy soul
14,15 may bless me.' And Isaac said to his son: 'How hast thou found so quickly, my son? 'And Jacob
16 said: 'Because (the Lord thy God caused me to find.' And Isaac said unto him: Come near, that
17 I may feel thee, my son, if thou art my son Esau or not.' And Jacob went near to Isaac, his father,
18 and he felt him and said: 'The voice is Jacob's voice, but the hands are the hands of Esau,' and he discerned him not, because it was a dispensation from heaven to remove his power of perception and
19 Isaac discerned not, for his hands were hairy as his brother Esau's, so that he blessed him. And he said: 'Art thou my son Esau? ' and he said: 'I am thy son': and he said, 'Bring near to me that
20 I may eat of that which thou hast caught, my son, that my soul may bless thee.' And he brought
21 near to him, and he did eat, and he brought him wine and he drank. And Isaac, his father, said unto
22 him: 'Come near and kiss me, my son. And he came near and kissed him. And he smelled the smell of his raiment, and he blessed him and said: 'Behold, the smell of my son is as the smell of a (full) field which the Lord hath blessed.

23 And may the Lord give thee of the dew of heaven
And of the dew of the earth, and plenty of corn and oil:

Let nations serve thee,
And peoples bow down to thee.

24 Be lord over thy brethren,
And let thy mother's sons bow down to thee;

And may all the blessings wherewith the Lord hath blessed me and blessed Abraham, my father;
Be imparted to thee and to thy seed for ever:

Cursed be he that curseth thee,
And blessed be he that blesseth thee.'

25 And it came to pass as soon as Isaac had made an end of blessing his son Jacob, and Jacob had gone
26 forth from Isaac his father he hid himself and Esau, his brother, came in from his hunting. And he also made savoury meat, and brought (it) to his father, and said unto his father: 'Let my father
27 arise, and eat of my venison that thy soul may bless me.' And Isaac, his father, said unto him: 'Who art thou? 'And he said unto him: 'I am thy first born, thy son Esau: I have done as thou hast
28 commanded me.' And Isaac was very greatly astonished, and said: 'Who is he that hath hunted and caught and brought (it) to me, and I have eaten of all before thou camest, and have blessed him:
29 (and) he shall be blessed, and all his seed for ever.' And it came to pass when Esau heard the words of his father Isaac that he cried with an exceeding great and bitter cry, and said unto his father:
30 'Bless me, (even) me also, father.' And he said unto him: 'Thy brother came with guile, and hath taken away thy blessing.' And he said: 'Now I know why his name is named Jacob: behold, he hath supplanted me these two times: he took away my birth-right, and now he hath taken away
31 my blessing.' And he said: 'Hast thou not reserved a blessing for me, father?' and Isaac answered and said unto Esau:
31 'Behold, I have made him thy lord,
And all his brethren have I given to him for servants,
And with plenty of corn and wine and oil have I strengthened him:
And what now shall I do for thee, my son?'
32 And Esau said to Isaac, his father:
'Hast thou but one blessing, O father?
Bless me, (even) me also, father: '
33 And Esau lifted up his voice and wept.
And Isaac answered and said unto him:
'Behold, far from the dew of the earth shall be thy dwelling,
And far from the dew of heaven from above.

34 And by thy sword wilt thou live,
And thou wilt serve thy brother.

And it shall come to pass when thou becomest great,
And dost shake his yoke from off thy neck,
Thou shalt sin a complete sin unto death,
And thy seed shall be rooted out from under heaven.'

35 And Esau kept threatening Jacob because of the blessing wherewith his father blessed him, and he: said in his heart: 'May the days of mourning for my father now come, so that I may slay my brother Jacob.'

[Chapter 27]


1 And the words of Esau, her elder son, were told to Rebecca in a dream, and Rebecca sent and
2 called Jacob her younger son, and said unto him: 'Behold Esau thy brother will take vengeance on
3 thee so as to kill thee. Now, therefore, my son, obey my voice, and arise and flee thou to Laban, my brother, to Haran, and tarry with him a few days until thy brother's anger turns away, and he remove his anger from thee, and forget all that thou hast done; then I will send and fetch thee from
4,5 thence.' And Jacob said: 'I am not afraid; if he wishes to kill me, I will kill him.' But she said
6 unto him: 'Let me not be bereft of both my sons on one day.' And Jacob said to Rebecca his mother: 'Behold, thou knowest that my father has become old, and does not see because his eyes are dull, and if I leave him it will be evil in his eyes, because I leave him and go away from you, and my father will be angry, and will curse me. I will not go; when he sends me, then only will I go.'
7,8 And Rebecca said to Jacob: 'I will go in and speak to him, and he will send thee away.' And Rebecca went in and said to Isaac: 'I loathe my life because of the two daughters of Heth, whom Esau has taken him as wives; and if Jacob take a wife from among the daughters of the land such
9 as these, for what purpose do I further live, for the daughters of Canaan are evil.' And Isaac called
10 Jacob and blessed him, and admonished him and said unto him: 'Do not take thee a wife of any of the daughters of Canaan; arise and go to Mesopotamia, to the house of Bethuel, thy mother's father,
11 and take thee a wife from thence of the daughters of Laban, thy mother's brother. And God Almighty bless thee and increase and multiply thee that thou mayest become a company of nations, and give thee the blessings of my father Abraham, to thee and to thy seed after thee, that thou mayest inherit the land of thy sojournings and all the land which God gave to Abraham: go, my
12 son, in peace.' And Isaac sent Jacob away, and he went to Mesopotamia, to Laban the son of
13 Bethuel the Syrian, the brother of Rebecca, Jacob's mother. And it came to pass after Jacob had
14 arisen to go to Mesopotamia that the spirit of Rebecca was grieved after her son, and she wept. And Isaac said to Rebecca: 'My sister, weep not on account of Jacob, my son; for he goeth in peace, and
15 in peace will he return. The Most High God will preserve him from all evil, and will be with him;
16 for He will not forsake him all his days; For I know that his ways will be prospered in all things
17 wherever he goes, until he return in peace to us, and we see him in peace. Fear not on his account, my sister, for he is on the upright path and he is a perfect man: and he is faithful and will not perish.
18,19 Weep not.' And Isaac comforted Rebecca on account of her son Jacob, and blessed him. And Jacob went from the Well of the Oath to go to Haran on the first year of the second week in the forty-fourth jubilee, and he came to Luz on the mountains, that is, Bethel, on the new moon of the first month of this week, [2115 A.M.] and he came to the place at even and turned from the way to the west of the
20 road that night: and he slept there; for the sun had set. And he took one of the stones of that
21 place and laid under the tree, and he was journeying alone, and he slept. And he dreamt that night, and behold a ladder set up on the earth, and the top of it reached to heaven, and behold, the angels of the Lord ascended and descended on it: and behold, the Lord stood upon it.
22 And he spake to Jacob and said: 'I am the Lord God of Abraham, thy father, and the God of
23 Isaac; the land whereon thou art sleeping, to thee will I give it, and to thy seed after thee. And thy seed shall be as the dust of the earth, and thou shalt increase to the west and to the east, to the
24 north and the south, and in thee and in thy seed shall all the families of the nations be blessed. And behold, I will be with thee, and will keep thee whithersoever thou goest, and I will bring thee again into this land in peace; for I will not leave thee until I do everything that I told thee of.'
25 And Jacob awoke from his sleep, and said, 'Truly this place is the house of the Lord, and I knew it not.' And he was afraid and said: 'Dreadful is this place which is none other than the house of
26 God, and this is the gate of heaven.' And Jacob arose early in the morning, and took the stone which he had put under his head and set it up as a pillar for a sign, and he poured oil upon the top of it. And he called the name of that place Bethel; but the name of the place was Luz at the first.
27 And Jacob vowed a vow unto the Lord, saying: 'If the Lord will be with me, and will keep me in this way that I go, and give me bread to eat and raiment to put on, so that I come again to my father's house in peace, then shall the Lord be my God, and this stone which I have set up as a pillar for a sign in this place, shall be the Lord's house, and of all that thou givest me, I shall give the tenth to thee, my God.'

[Chapter 28]


1 And he went on his journey, and came to the land of the east, to Laban, the brother of Rebecca,
2 and he was with him, and served him for Rachel his daughter one week. And in the first year of the third week [2122 A.M.] he said unto him: 'Give me my wife, for whom I have served thee seven years '; and
3 Laban said unto Jacob: 'I will give thee thy wife.' And Laban made a feast, and took Leah his elder daughter, and gave (her) to Jacob as a wife, and gave her Zilpah his handmaid for an hand-
4 maid; and Jacob did not know, for he thought that she was Rachel. And he went in unto her, and behold, she was Leah; and Jacob was angry with Laban, and said unto him: 'Why hast thou dealt thus with me? Did not I serve thee for Rachel and not for Leah? Why hast thou wronged me?
5 Take thy daughter, and I will go; for thou hast done evil to me.' For Jacob loved Rachel more than Leah; for Leah's eyes were weak, but her form was very handsome; but Rachel had beautiful
6 eyes and a beautiful and very handsome form. And Laban said to Jacob: 'It is not so done in our country, to give the younger before the elder.' And it is not right to do this; for thus it is ordained and written in the heavenly tablets, that no one should give his younger daughter before the elder; but the elder, one gives first and after her the younger -and the man who does so, they set down guilt against him in heaven, and none is righteous that does this thing, for this deed is evil before the
7 Lord. And command thou the children of Israel that they do not this thing; let them neither take
8 nor give the younger before they have given the elder, for it is very wicked. And Laban said to Jacob: 'Let the seven days of the feast of this one pass by, and I shall give thee Rachel, that thou mayst serve me another seven years, that thou mayst pasture my sheep as thou didst in the former week.' And on the day when the seven days of the feast of Leah had passed, Laban gave Rachel to Jacob, that he might serve him another seven years, and he gave to Rachel Bilhah, the sister of
10 Zilpah, as a handmaid. And he served yet other seven years for Rachel, for Leah had been given
11 to him for nothing. And the Lord opened the womb of Leah, and she conceived and bare Jacob a son, and he called his name Reuben, on the fourteenth day of the ninth month, in the first year of
12 the third week. [2122 A.M.] But the womb of Rachel was closed, for the Lord saw that Leah was hated and
13 Rachel loved. And again Jacob went in unto Leah, and she conceived, and bare Jacob a second son, and he called his name Simeon, on the twenty-first of the tenth month, and in the third year of this
14 week. [2124 A.M.] And again Jacob went in unto Leah, and she conceived, and bare him a third son, and he
15 called his name Levi, in the new moon of the first month in the sixth year of this week. [2127 A.M.] And again Jacob went in unto her, and she conceived, and bare him a fourth son, and he called his name Judah,
16 on the fifteenth of the third month, in the first year of the fourth week. [2129 A.M.] And on account of all this Rachel envied Leah, for she did not bear, and she said to Jacob: 'Give me children'; and Jacob
17 said: 'Have I withheld from thee the fruits of thy womb? Have I forsaken thee?' And when Rachel saw that Leah had borne four sons to Jacob, Reuben and Simeon and Levi and Judah, she said unto
18 him: 'Go in unto Bilhah my handmaid, and she will conceive, and bear a son unto me.' (And she gave (him) Bilhah her handmaid to wife). And he went in unto her, and she conceived, and bare him a son, and he called his name Dan, on the ninth of the sixth month, in the sixth year of the
19 third week. [2127 A.M.] And Jacob went in again unto Bilhah a second time, and she conceived, and bare Jacob another son, and Rachel called his name Napthali, on the fifth of the seventh month, in the
20 second year of the fourth week. [2130 A.M.] And when Leah saw that she had become sterile and did not bear, she envied Rachel, and she also gave her handmaid Zilpah to Jacob to wife, and she conceived, and bare a son, and Leah called his name Gad, on the twelfth of the eighth month, in the third year of
21 the fourth week. [2131 A.M.] And he went in again unto her, and she conceived, and bare him a second son, and Leah called his name Asher, on the second of the eleventh month, in the fifth year of the fourth
22 week. [2133 A.M.] And Jacob went in unto Leah, and she conceived, and bare a son, and she called his name Issachar, on the fourth of the fifth month, in the fourth year of the fourth week,[2132 A.M.] and she gave him
23 to a nurse. And Jacob went in again unto her, and she conceived, and bare two (children), a son and a daughter, and she called the name of the son Zabulon, and the name of the daughter Dinah,
24 in the seventh of the seventh month, in the sixth year of the fourth week. [2134 A.M.] And the Lord was gracious to Rachel, and opened her womb, and she conceived, and bare a son, and she called his
25 name Joseph, on the new moon of the fourth month, in the sixth year in this fourth week. [2134 A.M.] And in the days when Joseph was born, Jacob said to Laban: 'Give me my wives and sons, and let me go to my father Isaac, and let me make me an house; for I have completed the years in which I
26 have served thee for thy two daughters, and I will go to the house of my father.' And Laban said to Jacob: 'Tarry with me for thy wages, and pasture my flock for me again, and take thy wages.'
27 And they agreed with one another that he should give him as his wages those of the lambs and kids
28 which were born black and spotted and white, (these) were to be his wages. And all the sheep brought forth spotted and speckled and black, variously marked, and they brought forth again lambs like themselves, and all that were spotted were Jacob's and those which were not were
29 Laban's. And Jacob's possessions multiplied exceedingly, and he possessed oxen and sheep and
30 asses and camels, and menservants and maid-servants. And Laban and his sons envied Jacob, and Laban took back his sheep from him, and he observed him with evil intent.

[Chapter 29]


1 And it came to pass when Rachel had borne Joseph, that Laban went to shear his sheep; for they
2 were distant from him a three days' journey. And Jacob saw that Laban was going to shear his sheep, and Jacob called Leah and Rachel, and spake kindly unto them that they should come with
3 him to the land of Canaan. For he told them how he had seen everything in a dream, even all that He had spoken unto him that he should return to his father's house, and they said: 'To every place
4 whither thou goest we will go with thee.' And Jacob blessed the God of Isaac his father, and the God of Abraham his father's father, and he arose and mounted his wives and his children, and took all his possessions and crossed the river, and came to the land of Gilead, and Jacob hid his intention
5 from Laban and told him not. And in the seventh year of the fourth week Jacob turned (his face) toward Gilead in the first month, on the twenty-first thereof. [2135 A.M.] And Laban pursued after him and
6 overtook Jacob in the mountain of Gilead in the third month, on the thirteenth thereof. And the Lord did not suffer him to injure Jacob; for he appeared to him in a dream by night. And Laban
7 spake to Jacob. And on the fifteenth of those days Jacob made a feast for Laban, and for all who came with him, and Jacob sware to Laban that day, and Laban also to Jacob, that neither should
8 cross the mountain of Gilead to the other with evil purpose. And he made there a heap for
9 a witness; wherefore the name of that place is called: 'The Heap of Witness,' after this heap. But before they used to call the land of Gilead the land of the Rephaim; for it was the land of the Rephaim, and the Rephaim were born (there), giants whose height was ten, nine, eight down to
10 seven cubits. And their habitation was from the land of the children of Ammon to Mount Hermon,
11 and the seats of their kingdom were Karnaim and Ashtaroth, and Edrei, and Misur, and Beon. And the Lord destroyed them because of the evil of their deeds; for they were very malignant, and the Amorites dwelt in their stead, wicked and sinful, and there is no people to-day which has wrought
12 to the full all their sins, and they have no longer length of life on the earth. And Jacob sent away Laban, and he departed into Mesopotamia, the land of the East, and Jacob returned to the land of
13 Gilead. And he passed over the Jabbok in the ninth month, on the eleventh thereof. And on that day Esau, his brother, came to him, and he was reconciled to him, and departed from him unto
14 the land of Seir, but Jacob dwelt in tents. And in the first year of the fifth week in this jubilee [2136 A.M.] he crossed the Jordan, and dwelt beyond the Jordan, and he pastured his sheep from the sea of the
15 heap unto Bethshan, and unto Dothan and unto the forest of Akrabbim. And he sent to his father Isaac of all his substance, clothing, and food, and meat, and drink, and milk, and butter, and
16 cheese, and some dates of the valley. And to his mother Rebecca also four times a year, between the times of the months, between ploughing and reaping, and between autumn and the rain (season)
17 and between winter and spring, to the tower of Abraham. For Isaac had returned from the Well of the Oath and gone up to the tower of his father Abraham, and he dwelt there apart from his son
18 Esau. For in the days when Jacob went to Mesopotamia, Esau took to himself a wife Mahalath, the daughter of Ishmael, and he gathered together all the flocks of his father and his wives, and went
19 Up and dwelt on Mount Seir, and left Isaac his father at the Well of the Oath alone. And Isaac went up from the Well of the Oath and dwelt in the tower of Abraham his father on the mountains
20 of Hebron, And thither Jacob sent all that he did send to his father and his mother from time to time, all they needed, and they blessed Jacob with all their heart and with all their soul.

[Chapter 30]


1 And in the first year of the sixth week [2143 A.M.] he went up to Salem, to the east of Shechem, in peace, in
2 the fourth month. And there they carried off Dinah, the daughter of Jacob, into the house of Shechem, the son of Hamor, the Hivite, the prince of the land, and he lay with her and defiled her,
3 and she was a little girl, a child of twelve years. And he besought his father and her brothers that she might be given to him to wife. And Jacob and his sons were wroth because of the men of Shechem; for they had defiled Dinah, their sister, and they spake to them with evil intent and dealt
4 deceitfully with them and beguiled them. And Simeon and Levi came unexpectedly to Shechem and executed judgment on all the men of Shechem, and slew all the men whom they found in it, and left not a single one remaining in it: they slew all in torments because they had dishonoured
5 their sister Dinah. And thus let it not again be done from henceforth that a daughter of Israel be defiled; for judgment is ordained in heaven against them that they should destroy with the sword
6 all the men of the Shechemites because they had wrought shame in Israel. And the Lord delivered them into the hands of the sons of Jacob that they might exterminate them with the sword and execute judgment upon them, and that it might not thus again be done in Israel that a virgin of
7 Israel should be defiled. And if there is any man who wishes in Israel to give his daughter or his sister to any man who is of the seed of the Gentiles he shall surely die, and they shall stone him with stones; for he hath wrought shame in Israel; and they shall burn the woman with fire, because
8 she has dishonoured the name of the house of her father, and she shall be rooted out of Israel. And let not an adulteress and no uncleanness be found in Israel throughout all the days of the generations of the earth; for Israel is holy unto the Lord, and every man who has defiled (it) shall surely die:
9 they shall stone him with stones. For thus has it been ordained and written in the heavenly tablets regarding all the seed of Israel: he who defileth (it) shall surely die, and he shall be stoned with
10 stones. And to this law there is no limit of days, and no remission, nor any atonement: but the man who has defiled his daughter shall be rooted out in the midst of all Israel, because he has given
11 of his seed to Moloch, and wrought impiously so as to defile it. And do thou, Moses, command the children of Israel and exhort them not to give their daughters to the Gentiles, and not to take for
12 their sons any of the daughters of the Gentiles, for this is abominable before the Lord. For this reason I have written for thee in the words of the Law all the deeds of the Shechemites, which they wrought against Dinah, and how the sons of Jacob spake, saying: 'We will not give our daughter
13 to a man who is uncircumcised; for that were a reproach unto us.' And it is a reproach to Israel, to those who live, and to those that take the daughters of the Gentiles; for this is unclean and
14 abominable to Israel. And Israel will not be free from this uncleanness if it has a wife of the daughters of the Gentiles, or has given any of its daughters to a man who is of any of the Gentiles.
15 For there will be plague upon plague, and curse upon curse, and every judgment and plague and curse will come : if he do this thing, or hide his eyes from those who commit uncleanness, or those who defile the sanctuary of the Lord, or those who profane His holy name, (then) will the
16 whole nation together be judged for all the uncleanness and profanation of this man. And there will be no respect of persons [and no consideration of persons] and no receiving at his hands of fruits and offerings and burnt-offerings and fat, nor the fragrance of sweet savour, so as to accept it: and
17 so fare every man or woman in Israel who defiles the sanctuary. For this reason I have commanded thee, saying: 'Testify this testimony to Israel: see how the Shechemites fared and their sons: how they were delivered into the hands of two sons of Jacob, and they slew them under tortures, and it
18 was (reckoned) unto them for righteousness, and it is written down to them for righteousness. And the seed of Levi was chosen for the priesthood, and to be Levites, that they might minister before the Lord, as we, continually, and that Levi and his sons may be blessed for ever; for he was zealous
19 to execute righteousness and judgment and vengeance on all those who arose against Israel. And so they inscribe as a testimony in his favour on the heavenly tablets blessing and righteousness before
20 the God of all: And we remember the righteousness which the man fulfilled during his life, at all periods of the year; until a thousand generations they will record it, and it will come to him and to his descendants after him, and he has been recorded on the heavenly tablets as a friend and a righteous
21 man. All this account I have written for thee, and have commanded thee to say to the children of Israel, that they should not commit sin nor transgress the ordinances nor break the covenant which
22 has been ordained for them, (but) that they should fulfil it and be recorded as friends. But if they transgress and work uncleanness in every way, they will be recorded on the heavenly tablets as adversaries, and they will be destroyed out of the book of life, and they will be recorded in the book of
23 those who will be destroyed and with those who will be rooted out of the earth. And on the day when the sons of Jacob slew Shechem a writing was recorded in their favour in heaven that they had executed righteousness and uprightness and vengeance on the sinners, and it was written for a blessing.
24 And they brought Dinah, their sister, out of the house of Shechem, and they took captive everything that was in Shechem, their sheep and their oxen and their asses, and all their wealth, and all their
25 flocks, and brought them all to Jacob their father. And he reproached them because they had put the city to the sword for he feared those who dwelt in the land, the Canaanites and the Perizzites.
26 And the dread of the Lord was upon all the cities which are around about Shechem, and they did not rise to pursue after the sons of Jacob; for terror had fallen upon them.

[Chapter 31]


1 And on the new moon of the month Jacob spake to all the people of his house. saying: 'Purify yourselves and change your garments, and let us arise and go up to Bethel, where I vowed a vow to Him on the day when I fled from the face of Esau my brother, because he has been with me and
2 brought me into this land in peace, and put ye away the strange gods that arc among you.' And they gave up the strange gods and that which was in their ears and which was on their necks and the idols which Rachel stole from Laban her father she gave wholly to Jacob. And he burnt and brake them to pieces and destroyed them, and hid them under an oak which is in the land of
3 Shechem. And he went up on the new moon of the seventh month to Bethel. And he built an altar at the place where he had slept, and he set up a pillar there, and he sent word to his father
4 Isaac to come to him to his sacrifice, and to his mother Rebecca. And Isaac said: 'Let my son
5 Jacob come, and let me see him before I die.' And Jacob went to his father Isaac and to his mother Rebecca, to the house of his father Abraham, and he took two of his sons with him, Levi and Judah, and he came to his father Isaac and to his mother Rebecca.
6 And Rebecca came forth from the tower to the front of it to kiss Jacob and embrace him; for her spirit had revived when she heard: 'Behold Jacob thy son has come'; and she kissed
7 him. And she saw his two sons, and she recognised them, and said unto him: 'Are these thy sons, my son?' and she embraced them and kissed them, and blessed them, saying: 'In you shall the
8 seed of Abraham become illustrious, and ye shall prove a blessing on the earth.' And Jacob went in to Isaac his father, to the chamber where he lay, and his two sons were with him, and he took the hand of his father, and stooping down he kissed him, and Isaac clung to the neck of Jacob his son,
9 and wept upon his neck. And the darkness left the eyes of Isaac, and he saw the two sons of Jacob,
10 Levi, and Judah, and he said: 'Are these thy sons, my son? for they are like thee.' And he said unto him that they were truly his sons: 'And thou hast truly seen that they are truly my sons'.
11 And they came near to him, and he turned and kissed them and embraced them both together.
12 And the spirit of prophecy came down into his mouth, and he took Levi by his right hand and
13 Judah by his left. And he turned to Levi first, and began to bless him first, and said unto him:
May the God of all, the very Lord of all the ages, bless thee and thy children throughout all the
14 ages. And may the Lord give to thee and to thy seed greatness and great glory, and cause thee and thy seed, from among all flesh, to approach Him to serve in His sanctuary as the angels of the presence and as the holy ones. (Even) as they, shall the seed of thy sons be for glory and greatness
15 and holiness, and may He make them great unto all the ages. And they shall be judges and princes, and chiefs of all the seed of the sons of Jacob;

They shall speak the word of the Lord in righteousness,
And they shall judge all His judgments in righteousness.

And they shall declare My ways to Jacob
And My paths to Israel.

The blessing of the Lord shall be given in their mouths
To bless all the seed of the beloved.

16 Thy mother has called thy name Levi,
And justly has she called thy name;

Thou shalt be joined to the Lord
And be the companion of all the sons of Jacob;

Let His table be thine,
And do thou and thy sons eat thereof;

And may thy table be full unto all generations,
And thy food fail not unto all the ages.

17 And let all who hate thee fall down before thee,
And let all thy adversaries be rooted out and perish;

And blessed be he that blesses thee,
And cursed be every nation that curses thee.'

18 And to Judah he said:
'May the Lord give thee strength and power

To tread down all that hate thee;
A prince shalt thou be, thou and one of thy sons, over the sons of Jacob;

May thy name and the name of thy sons go forth and traverse every land and region.
Then shall the Gentiles fear before thy face,

And all the nations shall quake
[And all the peoples shall quake].

In thee shall be the help of Jacob,
And in thee be found the salvation of Israel.

20 And when thou sittest on the throne of honour of thy righteousness
There shall be great peace for all the seed of the sons of the beloved;

Blessed be he that blesseth thee,
And all that hate thee and afflict thee and curse thee
Shall be rooted out and destroyed from the earth and be accursed.'

21 And turning he kissed him again and embraced him, and rejoiced greatly; for he had seen the
22 sons of Jacob his son in very truth. And he went forth from between his feet and fell down and bowed down to him, and he blessed them and rested there with Isaac his father that night, and they
23 eat and drank with joy. And he made the two sons of Jacob sleep, the one on his right hand and the
24 other on his left, and it was counted to him for righteousness. And Jacob told his father everything during the night, how the Lord had shown him great mercy, and how he had prospered (him in) all
25 his ways, and protected him from all evil. And Isaac blessed the God of his father Abraham, who
26 had not withdrawn his mercy and his righteousness from the sons of his servant Isaac. And in the morning Jacob told his father Isaac the vow which he had vowed to the Lord, and the vision which he had seen, and that he had built an altar, and that everything was ready for the sacrifice to be
27 made before the Lord as he had vowed, and that he had come to set him on an ass. And Isaac said unto Jacob his son: 'I am not able to go with thee; for I am old and not able to bear the way: go, my son, in peace; for I am one hundred and sixty-five years this day; I am no longer able to
28 journey; set thy mother (on an ass) and let her go with thee. And I know, my son, that thou hast come on my account, and may this day be blessed on which thou hast seen me alive, and I also have
29 seen thee, my son. Mayest thou prosper and fulfil the vow which thou hast vowed; and put not off thy vow; for thou shalt be called to account as touching the vow; now therefore make haste to perform it, and may He be pleased who has made all things, to whom thou hast vowed the vow.'
30 And he said to Rebecca: 'Go with Jacob thy son'; and Rebecca went with Jacob her son, and
31 Deborah with her, and they came to Bethel. And Jacob remembered the prayer with which his father had blessed him and his two sons, Levi and Judah, and he rejoiced and blessed the God of his
32 fathers, Abraham and Isaac. And he said: 'Now I know that I have an eternal hope, and my sons also, before the God of all'; and thus is it ordained concerning the two; and they record it as an eternal testimony unto them on the heavenly tablets how Isaac blessed them.

[Chapter 32]


1 And he abode that night at Bethel, and Levi dreamed that they had ordained and made him the priest of the Most High God, him and his sons for ever; and he awoke from his sleep and blessed
2 the Lord. And Jacob rose early in the morning, on the fourteenth of this month, and he gave a tithe of all that came with him, both of men and cattle, both of gold and every vessel and garment,
3 yea, he gave tithes of all. And in those days Rachel became pregnant with her son Benjamin. And Jacob counted his sons from him upwards and Levi fell to the portion of the Lord, and his
4 father clothed him in the garments of the priesthood and filled his hands. And on the fifteenth of this month, he brought to the altar fourteen oxen from amongst the cattle, and twenty-eight rams, and forty-nine sheep, and seven lambs, and twenty-one kids of the goats as a burnt-offering on the
5 altar of sacrifice, well pleasing for a sweet savour before God. This was his offering, in consequence of the vow which he had vowed that he would give a tenth, with their fruit-offerings and their drink-
6 offerings. And when the fire had consumed it, he burnt incense on the fire over the fire, and for a thank-offering two oxen and four rams and four sheep, four he-goats, and two sheep of a year old,
7 and two kids of the goats; and thus he did daily for seven days. And he and all his sons and his men were eating (this) with joy there during seven days and blessing and thanking the Lord, who
8 had delivered him out of all his tribulation and had given him his vow. And he tithed all the clean animals, and made a burnt sacrifice, but the unclean animals he gave (not) to Levi his son, and he
9 gave him all the souls of the men And Levi discharged the priestly office at Bethel before Jacob his father in preference to his ten brothers, and he was a priest there, and Jacob gave his vow: thus
10 he tithed again the tithe to the Lord and sanctified it, and it became holy unto Him. And for this reason it is ordained on the heavenly tablets as a law for the tithing again the tithe to eat before the Lord from year to year, in the place where it is chosen that His name should dwell, and to this law
11 there is no limit of days for ever. This ordinance is written that it may be fulfilled from year to year in eating the second tithe before the Lord in the place where it has been chosen, and nothing
12 shall remain over from it from this year to the year following. For in its year shall the seed be eaten till the days of the gathering of the seed of the year, and the wine till the days of the wine,
13 and the oil till the days of its season. And all that is left thereof and becomes old, let it be regarded
14 as polluted: let it be burnt with fire, for it is unclean. And thus let them eat it together in the
15 sanctuary, and let them not suffer it to become old. And all the tithes of the oxen and sheep shall be holy unto the Lord, and shall belong to his priests, which they will eat before Him from year to
16 year; for thus is it ordained and engraven regarding the tithe on the heavenly tablets. And on the following night, on the twenty-second day of this month, Jacob resolved to build that place, and to surround the court with a wall, and to sanctify it and make it holy for ever, for himself and his children
17 after him. And the Lord appeared to him by night and blessed him and said unto him: 'Thy name
18 shall not be called Jacob, but Israel shall they name thy name.' And He said unto him again: 'I am the Lord who created the heaven and the earth, and I will increase thee and multiply thee exceedingly, and kings shall come forth from thee, and they shall judge everywhere wherever the foot
19 of the sons of men has trodden. And I will give to thy seed all the earth which is under heaven, and they shall judge all the nations according to their desires, and after that they shall get possession
20 of the whole earth and inherit it for ever.' And He finished speaking with him, and He went up
21 from him. and Jacob looked till He had ascended into heaven. And he saw in a vision of the night, and behold an angel descended from heaven with seven tablets in his hands, and he gave them to Jacob, and he read them and knew all that was written therein which would befall him and his sons
21 throughout all the ages. And he showed him all that was written on the tablets, and said unto him: 'Do not build this place, and do not make it an eternal sanctuary, and do not dwell here; for this is not the place. Go to the house of Abraham thy father and dwell with Isaac thy father until the day
23 of the death of thy father. For in Egypt thou shalt die in peace, and in this land thou shalt be buried
24 with honour in the sepulchre of thy fathers, with Abraham and Isaac. Fear not, for as thou hast seen and read it, thus shall it all be; and do thou write down everything as thou hast seen and read.'
25 And Jacob said: 'Lord, how can I remember all that I have read and seen? 'And he said unto
26 him: 'I will bring all things to thy remembrance.' And he went up from him, and he awoke from his sleep, and he remembered everything which he had read and seen, and he wrote down all the
27 words which he had read and seen. And he celebrated there yet another day, and he sacrificed thereon according to all that he sacrificed on the former days, and called its name 'Addition,' for
28 this day was added and the former days he called 'The Feast '. And thus it was manifested that it should be, and it is written on the heavenly tablets: wherefore it was revealed to him that he should
29 celebrate it, and add it to the seven days of the feast. And its name was called 'Addition,' because that it was recorded amongst the days of the feast days, according to the number of
30 the days of the year. And in the night, on the twenty-third of this month, Deborah Rebecca's nurse died, and they buried her beneath the city under the oak of the river, and he called the name of this
31 place, 'The river of Deborah,' and the oak, 'The oak of the mourning of Deborah.' And Rebecca went and returned to her house to his father Isaac, and Jacob sent by her hand rams and sheep and
32 he-goats that she should prepare a meal for his father such as he desired. And he went after his
33 mother till he came to the land of Kabratan, and he dwelt there. And Rachel bare a son in the night, and called his name 'Son of my sorrow '; for she suffered in giving him birth: but his father called his name Benjamin, on the eleventh of the eighth month in the first of the sixth week of this
34 jubilee. [2143 A.M.] And Rachel died there and she was buried in the land of Ephrath, the same is Bethlehem, and Jacob built a pillar on the grave of Rachel, on the road above her grave.

[Chapter 33]


1 And Jacob went and dwelt to the south of Magdaladra'ef. And he went to his father Isaac, he
2 and Leah his wife, on the new moon of the tenth month. And Reuben saw Bilhah, Rachel's maid,
3 the concubine of his father, bathing in water in a secret place, and he loved her. And he hid himself at night, and he entered the house of Bilhah [at night], and he found her sleeping alone on a bed in
4 her house. And he lay with her, and she awoke and saw, and behold Reuben was lying with her in the bed, and she uncovered the border of her covering and seized him, and cried out, and discovered
5 that it was Reuben. And she was ashamed because of him, and released her hand from him, and he
6,7 fled. And she lamented because of this thing exceedingly, and did not tell it to any one. And when Jacob returned and sought her, she said unto him: 'I am not clean for thee, for I have been defiled as regards thee; for Reuben has defiled me, and has lain with me in the night, and I was
8 asleep, and did not discover until he uncovered my skirt and slept with me.' And Jacob was exceedingly wroth with Reuben because he had lain with Bilhah, because he had uncovered his
9 father's skirt. And Jacob did not approach her again because Reuben had defiled her. And as for any man who uncovers his father's skirt his deed is wicked exceedingly, for he is abominable before
10 the Lord. For this reason it is written and ordained on the heavenly tablets that a man should not lie with his father's wife, and should not uncover his father's skirt, for this is unclean: they shall surely die together, the man who lies with his father's wife and the woman also, for they have
11 wrought uncleanness on the earth. And there shall be nothing unclean before our God in the nation
12 which He has chosen for Himself as a possession. And again, it is written a second time: 'Cursed be he who lieth with the wife of his father, for he hath uncovered his father's shame'; and all the
13 holy ones of the Lord said 'So be it; so be it.' And do thou, Moses, command the children of Israel that they observe this word; for it (entails) a punishment of death; and it is unclean, and there is no atonement for ever to atone for the man who has committed this, but he is to be put to death and slain, and stoned with stones, and rooted out from the midst of the people of our God.
14 For to no man who does so in Israel is it permitted to remain alive a single day on the earth, for he
15 is abominable and unclean. And let them not say: to Reuben was granted life and forgiveness after he had lain with his father's concubine, and to her also though she had a husband, and her husband
16 Jacob, his father, was still alive. For until that time there had not been revealed the ordinance and judgment and law in its completeness for all, but in thy days (it has been revealed) as a law of
17 seasons and of days, and an everlasting law for the everlasting generations. And for this law there is no consummation of days, and no atonement for it, but they must both be rooted out in the midst
18 of the nation: on the day whereon they committed it they shall slay them. And do thou, Moses, write (it) down for Israel that they may observe it, and do according to these words, and not commit a sin unto death; for the Lord our God is judge, who respects not persons and accepts not gifts. And tell them these words of the covenant, that they may hear and observe, and be on their guard with respect to them, and not be destroyed and rooted out of the land; for an uncleanness, and an abomination, and a contamination, and a pollution are all they who commit it on the earth before
20 our God. And there is no greater sin than the fornication which they commit on earth; for Israel is a holy nation unto the Lord its God, and a nation of inheritance, and a priestly and royal nation and for (His own) possession; and there shall no such uncleanness appear in the midst of the holy
21 nation. And in the third year of this sixth week [2145 A.M.] Jacob and all his sons went and dwelt in the house
22 of Abraham, near Isaac his father and Rebecca his mother. And these were the names of the sons of Jacob: the first-born Reuben, Simeon, Levi, Judah, Issachar, Zebulon, the sons of Leah; and the sons of Rachel, Joseph and Benjamin; and the sons of Bilhah, Dan and Naphtali; and the sons of Zilpah, Gad and Asher; and Dinah, the daughter of Leah, the only daughter of Jacob. And they
23 came and bowed themselves to Isaac and Rebecca, and when they saw them they blessed Jacob and all his sons, and Isaac rejoiced exceedingly, for he saw the sons of Jacob, his younger son and he blessed them.

[Chapter 34]


1 And in the sixth year of this week of this forty-fourth jubilee [2148 A.M.] Jacob sent his sons to pasture their
2 sheep, and his servants with them to the pastures of Shechem. And the seven kings of the Amorites assembled themselves together against them, to slay them, hiding themselves under the trees, and
3 to take their cattle as a prey. And Jacob and Levi and Judah and Joseph were in the house with Isaac their father; for his spirit was sorrowful, and they could not leave him: and Benjamin was
4 the youngest, and for this reason remained with his father. And there came the king[s] of Taphu and the king[s] of 'Aresa, and the king[s] of Seragan, and the king[s] of Selo, and the king[s] of Ga'as, and the king of Bethoron, and the king of Ma'anisakir, and all those who dwell in these
5 mountains (and) who dwell in the woods in the land of Canaan. And they announced this to Jacob saying: 'Behold, the kings of the Amorites have surrounded thy sons, and plundered their herds.'
6 And he arose from his house, he and his three sons and all the servants of his father, and his own
7 servants, and he went against them with six thousand men, who carried swords. And he slew them in the pastures of Shechem, and pursued those who fled, and he slew them with the edge of the sword, and he slew 'Aresa and Taphu and Saregan and Selo and 'Amani-
8 sakir and Ga[ga]'as, and he recovered his herds. And he prevailed over them, and imposed tribute on them that they should pay him tribute, five fruit products of their land, and he built Robel
9 and Tamnatares. And he returned in peace, and made peace with them, and they became his
10 servants, until the day that he and his sons went down into Egypt. And in the seventh year of this week [2149 A.M.] he sent Joseph to learn about the welfare of his brothers from his house to the land of Shechem,
11 and he found them in the land of Dothan. And they dealt treacherously with him, and formed a plot against him to slay him, but changing their minds, they sold him to Ishmaelite merchants, and they brought him down into Egypt, and they sold him to Potiphar, the eunuch of Pharaoh, the
12 chief of the cooks, priest of the city of 'Elew. And the sons of Jacob slaughtered a kid, and dipped the coat of Joseph in the blood, and sent (it) to Jacob their father on the tenth of the seventh month.
13 And he mourned all that night, for they had brought it to him in the evening, and he became feverish with mourning for his death, and he said: 'An evil beast hath devoured Joseph'; and all the members of his house [mourned with him that day, and they] were grieving and mourning with
14 him all that day. And his sons and his daughter rose up to comfort him, but he refused to be
15 comforted for his son. And on that day Bilhah heard that Joseph had perished, and she died mourning him, and she was living in Qafratef, and Dinah also, his daughter, died after Joseph had
16 perished. And there came these three mournings upon Israel in one month. And they buried
17 Bilhah over against the tomb of Rachel, and Dinah also. his daughter, they buried there. And he mourned for Joseph one year, and did not cease, for he said 'Let me go down to the grave mourning
18 for my son'. For this reason it is ordained for the children of Israel that they should afflict themselves on the tenth of the seventh month -on the day that the news which made him weep for Joseph came to Jacob his father- that they should make atonement for themselves thereon with a young goat on the tenth of the seventh month, once a year, for their sins; for they had grieved the
19 affection of their father regarding Joseph his son. And this day has been ordained that they should grieve thereon for their sins, and for all their transgressions and for all their errors, so that they
20 might cleanse themselves on that day once a year. And after Joseph perished, the sons of Jacob took unto themselves wives. The name of Reuben's wife is 'Ada; and the name of Simeon's wife is 'Adlba'a, a Canaanite; and the name of Levi's wife is Melka, of the daughters of Aram, of the seed of the sons of Terah; and the name of Judah's wife, Betasu'el, a Canaanite; and the name of Issachar's wife, Hezaqa: and the name of Zabulon's wife, Ni'iman; and the name of Dan's wife, 'Egla; and the name of Naphtali's wife, Rasu'u, of Mesopotamia; and the name of Gad's wife, Maka; and the name of Asher's wife, 'Ijona; and the name of Joseph's wife, Asenath, the Egyptian; and the name
21 of Benjamin's wife, 'Ijasaka. And Simeon repented, and took a second wife from Mesopotamia as his brothers.

[Chapter 35]


1 And in the first year of the first week of the forty-fifth jubilee [2157 A.M.] Rebecca called Jacob, her son, and commanded him regarding his father and regarding his brother, that he should honour them all the
2 days of his life. And Jacob said: 'I will do everything as thou hast commanded me; for this thing will be honour and greatness to me, and righteousness before the Lord, that I should honour them.
3 And thou too, mother, knowest from the time I was born until this day, all my deeds and all that is in
4 my heart, that I always think good concerning all. And how should I not do this thing which thou
5 hast commanded me, that I should honour my father and my brother! Tell me, mother, what
6 perversity hast thou seen in me and I shall turn away from it, and mercy will be upon me.' And she said unto him: 'My son, I have not seen in thee all my days any perverse but (only) upright deeds. And yet I will tell thee the truth, my son: I shall die this year, and I shall not survive this year in my life; for I have seen in a dream the day of my death, that I should not live beyond a hundred and fifty-five years: and behold I have completed all the days of my life which I am to
7 live.' And Jacob laughed at the words of his mother. because his mother had said unto him that she should die; and she was sitting opposite to him in possession of her strength, and she was not infirm in her strength; for she went in and out and saw, and her teeth were strong, and no ailment
8 had touched her all the days of her life. And Jacob said unto her: 'Blessed am I, mother, if my days approach the days of thy life, and my strength remain with me thus as thy strength: and thou
9 wilt not die, for thou art jesting idly with me regarding thy death.' And she went in to Isaac and said unto him: 'One petition I make unto thee: make Esau swear that he will not injure Jacob, nor pursue him with enmity; for thou knowest Esau's thoughts that they are perverse from his youth,
10 and there is no goodness in him; for he desires after thy death to kill him. And thou knowest all that he has done since the day Jacob his brother went to Haran until this day: how he has forsaken us with his whole heart, and has done evil to us; thy flocks he has taken to himself, and carried off
11 all thy possessions from before thy face. And when we implored and besought him for what was
12 our own, he did as a man who was taking pity on us. And he is bitter against thee because thou didst bless Jacob thy perfect and upright son; for there is no evil but only goodness in him, and since he came from Haran unto this day he has not robbed us of aught, for he brings us everything in its season always, and rejoices with all his heart when we take at his hands and he blesses us, and has not parted from us since he came from Haran until this day, and he remains with us continually
13 at home honouring us.' And Isaac said unto her: 'I, too, know and see the deeds of Jacob who is with us, how that with all his heart he honours us; but I loved Esau formerly more than Jacob, because he was the firstborn; but now I love Jacob more than Esau, for he has done manifold evil deeds, and there is no righteousness in him, for all his ways are unrighteousness and violence, [and
14 there is no righteousness around him.] And now my heart is troubled because of all his deeds, and neither he nor his seed is to be saved, for they are those who will be destroyed from the earth and who will be rooted out from under heaven, for he has forsaken the God of Abraham and gone
15 after his wives and after their uncleanness and after their error, he and his children. And thou dost bid me make him swear that he will not slay Jacob his brother; even if he swear he will not abide
16 by his oath, and he will not do good but evil only. But if he desires to slay Jacob, his brother, into Jacob's hands will he be given, and he will not escape from his hands, [for he will descend into his
17 hands.] And fear thou not on account of Jacob; for the guardian of Jacob is great and powerful
18 and honoured, and praised more than the guardian of Esau.' And Rebecca sent and called Esau and he came to her, and she said unto him: 'I have a petition, my son, to make unto thee, and do
19 thou promise to do it, my son.' And he said: 'I will do everything that thou sayest unto me, and
20 I will not refuse thy petition.' And she said unto him: 'I ask you that the day I die, thou wilt take me in and bury me near Sarah, thy father's mother, and that thou and Jacob will love each other and that neither will desire evil against the other, but mutual love only, and (so) ye will prosper, my sons, and be honoured in the midst of the land, and no enemy will rejoice over you, and ye will be
21 a blessing and a mercy in the eyes of all those that love you.' And he said: 'I will do all that thou hast told me, and I shall bury thee on the day thou diest near Sarah, my father's mother, as
22 thou hast desired that her bones may be near thy bones. And Jacob, my brother, also, I shall love above all flesh; for I have not a brother in all the earth but him only: and this is no great merit for me if I love him; for he is my brother, and we were sown together in thy body, and together came
23 we forth from thy womb, and if I do not love my brother, whom shall I love? And I, myself, beg thee to exhort Jacob concerning me and concerning my sons, for I know that he will assuredly be king over me and my sons, for on the day my father blessed him he made him the higher and me
24 the lower. And I swear unto thee that I shall love him, and not desire evil against him all the
25 days of my life but good only.' And he sware unto her regarding all this matter. And she called Jacob before the eyes of Esau, and gave him commandment according to the words which
26 she had spoken to Esau. And he said: 'I shall do thy pleasure; believe me that no evil will proceed from me or from my sons against Esau, and I shall be first in naught save in love only.'
27 And they eat and drank, she and her sons that night, and she died, three jubilees and one week and one year old, on that night, and her two sons, Esau and Jacob, buried her in the double cave near Sarah, their father's mother.

[Chapter 36]


1 And in the sixth year of this week [2162 A.M.] Isaac called his two sons Esau and Jacob, and they came to him, and he said unto them: 'My sons, I am going the way of my fathers, to the eternal house
2 where my fathers are. Wherefore bury me near Abraham my father, in the double cave in the field of Ephron the Hittite, where Abraham purchased a sepulchre to bury in; in the sepulchre which
3 I digged for myself, there bury me. And this I command you, my sons, that ye practise righteousness and uprightness on the earth, so that the Lord may bring upon you all that the Lord said that
4 he would do to Abraham and to his seed. And love one another, my sons, your brothers as a man who loves his own soul, and let each seek in what he may benefit his brother, and act together on the earth; and let them love each other as their own souls. And concerning the question of idols, I command and admonish you to reject them and hate them, and love them not, for they are full
6 of deception for those that worship them and for those that bow down to them. Remember ye, my sons, the Lord God of Abraham your father, and how I too worshipped Him and served Him in righteousness and in joy, that He might multiply you and increase your seed as the stars of heaven in multitude, and establish you on the earth as the plant of righteousness which will not be rooted
7 out unto all the generations for ever. And now I shall make you swear a great oath -for there is no oath which is greater than it by the name glorious and honoured and great and splendid and wonderful and mighty, which created the heavens and the earth and all things together- that ye will
8 fear Him and worship Him. And that each will love his brother with affection and righteousness, and that neither will desire evil against his brother from henceforth for ever all the days of your life
9 so that ye may prosper in all your deeds and not be destroyed. And if either of you devises evil against his brother, know that from henceforth everyone that devises evil against his brother shall fall into his hand, and shall be rooted out of the land of the living, and his seed shall be destroyed from
10 under heaven. But on the day of turbulence and execration and indignation and anger, with flaming devouring fire as He burnt Sodom, so likewise will He burn his land and his city and all that is his, and he shall be blotted out of the book of the discipline of the children of men, and not be recorded in the book of life, but in that which is appointed to destruction, and he shall depart into eternal execration; so that their condemnation may be always renewed in hate and in execration and in wrath and in torment and in indignation and in plagues and in disease for ever. I say and testify to you, my sons, according to the judgment which shall come upon the man who wishes to
12 injure his brother. And he divided all his possessions between the two on that day and he gave the larger portion to him that was the first-born, and the tower and all that was about it, and all that
13 Abraham possessed at the Well of the Oath. And he said: 'This larger portion I will give to the
14 firstborn.' And Esau said, 'I have sold to Jacob and given my birthright to Jacob; to him let it be
15 given, and I have not a single word to say regarding it, for it is his.' And Isaac said, May a blessing rest upon you, my sons, and upon your seed this day, for ye have given me rest, and my heart is not
16 pained concerning the birthright, lest thou shouldest work wickedness on account of it. May the
17 Most High God bless the man that worketh righteousness, him and his seed for ever.' And he ended commanding them and blessing them, and they eat and drank together before him, and he rejoiced because there was one mind between them, and they went forth from him and rested that day and
18 slept. And Isaac slept on his bed that day rejoicing; and he slept the eternal sleep, and died one hundred and eighty years old. He completed twenty-five weeks and five years; and his two sons
19 Esau and Jacob buried him. And Esau went to the land of Edom, to the mountains of Seir, and
20 dwelt there. And Jacob dwelt in the mountains of Hebron, in the tower of the land of the sojournings of his father Abraham, and he worshipped the Lord with all his heart and according to the visible
21 commands according as He had divided the days of his generations. And Leah his wife died in the fourth year of the second week of the forty-fifth jubilee, [2167 A.M.] and he buried her in the double cave
23 near Rebecca his mother to the left of the grave of Sarah, his father's mother and all her sons and his sons came to mourn over Leah his wife with him and to comfort him regarding her, for he
24 was lamenting her for he loved her exceedingly after Rachel her sister died; for she was perfect and upright in all her ways and honoured Jacob,and all the days that she lived with him he did not hear from her mouth a harsh word, for she was gentle and peaceable and upright and honourable
24 And he remembered all her deeds which she had done during her life and he lamented her exceedingly; for he loved her with all his heart and with all his soul.

[Chapter 37]


1 And on the day that Isaac the father of Jacob and Esau died, [2162 A.M.] the sons of Esau heard that Isaac
2 had given the portion of the elder to his younger son Jacob and they were very angry. And they strove with their father, saying 'Why has thy father given Jacob the portion of the elder and passed
3 over thee, although thou art the elder and Jacob the younger?' And he said unto them 'Because I sold my birthright to Jacob for a small mess of lentils, and on the day my father sent me to hunt and catch and bring him something that he should eat and bless me, he came with guile and brought
4 my father food and drink, and my father blessed him and put me under his hand. And now our father has caused us to swear, me and him, that we shall not mutually devise evil, either against his brother, and that we shall continue in love and in peace each with his brother and not make our ways
5 corrupt.' And they said unto him, 'We shall not hearken unto thee to make peace with him; for our strength is greater than his strength, and we are more powerful than he; we shall go against him and slay him, and destroy him and his sons. And if thou wilt not go with us, we shall do hurt
6 to thee also. And now hearken unto us: Let us send to Aram and Philistia and Moab and Ammon, and let us choose for ourselves chosen men who are ardent for battle, and let us go against him and do battle with him, and let us exterminate him from the earth before he grows strong.'
7 And their father said unto them, 'Do not go and do not make war with him lest ye fall before him.'
8 And they said unto him, 'This too, is exactly thy mode of action from thy youth until this day, and
9 thou art putting thy neck under his yoke. We shall not hearken to these words.' And they sent to Aram, and to 'Aduram to the friend of their father, and they hired along with them one thousand
10 fighting men, chosen men of war. And there came to them from Moab and from the children of Ammon, those who were hired, one thousand chosen men, and from Philistia, one thousand chosen men of war, and from Edom and from the Horites one thousand chosen fighting men, and from the
11 Kittim mighty men of war. And they said unto their father: Go forth with them and lead them,
12 else we shall slay thee.' And he was filled with wrath and indignation on seeing that his sons were forcing him to go before (them) to lead them against Jacob his brother. But afterward he remem-
13 bered all the evil which lay hidden in his heart against Jacob his brother; and he remembered not the oath which he had sworn to his father and to his mother that he would devise no evil all his days
14 against Jacob his brother. And notwithstanding all this, Jacob knew not that they were coming against him to battle, and he was mourning for Leah, his wife, until they approached very near to the
15 tower with four thousand warriors and chosen men of war And the men of Hebron sent to him saying, 'Behold thy brother has come against thee, to fight thee, with four thousand girt with the sword, and they carry shields and weapons'; for they loved Jacob more than Esau. So they told him; for
16 Jacob was a more liberal and merciful man than Esau. But Jacob would not believe until they came
17 very near to the tower. And he closed the gates of the tower; and he stood on the battlements and spake to his brother Esau and said, 'Noble is the comfort wherewith thou hast come to comfort me for my wife who has died. Is this the oath that thou didst swear to thy father and again to thy mother before they died? Thou hast broken the oath, and on the moment that thou didst swear to
18 thy father wast thou condemned.' And then Esau answered and said unto him, 'Neither the children of men nor the beasts of the earth have any oath of righteousness which in swearing they have sworn (an oath valid) for ever; but every day they devise evil one against another, and how each
19 may slay his adversary and foe. And thou dost hate me and my children for ever. And there is
20 no observing the tie of brotherhood with thee. Hear these words which I declare unto thee,

If the boar can change its skin and make its bristles as soft as wool,
Or if it can cause horns to sprout forth on its head like the horns of a stag or of a sheep,
Then will I observe the tie of brotherhood with thee
And if the breasts separated themselves from their mother, for thou hast not been a brother to me.
21 And if the wolves make peace with the lambs so as not to devour or do them violence,
And if their hearts are towards them for good,
Then there shall be peace in my heart towards thee

22 And if the lion becomes the friend of the ox and makes peace with him
And if he is bound under one yoke with him and ploughs with him,
Then will I make peace with thee.
23 And when the raven becomes white as the raza,
Then know that I have loved thee
And shall make peace with thee
Thou shalt be rooted out,
And thy sons shall be rooted out,
And there shall be no peace for thee'

24 And when Jacob saw that he was (so) evilly disposed towards him with his heart, and with all his soul as to slay him, and that he had come springing like the wild boar which comes upon
25 the spear that pierces and kills it, and recoils not from it; then he spake to his own and to his servants that they should attack him and all his companions.

[Chapter 38]


1 And after that Judah spake to Jacob, his father, and said unto him: 'Bend thy bow, father, and send forth thy arrows and cast down the adversary and slay the enemy; and mayst thou have the power, for we shall not slay thy brother, for he is such as thou, and he is like thee let us give him
2 (this) honour.' Then Jacob bent his bow and sent forth the arrow and struck Esau, his brother (on
3 his right breast) and slew him. And again he sent forth an arrow and struck 'Adoran the Aramaean,
4 on the left breast, and drove him backward and slew him And then went forth the sons of Jacob,
5 they and their servants, dividing themselves into companies on the four sides of the tower. And Judah went forth in front, and Naphtali and Gad with him and fifty servants with him on the south side of the tower, and they slew all they found before them, and not one individual of them escaped.
6 And Levi and Dan and Asher went forth on the east side of the tower, and fifty (men) with them,
7 and they slew the fighting men of Moab and Ammon. And Reuben and Issachar and Zebulon went forth on the north side of the tower, and fifty men with them, and they slew the fighting men of the
8 Philistines. And Simeon and Benjamin and Enoch, Reuben's son, went forth on the west side of the tower, and fifty (men) with them, and they slew of Edom and of the Horites four hundred men, stout warriors; and six hundred fled, and four of the sons of Esau fled with them, and left their father
9 lying slain, as he had fallen on the hill which is in 'Aduram. And the sons of Jacob pursued after them to the mountains of Seir. And Jacob buried his brother on the hill which is in 'Aduram, and
10 he returned to his house. And the sons of Jacob pressed hard upon the sons of Esau in the moun-
11 tains of Seir, and bowed their necks so that they became servants of the sons of Jacob. And they
12 sent to their father (to inquire) whether they should make peace with them or slay them. And Jacob sent word to his sons that they should make peace, and they made peace with them, and placed the
13 yoke of servitude upon them, so that they paid tribute to Jacob and to his sons always. And they
14 continued to pay tribute to Jacob until the day that he went down into Egypt. And the sons of Edom have not got quit of the yoke of servitude which the twelve sons of Jacob had imposed on
15 them until this day. And these are the kings that reigned in Edom before there reigned any king
16 over the children of Israel [until this day] in the land of Edom. And Balaq, the son of Beor, reigned
17 in Edom, and the name of his city was Danaba. And Balaq died, and Jobab, the son of Zara of
18 Boser, reigned in his stead. And Jobab died, and 'Asam, of the land of Teman, reigned in his stead.
19 And 'Asam died, and 'Adath, the son of Barad, who slew Midian in the field of Moab, reigned in his
20 stead, and the name of his city was Avith. And 'Adath died, and Salman, from 'Amaseqa, reigned
21,22 in his stead. And Salman died,and Saul of Ra'aboth (by the) river, reigned in his stead. And Saul
23 died, and Ba'elunan, the son of Achbor, reigned in his stead. And Ba'elunan, the son of Achbor died, and 'Adath reigned in his stead, and the name of his wife was Maitabith, the daughter of
25 Matarat, the daughter of Metabedza'ab. These are the kings who reigned in the land of Edom.

[Chapter 39]


1,2 And Jacob dwelt in the land of his father's sojournings in the land of Canaan. These are the generations of Jacob. And Joseph was seventeen years old when they took him down into
3 the land of Egypt, and Potiphar, an eunuch of Pharaoh, the chief cook bought him. And he set Joseph over all his house and the blessing of the Lord came upon the house of the Egyptian on
4 account of Joseph, and the Lord prospered him in all that he did. And the Egyptian committed everything into the hands of Joseph; for he saw that the Lord was with him, and that the
5 Lord prospered him in all that he did. And Joseph's appearance was comely [and very beautiful was his appearance], and his master's wife lifted up her eyes and saw Joseph, and she loved him
6 and besought him to lie with her. But he did not surrender his soul, and he remembered the Lord and the words which Jacob, his father, used to read from amongst the words of Abraham, that no man should commit fornication with a woman who has a husband; that for him the punishment of death has been ordained in the heavens before the Most High God, and the sin
7 will be recorded against him in the eternal books continually before the Lord. And Joseph
8 remembered these words and refused to lie with her. And she besought him for a year, but he
9 refused and would not listen. But she embraced him and held him fast in the house in order to force him to lie with her, and closed the doors of the house and held him fast; but he left
10 his garment in her hands and broke through the door and fled without from her presence. And the woman saw that he would not lie with her, and she calumniated him in the presence of his lord, saying 'Thy Hebrew servant, whom thou lovest, sought to force me so that he might lie with me; and it came to pass when I lifted up my voice that he fled and left his garment in
11 my hands when I held him, and he brake through the door.' And the Egyptian saw the garment of Joseph and the broken door, and heard the words of his wife, and cast Joseph into
12 prison into the place where the prisoners were kept whom the king imprisoned. And he was there in the prison; and the Lord gave Joseph favour in the sight of the chief of the prison guards and compassion before him, for he saw that the Lord was with him, and that the Lord
13 made all that he did to prosper. And he committed all things into his hands, and the chief of the prison guards knew of nothing that was with him, for Joseph did every thing, and the
14 Lord perfected it. And he remained there two years. And in those days Pharaoh, king of Egypt was wroth against his two eunuchs, against the chief butler, and against the chief baker, and he put
15 them in ward in the house of the chief cook, in the prison where Joseph was kept. And the chief of
16 the prison guards appointed Joseph to serve them; and he served before them. And they both
17 dreamed a dream, the chief butler and the chief baker, and they told it to Joseph. And as he interpreted to them so it befell them, and Pharaoh restored the chief butler to his office and the
18 (chief) baker he slew, as Joseph had interpreted to them. But the chief butler forgot Joseph in the prison, although he had informed him what would befall him, and did not remember to inform Pharaoh how Joseph had told him, for he forgot.

[Chapter 40]


1 And in those days Pharaoh dreamed two dreams in one night concerning a famine which was to be in all the land, and he awoke from his sleep and called all the interpreters of dreams that were in Egypt, and magicians, and told them his two dreams, and they were not able to declare (them).
2 And then the chief butler remembered Joseph and spake of him to the king, and he brought him
3 forth from the prison, and he to]d his two dreams before him. And he said before Pharaoh that his two dreams were one, and he said unto him: 'Seven years shall come (in which there shall be) plenty over all the land of Egypt, and after that seven years of famine, such a famine as has not been in all
4 the land. And now let Pharaoh appoint overseers in all the land of Egypt, and let them store up food in every city throughout the days of the years of plenty, and there will be food for the seven
5 years of famine, and the land will not perish through the famine, for it will be very severe.' And the Lord gave Joseph favour and mercy in the eyes of Pharaoh, and Pharaoh said unto his servants. We shall not find such a wise and discreet man as this man, for the spirit of the Lord is with
6 him.' And he appointed him the second in all his kingdom and gave him authority over all
7 Egypt, and caused him to ride in the second chariot of Pharaoh. And he clothed him with byssus garments, and he put a gold chain upon his neck, and (a herald) proclaimed before him ' 'El 'El wa 'Abirer,' and placed a ring on his hand and made him ruler over all his house, and magnified him, and
8 said unto him. 'Only on the throne shall I be greater than thou.' And Joseph ruled over all the land of Egypt, and all the princes of Pharaoh, and all his servants, and all who did the king's business loved him, for he walked in uprightness, for he was without pride and arrogance, and he had no respect of persons, and did not accept gifts, but he judged in uprightness all the people of the land.
9 And the land of Egypt was at peace before Pharaoh because of Joseph, for the Lord was with him, and gave him favour and mercy for all his generations before all those who knew him and those who heard concerning him, and Pharaoh's kingdom was well ordered, and there was no Satan and no evil
10 person (therein). And the king called Joseph's name Sephantiphans, and gave Joseph to wife the
11 daughter of Potiphar, the daughter of the priest of Heliopolis, the chief cook. And on the day that
12 Joseph stood before Pharaoh he was thirty years old [when he stood before Pharaoh]. And in that year Isaac died. And it came to pass as Joseph had said in the interpretation of his two dreams, according as he had said it, there were seven years of plenty over all the land of Egypt, and the
13 land of Egypt abundantly produced, one measure (producing) eighteen hundred measures. And Joseph gathered food into every city until they were full of corn until they could no longer count and measure it for its multitude.

[Chapter 41]


1 And in the forty-fifth jubilee, in the second week, (and) in the second year, [2165 A.M.] Judah took for his
2 first-born Er, a wife from the daughters of Aram, named Tamar. But he hated, and did not lie with her, because his mother was of the daughters of Canaan, and he wished to take him a wife of the
3 kinsfolk of his mother, but Judah, his father, would not permit him. And this Er, the first-born of Judah,
4 was wicked, and the Lord slew him. And Judah said unto Onan, his brother 'Go in unto thy brother's wife and perform the duty of a husband's brother unto her, and raise up seed unto thy brother.' And
5 Onan knew that the seed would not be his, (but) his brother's only, and he went into the house of his brother's wife, and spilt the seed on the ground, and he was wicked in the eyes of the Lord, and He slew
6 him. And Judah said unto Tamar, his daughter-in-law: 'Remain in thy father's house as a widow till
7 Shelah my son be grown up, and I shall give thee to him to wife.' And he grew up; but Bedsu'el, the wife of Judah, did not permit her son Shelah to marry. And Bedsu'el, the wife of Judah, died [2168 A.M.]

8 in the fifth year of this week. And in the sixth year Judah went up to shear his sheep at Timnah. [2169 A.M.]

9 And they told Tamar: 'Behold thy father-in-law goeth up to Timnah to shear his sheep.' And she put off her widow's clothes, and put on a veil, and adorned herself, and sat in the gate adjoining the
10 way to Timnah. And as Judah was going along he found her, and thought her to be an harlot, and he said unto her: 'Let me come in unto thee'; and she said unto him Come in,' and he went
11 in. And she said unto him: 'Give me my hire'; and he said unto her: 'I have nothing in my
12 hand save my ring that is on my finger, and my necklace, and my staff which is in my hand.' And she said unto him 'Give them to me until thou dost send me my hire', and he said unto her: 'I will send unto thee a kid of the goats'; and he gave them to her, , and
13,14 she conceived by him. And Judah went unto his sheep, and she went to her father's house. And Judah sent a kid of the goats by the hand of his shepherd, an Adullamite, and he found her not; and he asked the people of the place, saying: 'Where is the harlot who was here?' And they said
15 unto him; 'There is no harlot here with us.' And he returned and informed him, and said unto him that he had not found her: 'I asked the people of the place, and they said unto me: "There
16 is no harlot here." ' And he said: 'Let her keep (them) lest we become a cause of derision.' And when she had completed three months, it was manifest that she was with child, and they told Judah,
17 saying: 'Behold Tamar, thy daughter-in-law, is with child by whoredom.' And Judah went to the house of her father, and said unto her father and her brothers: 'Bring her forth, and let them burn
18 her, for she hath wrought uncleanness in Israel.' And it came to pass when they brought her forth to burn her that she sent to her father-in-law the ring and the necklace, and the staff, saying:
19 'Discern whose are these, for by him am I with child.' And Judah acknowledged, and said: 'Tamar
20 is more righteous than I am. And therefore let them burn her not' And for that reason she was
21 not given to Shelah, and he did not again approach her And after that she bare two sons, Perez [2170 A.M.]

22 and Zerah, in the seventh year of this second week. And thereupon the seven years of fruitfulness
23 were accomplished, of which Joseph spake to Pharaoh. And Judah acknowledged that the deed which he had done was evil, for he had lain with his daughter-in-law, and he esteemed it hateful in his eyes, and he acknowledged that he had transgressed and gone astray, for he had uncovered the skirt of his son, and he began to lament and to supplicate before the Lord because of his transgression.
24 And we told him in a dream that it was forgiven him because he supplicated earnestly, and lamented,
25 and did not again commit it. And he received forgiveness because he turned from his sin and from his ignorance, for he transgressed greatly before our God; and every one that acts thus, every one who lies with his mother-in-law, let them burn him with fire that he may burn therein, for there is
26 uncleanness and pollution upon them, with fire let them burn them. And do thou command the children of Israel that there be no uncleanness amongst them, for every one who lies with his daughter-in-law or with his mother-in-law hath wrought uncleanness; with fire let them burn the man who has lain with her, and likewise the woman, and He will turn away wrath and punishment
27 from Israel. And unto Judah we said that his two sons had not lain with her, and for this reason
28 his seed was stablished for a second generation, and would not be rooted out. For in singleness of eye he had gone and sought for punishment, namely, according to the judgment of Abraham, which he had commanded his sons, Judah had sought to burn her with fire.

[Chapter 42]


1 And in the first year of the third week of the forty-fifth jubilee the famine began to come into the [2171 A.M.]

2 land, and the rain refused to be given to the earth, for none whatever fell. And the earth grew barren, but in the land of Egypt there was food, for Joseph had gathered the seed of the land in the
3 seven years of plenty and had preserved it. And the Egyptians came to Joseph that he might give them food, and he opened the store-houses where was the grain of the first year, and he sold it to
4 the people of the land for gold. , and Jacob heard that there was food in Egypt, and he sent his ten sons that they should procure food for him in Egypt; but Benjamin he did not send, and arrived among those
5 that went (there). And Joseph recognised them, but they did not recognise him, and he spake unto them and questioned them, and he said unto them; 'Are ye not spies and have ye not come to
6 explore the approaches of the land? 'And he put them in ward. And after that he set them free
7 again, and detained Simeon alone and sent off his nine brothers. And he filled their sacks with corn,
8 and he put their gold in their sacks, and they did not know. And he commanded them to bring
9 their younger brother, for they had told him their father was living and their younger brother. And they went up from the land of Egypt and they came to the land of Canaan; and they told their father all that had befallen them, and how the lord of the country had spoken roughly to them, and
10 had seized Simeon till they should bring Benjamin. And Jacob said: 'Me have ye bereaved of my children! Joseph is not and Simeon also is not, and ye will take Benjamin away. On me has your
11 wickedness come. 'And he said: 'My son will not go down with you lest perchance he fall sick; for their mother gave birth to two sons, and one has perished, and this one also ye will take from me. If perchance he took a fever on the road, ye would bring down my old age with sorrow unto death.'
12 For he saw that their money had been returned to every man in his sack, and for this reason he
13 feared to send him. And the famine increased and became sore in the land of Canaan, and in all lands save in the land of Egypt, for many of the children of the Egyptians had stored up their seed for food from the time when they saw Joseph gathering seed together and putting it in storehouses
14 and preserving it for the years of famine. And the people of Egypt fed themselves thereon during
15 the first year of their famine But when Israel saw that the famine was very sore in the land, and that there was no deliverance, he said unto his sons: 'Go again, and procure food for us that we die
16 not.' And they said: 'We shall not go; unless our youngest brother go with us, we shall not go.'
17 And Israel saw that if he did not send him with them, they should all perish by reason of the famine
18 And Reuben said: 'Give him into my hand, and if I do not bring him back to thee, slay my two
19 sons instead of his soul.' And he said unto him: 'He shall not go with thee.' And Judah came near and said: 'Send him with me, and if I do not bring him back to thee, let me bear the blame before
20 thee all the days of my life.' And he sent him with them in the second year of this week on the [2172 A.m.] first day of the month, and they came to the land of Egypt with all those who went, and (they had)
21 presents in their hands, stacte and almonds and terebinth nuts and pure honey. And they went and stood before Joseph, and he saw Benjamin his brother, and he knew him, and said unto them: Is this your youngest brother?' And they said unto him: 'It is he.' And he said The Lord be
22 gracious to thee, my son!' And he sent him into his house and he brought forth Simeon unto them and he made a feast for them, and they presented to him the gift which they had brought in their
23 hands. And they eat before him and he gave them all a portion, but the portion of Benjamin was
24 seven times larger than that of any of theirs. And they eat and drank and arose and remained with
25 their asses. And Joseph devised a plan whereby he might learn their thoughts as to whether thoughts of peace prevailed amongst them, and he said to the steward who was over his house: 'Fill all their sacks with food, and return their money unto them into their vessels, and my cup, the silver cup out of which I drink, put it in the sack of the youngest, and send them away.'

[Chapter 43]


1 And he did as Joseph had told him, and filled all their sacks for them with food and put their
2 money in their sacks, and put the cup in Benjamin's sack. Aud early in the morning they departed, and it came to pass that, when they had gone from thence, Joseph said unto the steward of his house: 'Pursue them, run and seize them, saying, "For good ye have requited me with evil; you have stolen from me the silver cup out of which my lord drinks." And bring back to me their
3 youngest brother, and fetch (him) quickly before I go forth to my seat of judgment.' And he ran
4 after them and said unto them according to these words. And they said unto him: 'God forbid that thy servants should do this thing, and steal from the house of thy lord any utensil, and the money also which we found in our sacks the first time, we thy servants brought back from the land of
5 Canaan. How then should we steal any utensil? Behold here are we and our sacks search, and wherever thou findest the cup in the sack of any man amongst us, let him be slain, and we and our
6 asses will serve thy lord.' And he said unto them: 'Not so, the man with whom I find, him only
7 shall I take as a servant, and ye shall return in peace unto your house.' And as he was searching in their vessels, beginning with the eldest and ending with the youngest, it was found in Benjamin's
8 sack. And they rent their garments, and laded their asses, and returned to the city and came to the
9 house of Joseph, and they all bowed themselves on their faces to the ground before him. And Joseph said unto them: 'Ye have done evil.' And they said: 'What shall we say and how shall we defend ourselves? Our lord hath discovered the transgression of his servants; behold we are the
10 servants of our lord, and our asses also. 'And Joseph said unto them: 'I too fear the Lord; as for you, go ye to your homes and let your brother be my servant, for ye have done evil. Know ye not
11 that a man delights in his cup as I with this cup? And yet ye have stolen it from me.' And Judah said: 'O my lord, let thy servant, I pray thee, speak a word in my lord's ear two brothers did thy servant's mother bear to our father: one went away and was lost, and hath not been found, and he alone is left of his mother, and thy servant our father loves him, and his life also is bound up with
12 the life of this (lad). And it will come to pass, when we go to thy servant our father, and the lad is
13 not with us, that he will die, and we shall bring down our father with sorrow unto death. Now rather let me, thy servant, abide instead of the boy as a bondsman unto my lord, and let the lad go with his brethren, for I became surety for him at the hand of thy servant our father, and if I do not
14 bring him back, thy servant will hear the blame to our father for ever.' And Joseph saw that they were all accordant in goodness one with another, and he could not refrain himself, and he told them
15 that he was Joseph. And he conversed with them in the Hebrew tongue and fell on their neck and
16 wept. But they knew him not and they began to weep. And he said unto them: 'Weep not over me, but hasten and bring my father to me; and ye see that it is my mouth that speaketh and the
17 eyes of my brother Benjamin see. For behold this is the second year of the famine, and there are
18 still five years without harvest or fruit of trees or ploughing. Come down quickly ye and your households, so that ye perish not through the famine, and do not be grieved for your possessions, for
19 the Lord sent me before you to set things in order that many people might live. And tell my father that I am still alive, and ye, behold, ye see that the Lord has made me as a father to Pharaoh,
20 and ruler over his house and over all the land of Egypt. And tell my father of all my glory, and
21 all the riches and glory that the Lord hath given me.' And by the command of the mouth of Pharaoh he gave them chariots and provisions for the way, and he gave them all many-coloured
21 raiment and silver. And to their father he sent raiment and silver and ten asses which carried corn,
23 and he sent them away. And they went up and told their father that Joseph was alive, and was measuring out corn to all the nations of the earth, and that he was ruler over all the land of Egypt.
24 And their father did not believe it, for he was beside himself in his mind; but when he saw the wagons which Joseph had sent, the life of his spirit revived, and he said: 'It is enough for me if Joseph lives; I will go down and see him before I die.'

[Chapter 44]


1 And Israel took his journey from Haran from his house on the new moon of the third month, and he went on the way of the Well of the Oath, and he offered a sacrifice to the God of his
2 father Isaac on the seventh of this month. And Jacob remembered the dream that he had seen
3 at Bethel, and he feared to go down into Egypt. And while he was thinking of sending word to Joseph to come to him, and that he would not go down, he remained there seven days, if
4 perchance he could see a vision as to whether he should remain or go down. And he celebrated the harvest festival of the first-fruits with old grain, for in all the land of Canaan there was not a handful of seed [in the land], for the famine was over all the beasts and cattle and
5 birds, and also over man. And on the sixteenth the Lord appeared unto him, and said unto him, 'Jacob, Jacob'; and he said, 'Here am I.' And He said unto him: 'I am the God of thy fathers, the God of Abraham and Isaac; fear not to go down into Egypt, for I will there make of thee
6 a great nation I will go down with thee, and I will bring thee up (again), and in this land shalt thou be buried, and Joseph shall put his hands upon thy eyes. Fear not; go down into Egypt.'
7 And his sons rose up, and his sons' sons, and they placed their father and their possessions upon
8 wagons. And Israel rose up from the Well of the Oath on the sixteenth of this third month, and he
9 went to the land of Egypt. And Israel sent Judah before him to his son Joseph to examine the Land of Goshen, for Joseph had told his brothers that they should come and dwell there that they
10 might be near him. And this was the goodliest (land) in the land of Egypt, and near to him, for all
11 (of them) and also for the cattle. And these are the names of the sons of Jacob who went into
12 Egypt with Jacob their father Reuben, the First-born of Israel; and these are the names of his
13 sons Enoch, and Pallu, and Hezron and Carmi-five. Simeon and his sons; and these are the names of his sons: Jemuel, and Jamin, and Ohad, and Jachin, and Zohar, and Shaul, the son
14 of the Zephathite woman-seven. Levi and his sons; and these are the names of his sons: Gershon, and Kohath, and Merari-four. Judah and his sons; and these are the names of his sons:
15 Shela, and Perez, and Zerah-four. Issachar and his sons; and these are the names of his sons:
17 Tola, and Phua, and Jasub, and Shimron-five. Zebulon and his sons; and these are the names of
18 his sons: Sered, and Elon, and Jahleel-four. And these are the sons of Jacob and their sons whom Leah bore to Jacob in Mesopotamia, six, and their one sister, Dinah and all the souls of the sons of Leah, and their sons, who went with Jacob their father into Egypt, were twenty-nine, and Jacob their
19 father being with them, they were thirty. And the sons of Zilpah, Leah's handmaid, the wife of
20 Jacob, who bore unto Jacob Gad and Ashur. And there are the names of their sons who went with him into Egypt. The sons of Gad: Ziphion, and Haggi, and Shuni, and Ezbon, (and Eri, and Areli,
21 and Arodi-eight. And the sons of Asher: Imnah, and Ishvah, (and Ishvi), and Beriah, and Serah,
22,23 their one sister-six. All the souls were fourteen, and all those of Leah were forty-four. And the
24 sons of Rachel, the wife of Jacob: Joseph and Benjamin. And there were born to Joseph in Egypt before his father came into Egypt, those whom Asenath, daughter of Potiphar priest of Heliopolis
25 bare unto him, Manasseh, and Ephraim-three. And the sons of Benjamin: Bela and Becher and Ashbel, Gera, and Naaman, and Ehi, and Rosh, and Muppim, and Huppim, and Ard-eleven.
26,27 And all the souls of Rachel were fourteen. And the sons of Bilhah, the handmaid of Rachel, the
28 wife of Jacob, whom she bare to Jacob, were Dan and Naphtali. And these are the names of their sons who went with them into Egypt. And the sons of Dan were Hushim, and Samon, and Asudi.
29 and 'Ijaka, and Salomon-six. And they died the year in which they entered into Egypt, and there
30 was left to Dan Hushim alone. And these are the names of the sons of Naphtali Jahziel, and Guni
31 and Jezer, and Shallum, and 'Iv. And 'Iv, who was born after the years of famine, died in Egypt.
32,33 And all the souls of Rachel were twenty-six. And all the souls of Jacob which went into Egypt were seventy souls. These are his children and his children's children, in all seventy, but five died
34 in Egypt before Joseph, and had no children. And in the land of Canaan two sons of Judah died, Er and Onan, and they had no children, and the children of Israel buried those who perished, and they were reckoned among the seventy Gentile nations.

[Chapter 45]


1 And Israel went into the country of Egypt, into the land of Goshen, on the new moon of the fourth [2172 A.M].
2 month, in the second year of the third week of the forty-fifth jubilee. And Joseph went to meet his
3 father Jacob, to the land of Goshen, and he fell on his father's neck and wept. And Israel said unto Joseph: 'Now let me die since I have seen thee, and now may the Lord God of Israel be blessed the God of Abraham and the God of Isaac who hath not withheld His mercy and His grace from
4 His servant Jacob. It is enough for me that I have seen thy face whilst I am yet alive; yea, true is the vision which I saw at Bethel. Blessed be the Lord my God for ever and ever, and blessed be
5 His name.' And Joseph and his brothers eat bread before their father and drank wine, and Jacob rejoiced with exceeding great joy because he saw Joseph eating with his brothers and drinking before him, and he blessed the Creator of all things who had preserved him, and had preserved for him his
6 twelve sons. And Joseph had given to his father and to his brothers as a gift the right of dwelling in the land of Goshen and in Rameses and all the region round about, which he ruled over before Pharaoh. And Israel and his sons dwelt in the land of Goshen, the best part of the land of Egypt
7 and Israel was one hundred and thirty years old when he came into Egypt. And Joseph nourished his father and his brethren and also their possessions with bread as much as sufficed them for the
8 seven years of the famine. And the land of Egypt suffered by reason of the famine, and Joseph acquired all the land of Egypt for Pharaoh in return for food, and he got possession of the people
9 and their cattle and everything for Pharaoh. And the years of the famine were accomplished, and Joseph gave to the people in the land seed and food that they might sow (the land) in the eighth
10 year, for the river had overflowed all the land of Egypt. For in the seven years of the famine it had (not) overflowed and had irrigated only a few places on the banks of the river, but now it overflowed
11 and the Egyptians sowed the land, and it bore much corn that year. And this was the first year of [2178 A.M.]

12 the fourth week of the forty-fifth jubilee. And Joseph took of the corn of the harvest the fifth part for the king and left four parts for them for food and for seed, and Joseph made it an ordinance for
13 the land of Egypt until this day. And Israel lived in the land of Egypt seventeen years, and all the days which he lived were three jubilees, one hundred and forty-seven years, and he died in the fourth [2188 A.M.]

14 year of the fifth week of the forty-fifth jubilee. And Israel blessed his sons before he died and told them everything that would befall them in the land of Egypt; and he made known to them what would come upon them in the last days, and blessed them and gave to Joseph two portions in
15 the land. And he slept with his fathers, and he was buried in the double cave in the land of Canaan, near Abraham his father in the grave which he dug for himself in the double cave in
16 the land of Hebron. And he gave all his books and the books of his fathers to Levi his son that he might preserve them and renew them for his children until this day.

[Chapter 46]


1 And it came to pass that after Jacob died the children of Israel multiplied in the land of Egypt, and they became a great nation, and they were of one accord in heart, so that brother loved brother and every man helped his brother, and they increased abundantly and multiplied exceedingly, ten [2242 A.M.]

2 weeks of years, all the days of the life of Joseph And there was no Satan nor any evil all the days of the life of Joseph which he lived after his father Jacob, for all the Egyptians honoured the children
3 of Israel all the days of the life of Joseph. And Joseph died being a hundred and ten years old; seventeen years he lived in the land of Canaan, and ten years he was a servant, and three years in
4 prison, and eighty years he was under the king, ruling all the land of Egypt. And he died and all
5 his brethren and all that generation. And he commanded the children of Israel before he died that
6 they should carry his bones with them when they went forth from the land of Egypt. And he made them swear regarding his bones, for he knew that the Egyptians would not again bring forth and bury him in the land of Canaan, for Makamaron, king of Canaan, while dwelling in the land of Assyria, fought in the valley with the king of Egypt and slew him there, and pursued after the
7 Egyptians to the gates of 'Ermon. But he was not able to enter, for another, a new king, had become king of Egypt, and he was stronger than he, and he returned to the land of Canaan, and the gates of
8 Egypt were closed, and none went out and none came into Egypt. And Joseph died in the forty-sixth jubilee, in the sixth week, in the second year, and they buried him in the land of Egypt, and [2242 A.M.]

9 all his brethren died after him. And the king of Egypt went forth to war with the king of Canaan [2263 A.M.] in the forty-seventh jubilee, in the second week in the second year, and the children of Israel brought forth all the bones of the children of Jacob save the bones of Joseph, and they buried them in the
10 field in the double cave in the mountain. And the most (of them) returned to Egypt, but a few of
11 them remained in the mountains of Hebron, and Amram thy father remained with them. And the
12 king of Canaan was victorious over the king of Egypt, and he closed the gates of Egypt. And he devised an evil device against the children of Israel of afflicting them and he said unto the people of
13 Egypt: 'Behold the people of the children of Israel have increased and multiplied more than we. Come and let us deal wisely with them before they become too many, and let us afflict them with slavery before war come upon us and before they too fight against us; else they will join themselves unto our enemies and get them up out of our land, for their hearts and faces are towards the land
14 of Canaan.' And he set over them taskmasters to afflict them with slavery; and they built strong cities for Pharaoh, Pithom, and Raamses and they built all the walls and all the fortifications which
15 had fallen in the cities of Egypt. And they made them serve with rigour, and the more they dealt evilly with them, the more they increased and multiplied. And the people of Egypt abominated the children of Israel

[Chapter 47]


1 And in the seventh week, in the seventh year, in the forty-seventh jubilee, thy father went forth [2303 A.M.] from the land of Canaan, and thou wast born in the fourth week, in the sixth year thereof, in the [2330 A.M.]

2 forty-eighth jubilee; this was the time of tribulation on the children of Israel. And Pharaoh, king of Egypt, issued a command regarding them that they should cast all their male children which were
3 born into the river. And they cast them in for seven months until the day that thou wast born
4 And thy mother hid thee for three months, and they told regarding her. And she made an ark for thee, and covered it with pitch and asphalt, and placed it in the flags on the bank of the river, and she placed thee in it seven days, and thy mother came by night and suckled thee, and by day
5 Miriam, thy sister, guarded thee from the birds. And in those days Tharmuth, the daughter of Pharaoh, came to bathe in the river, and she heard thy voice crying, and she told her maidens to
6 bring thee forth, and they brought thee unto her. And she took thee out of the ark, and she had
7 compassion on thee. And thy sister said unto her: 'Shall I go and call unto thee one of the
8 Hebrew women to nurse and suckle this babe for thee?' And she said (unto her): 'Go.' And she
9 went and called thy mother Jochebed, and she gave her wages, and she nursed thee. And afterwards, when thou wast grown up, they brought thee unto the daughter of Pharaoh, and thou didst become her son, and Amram thy father taught thee writing, and after thou hadst completed three weeks
10 they brought thee into the royal court. And thou wast three weeks of years at court until the time [2351-] when thou didst go forth from the royal court and didst see an Egyptian smiting thy friend who was [2372 A.M.]

11 of the children of Israel, and thou didst slay him and hide him in the sand. And on the second day thou didst and two of the children of Israel striving together, and thou didst say to him who was
12 doing the wrong: 'Why dost thou smite thy brother?' And he was angry and indignant, and said: 'Who made thee a prince and a judge over us? Thinkest thou to kill me as thou killedst the Egyptian yesterday?' And thou didst fear and flee on account of these words.

[Chapter 48]


1 And in the sixth year of the third week of the forty-ninth jubilee thou didst depart and dwell (in [2372 A.M.] the land of Midian, five weeks and one year. And thou didst return into Egypt in the second week
2 in the second year in the fiftieth jubilee. And thou thyself knowest what He spake unto thee on [2410 A.M.] Mount Sinai, and what prince Mastema desired to do with thee when thou wast returning into Egypt
3 . Did he not with all his power seek to slay thee and deliver the Egyptians out of thy hand when he saw that thou wast sent to execute
4 judgment and vengeance on the Egyptians? And I delivered thee out of his hand, and thou didst perform the signs and wonders which thou wast sent to perform in Egypt against Pharaoh, and
5 against all his house, and against his servants and his people. And the Lord executed a great vengeance on them for Israel's sake, and smote them through (the plagues of) blood and frogs, lice and dog-flies, and malignant boils breaking forth in blains; and their cattle by death; and by hail-stones, thereby He destroyed everything that grew for them; and by locusts which devoured the residue which had been left by the hail, and by darkness; and (by the death) of the first-born of
6 men and animals, and on all their idols the Lord took vengeance and burned them with fire And everything was sent through thy hand, that thou shouldst declare (these things) before they were done, and thou didst speak with the king of Egypt before all his servants and before his people
7 And everything took place according to thy words; ten great and terrible judgments came on the
8 land of Egypt that thou mightest execute vengeance on it for Israel. And the Lord did everything for Israel's sake, and according to His covenant, which he had ordained with Abraham that He
9 would take vengeance on them as they had brought them by force into bondage. And the prince Mastema stood up against thee, and sought to cast thee into the hands of Pharaoh, and he helped
10 the Egyptian sorcerers, and they stood up and wrought before thee the evils indeed we permitted
11 them to work, but the remedies we did not allow to be wrought by their hands. And the Lord smote them with malignant ulcers, and they were not able to stand, for we destroyed them so that
12 they could not perform a single sign. And notwithstanding all (these) signs and wonders the prince Mastema was not put to shame because he took courage and cried to the Egyptians to pursue after thee with all the powers of the Egyptians, with their chariots, and with their horses, and with all the
13 hosts of the peoples of Egypt. And I stood between the Egyptians and Israel, and we delivered Israel out of his hand, and out of the hand of his people, and the Lord brought them through the
14 midst of the sea as if it were dry land. And all the peoples whom he brought to pursue after Israel, the Lord our God cast them into the midst of the sea, into the depths of the abyss beneath the children of Israel, even as the people of Egypt had cast their children into the river He took vengeance on 1,000,000 of them, and one thousand strong and energetic men were destroyed on
15 account of one suckling of the children of thy people which they had thrown into the river. And on the fourteenth day and on the fifteenth and on the sixteenth and on the seventeenth and on the eighteenth the prince Mastema was bound and imprisoned behind the children of Israel that he
16 might not accuse them. And on the nineteenth we let them loose that they might help the
17 Egyptians and pursue the children of Israel. And he hardened their hearts and made them stubborn, and the device was devised by the Lord our God that He might smite the Egyptians and
18 cast them into the sea. And on the fourteenth we bound him that he might not accuse the children of Israel on the day when they asked the Egyptians for vessels and garments, vessels of silver, and vessels of gold, and vessels of bronze, in order to despoil the Egyptians in return for the bondage in
19 which they had forced them to serve. And we did not lead forth the children of Israel from Egypt empty handed.

[Chapter 49]


1 Remember the commandment which the Lord commanded thee concerning the passover, that thou shouldst celebrate it in its season on the fourteenth of the first month, that thou shouldst kill it before it is evening, and that they should eat it by night on the evening of the fifteenth from the
2 time of the setting of the sun. For on this night -the beginning of the festival and the beginning of the joy- ye were eating the passover in Egypt, when all the powers of Mastema had been let loose to slay all the first-born in the land of Egypt, from the first-born of Pharaoh to the first-born
3 of the captive maid-servant in the mill, and to the cattle. And this is the sign which the Lord gave them: Into every house on the lintels of which they saw the blood of a lamb of the first year, into (that) house they should not enter to slay, but should pass by (it), that all those should be saved that
4 were in the house because the sign of the blood was on its lintels. And the powers of the Lord did everything according as the Lord commanded them, and they passed by all the children of Israel, and the plague came not upon them to destroy from amongst them any soul either of cattle, or
5 man, or dog. And the plague was very grievous in Egypt, and there was no house in Egypt
6 where there was not one dead, and weeping and lamentation. And all Israel was eating the flesh of the paschal lamb, and drinking the wine, and was lauding, and blessing, and giving thanks to the Lord God of their fathers, and was ready to go forth from under the yoke of Egypt, and from
7 the evil bondage. And remember thou this day all the days of thy life, and observe it from year to year all the days of thy life, once a year, on its day, according to all the law thereof, and do not
8 adjourn (it) from day to day, or from month to month. For it is an eternal ordinance, and engraven on the heavenly tablets regarding all the children of Israel that they should observe it every year on its day once a year, throughout all their generations; and there is no limit of days, for this is ordained
9 for ever. And the man who is free from uncleanness, and does not come to observe it on occasion of its day, so as to bring an acceptable offering before the Lord, and to eat and to drink before the Lord on the day of its festival, that man who is clean and close at hand shall be cut off: because he offered not the oblation of the Lord in its appointed season, he shall take the guilt upon himself.
10 Let the children of Israel come and observe the passover on the day of its fixed time, on the fourteenth day of the first month, between the evenings, from the third part of the day to the third part of
1 the night, for two portions of the day are given to the light, and a third part to the evening. This
12 is that which the Lord commanded thee that thou shouldst observe it between the evenings. And it is not permissible to slay it during any period of the light, but during the period bordering on the evening, and let them eat it at the time of the evening, until the third part of the night, and whatever is left over of all its flesh from the third part of the night and onwards, let them burn
13 it with fire. And they shall not cook it with water, nor shall they eat it raw, but roast on the fire: they shall eat it with diligence, its head with the inwards thereof and its feet they shall roast with fire, and not break any bone thereof; for of the children of Israel no bone shall be crushed.
14 For this reason the Lord commanded the children of Israel to observe the passover on the day of its fixed time, and they shall not break a bone thereof; for it is a festival day, and a day commanded, and there may be no passing over from day to day, and month to month, but on the day of its
15 festival let it be observed. And do thou command the children of Israel to observe the passover throughout their days, every year, once a year on the day of its fixed time, and it shall come for a memorial well pleasing before the Lord, and no plague shall come upon them to slay or to smite in that year in which they celebrate the passover in its season in every respect according to His
16 command. And they shall not eat it outside the sanctuary of the Lord, but before the sanctuary of the Lord, and all the people of the congregation of Israel shall celebrate it in its appointed season.
17 And every man who has come upon its day shall eat it in the sanctuary of your God before the Lord from twenty years old and upward; for thus is it written and ordained that they should eat it
18 in the sanctuary of the Lord. And when the children of Israel come into the land which they are to possess, into the land of Canaan, and set up the tabernacle of the Lord in the midst of the land in one of their tribes until the sanctuary of the Lord has been built in the land, let them come and celebrate the passover in the midst of the tabernacle of the Lord, and let them slay it
19 before the Lord from year to year. And in the days when the house has been built in the name of the Lord in the land of their inheritance, they shall go there and slay the passover in the evening, at
20 sunset, at the third part of the day. And they shall offer its blood on the threshold of the altar, and shall place its fat on the fire which is upon the altar, and they shall eat its flesh roasted
21 with fire in the court of the house which has been sanctified in the name of the Lord. And they may not celebrate the passover in their cities, nor in any place save before the tabernacle of the Lord, or before His house where His name hath dwelt; and they shall not go astray from the Lord.
22 And do thou, Moses, command the children of Israel to observe the ordinances of the passover, as it was commanded unto thee; declare thou unto them every year and the day of its days, and the festival of unleavened bread, that they should eat unleavened bread seven days, (and) that they should observe its festival, and that they bring an oblation every day during those seven days of
23 joy before the Lord on the altar of your God. For ye celebrated this festival with haste when ye went forth from Egypt till ye entered into the wilderness of Shur; for on the shore of the sea ye completed it.

[Chapter 50]


1 And after this law I made known to thee the days of the Sabbaths in the desert of Sin[ai], which
2 is between Elim and Sinai. And I told thee of the Sabbaths of the land on Mount Sinai, and I told thee of the jubilee years in the sabbaths of years: but the year thereof have I not told thee till ye
3 enter the land which ye are to possess. And the land also shall keep its sabbaths while they dwell
4 upon it, and they shall know the jubilee year. Wherefore I have ordained for thee the year-weeks and the years and the jubilees: there are forty-nine jubilees from the days of Adam until this day, [2410 A.M.] and one week and two years: and there are yet forty years to come (lit. 'distant') for learning the [2450 A.M.] commandments of the Lord, until they pass over into the land of Canaan, crossing the Jordan to the
5 west. And the jubilees shall pass by, until Israel is cleansed from all guilt of fornication, and uncleanness, and pollution, and sin, and error, and dwells with confidence in all the land, and there shall be no more a Satan or any evil one, and the land shall be clean from that time for evermore.
6 And behold the commandment regarding the Sabbaths -I have written (them) down for thee-
7 and all the judgments of its laws. Six days shalt thou labour, but on the seventh day is the Sabbath of the Lord your God. In it ye shall do no manner of work, ye and your sons, and your men-
8 servants and your maid-servants, and all your cattle and the sojourner also who is with you. And the man that does any work on it shall die: whoever desecrates that day, whoever lies with (his) wife, or whoever says he will do something on it, that he will set out on a journey thereon in regard to any buying or selling: and whoever draws water thereon which he had not prepared for himself on the sixth day, and whoever takes up any burden to carry it out of his tent or out of his house
9 shall die. Ye shall do no work whatever on the Sabbath day save what ye have prepared for yourselves on the sixth day, so as to eat, and drink, and rest, and keep Sabbath from all work on that day, and to bless the Lord your God, who has given you a day of festival and a holy day: and
10 a day of the holy kingdom for all Israel is this day among their days for ever. For great is the honour which the Lord has given to Israel that they should eat and drink and be satisfied on this festival day, and rest thereon from all labour which belongs to the labour of the children of men save burning frankincense and bringing oblations and sacrifices before the Lord for days and for
11 Sabbaths. This work alone shall be done on the Sabbath-days in the sanctuary of the Lord your God; that they may atone for Israel with sacrifice continually from day to day for a memorial well-pleasing before the Lord, and that He may receive them always from day to day according as thou
12 hast been commanded. And every man who does any work thereon, or goes a journey, or tills (his) farm, whether in his house or any other place, and whoever lights a fire, or rides on any beast, or travels by ship on the sea, and whoever strikes or kills anything, or slaughters a beast or a bird, or
13 whoever catches an animal or a bird or a fish, or whoever fasts or makes war on the Sabbaths: The man who does any of these things on the Sabbath shall die, so that the children of Israel shall observe the Sabbaths according to the commandments regarding the Sabbaths of the land, as it is written in the tablets, which He gave into my hands that I should write out for thee the laws of the seasons, and the seasons according to the division of their days.

Herewith is completed the account of the division of the days.

http://wesley.nnu.edu/biblical_studies/noncanon/ot/pseudo/jubilee.htm
埃塞俄比亞東正教才會用的以諾書Enoch維基
The Book of Enoch (also 1 Enoch[1]) is a work ascribed to Enoch, the great-grandfather of Noah and son of Jared (Genesis 5:18).

This book today is non-canonical and considered pseudepigrapha in most Christian churches, however the Ethiopian Orthodox Church to this day regards it to be canonical.

A short section of 1 Enoch (1En1:9) is quoted in the New Testament (Letter of Jude 1:14-15), and there apparently attributed to "Enoch the Seventh from Adam" (1En60:8).

Other sections of 1 Enoch are also quoted, both positively and negatively, by some of the early Church Fathers.

It is wholly extant only in the Ge'ez language, with Aramaic fragments from the Dead Sea Scrolls and a few Greek and Latin fragments. There is no consensus among Western scholars about the original language: some propose Aramaic, others Hebrew, while the probable thesis according to E. Isaac is that 1 Enoch, as Daniel, was composed partially in Aramaic and partially in Hebrew[2]:6. Ethiopian scholars generally hold that Ge'ez is the language of the original from which the Greek and Aramaic copies were made, pointing out that it is the only language in which the complete text has yet been found[3].

According to Western scholars its older sections (mainly in the Book of the Watchers) date from about 300 BC and the latest part (Book of Parables) probably was composed at the end of the 1st century BC;[4] it is argued that all the writers of the New Testament were familiar with it and were influenced by it in thought and diction.[5]

    Although the Chester Beatty-Michigan Papyrus provides a fourth-century terminus ad quem for the Greek translation of at least the Epistle of Enoch, the wide usage of the Book of Watchers by the Greek and Latin fathers of the second to fourth centuries indicates a much earlier date for at least the Book of watchers, and the writings of Tertullian suggest that he knew a large part of the corpus.[6]

Content

The first part of Book of Enoch describes the fall of the Watchers, the angels who fathered the Nephilim. The remainder of the book describes Enoch's visits to Heaven in the form of travels, visions and dreams, and his revelations.

The book consists of five quite distinct major sections (see each section for details):

    * The Book of the Watchers (1 Enoch 1 – 36)
    * The Book of Parables of Enoch (1 Enoch 37 – 71) (Also called the Similitudes of Enoch)
    * The Astronomical Book (1 Enoch 72 – 82) (Also called the Book of the Heavenly Luminaries or Book of Luminaries. )
    * The Book of Dream Visions (1 Enoch 83 – 90) (Also called the Book of Dreams)
    * The Epistle of Enoch (1 Enoch 91 – 108)

The shared view[7] is that these five sections were originally independent works (with different dates of composition), themselves a product of much editorial arrangement, and were only later redacted into what we now call 1 Enoch. This view is now opposed only by a few authors who maintain the literary integrity of the Book of Enoch, one of the most recent (1990) being the Ethiopian Wossenie Yifru[3]. Józef Milik has suggested that the Book of Giants found amongst the Dead Sea Scrolls should be part of the collection, appearing after the Book of Watchers in place of the Book of Parables, but for various reasons Milik's theory has not been widely accepted.

Canonicity in Judaism

Although evidently widely known at the time of the Development of the Jewish Bible canon, 1Enoch was excluded from both the formal canon of the Tanakh and the typical canon of the Septuagint and therefore also the writings known today as the Apocrypha.[8] [9] One possible reason for Jewish rejection of the book might be the textual nature of several early sections of the book which make use of material from the Torah, for example 1En1 is a midrash of Deuteronomy 33. [10][11]. The content, particularly detailed description of fallen angels, would also be a reason for rejection from the Hebrew canon at this period - as illustrated by the comments of Trypho the Jew when debating with Justin Martyr on this subject. Trypho: "The utterances of God are holy, but your expositions are mere contrivances, as is plain from what has been explained by you; nay, even blasphemies, for you assert that angels sinned and revolted from God." (Dialogue 79) [12]

Canonicity in Christianity

The book is referred to, and quoted, in Jude 14-15:

    "And Enoch also, the seventh from Adam, prophesied of these [men], saying, Behold, the Lord cometh with ten thousands of his saints, To execute judgment upon all, and to convince all that are ungodly among them of all their ungodly deeds which they have ungodly committed, and of all their hard speeches which ungodly sinners have spoken against him."

Compare this with Enoch 1:9, translated from the Ethiopic (found also in Qumran scroll 4Q204=4QEnochc ar, col I 16-18[13]

    "And behold! He cometh with ten thousands of His holy ones To execute judgement upon all, And to destroy all the ungodly: And to convict all flesh Of all the works of their ungodliness which they have ungodly committed, And of all the hard things which ungodly sinners have spoken against Him."

Compare this also with what may be the original source of 1En1:9 in Deuteronomy 33:2 [14][15][16]

    "The Lord came from Sinai and dawned from Seir upon us; he shone forth from Mount Paran; he came from the ten thousands of holy ones, with flaming fire at his right hand."

Under the heading of canonicity it is not enough to merely demonstrate that something is quoted (or Paul's quotation of "All Cretans are liars" Titus 1:12 would grant canonicity to the works of Epimenides). It is also necessary to demonstrate the nature of the quotation. [17] In the case of the Jude 14 quotation of 1Enoch 1:9 it is undeniable that a quotation has been made. However there remains a question as to whether the author of Jude attributed the quotation believing the source to be the historical Enoch before the flood, or a midrash of Deut.33:2-3. [18] [19] [20]

Peter H. Davids points to Dead Sea scrolls evidence, but leaves it open whether Jude viewed 1 Enoch as canon, deuterocanon, or otherwise: "Did Jude, then, consider this scripture to be like Genesis or Isaiah? Certainly he did consider it authoritative, a true word from God. We cannot tell whether he ranked it alongside other prophetic books such as Isaiah and Jeremiah. What we do know is, first, that other Jewish groups, most notably those living in Qumran near the Dead Sea, also used and valued 1 Enoch, but we do not find it grouped with the scriptural scrolls."[21]

It may be significant that the attribution "Enoch the Seventh from Adam" is apparently itself a section heading taken from 1 Enoch (1En 60:8, Jude1:14a), and not from Genesis. [22]

Another probable Biblical reference can be found in I Peter 3:19,20 to En. 21:6.

1 Enoch is considered as Scripture in the Epistle of Barnabas (16:4)[23] and by many of the early Church Fathers as Athenagoras[24], Clement of Alexandria[25], Irenaeus[26] and Tertullian[27] who wrote c. 200 that the Book of Enoch had been rejected by the Jews because it contained prophecies pertaining to Christ.[28]

However, later Fathers denied the canonicity of the book and some even considered the letter of Jude uncanonical because it refers to an "apocryphal" work[29]. By the fourth century it was mostly excluded from Christian lists of the Biblical canon, and it was omitted from the canon by most of the Christian church (the Ethiopian Orthodox Church being an exception).

The traditional view of the Ethiopic Orthodox Church, which reckons 1 Enoch as an inspired document, is that the Ethiopic text is the original one, written by Enoch himself. In their view the following opening sentence of Enoch is the first and oldest sentence written in any human language, since Enoch was the first to write letters:

    "ቃለ፡ በረከት፡ ዘሄኖክ፡ ዘከመ፡ ባረከ፡ ኅሩያነ፡ ወጻድቃነ፡ እለ፡ ሀለው፡ ይኩኑ"
    "በዕለተ፡ ምንዳቤ፡ ለአሰስሎ፡ ኲሉ፡ እኩያን፡ ወረሲዓን።"
    "Qāla barakat za-Hēnōk zakama bārraka ḫirūyāna wa-ṣādḳāna 'ila halaw yikūnū baʿilata mindābē la'asaslō kʷilū 'ikūyān wa-rasīʿān"
    "Word of blessing of Henok, wherewith he blessed the chosen and righteous who would be alive in the day of tribulation for the removal of all wrongdoers and backsliders."

Manuscript tradition

Ethiopic

The most extensive witnesses to the Book of Enoch exist in the Ge'ez language. Robert Henry Charles’ critical edition of 1906 subdivides the Ethiopic manuscripts into two families:

Family α: thought to be more ancient and more similar to the Greek versions:

    * A - ms. orient. 485 of the British Museum, 16th century, with Jubilees
    * B - ms. orient. 491 of the British Museum, 18th century, with other biblical writings
    * C - ms. of Berlin orient. Petermann II Nachtrag 29, 16th century;
    * D - ms. abbadiano 35, 17th century
    * E - ms. abbadiano 55, 16th century
    * F - ms. 9 of the Lago Lair, 15th century

Family β: more recent, apparently edited texts

    * G - ms. 23 of the John Rylands University Library of Manchester, 18th century
    * H - ms. orient. 531 of the Bodleian Library of Oxford, 18th century;
    * I - ms. Brace 74 of the Bodleian Library of Oxford, 16th century
    * J - ms. orient. 8822 of the British Museum, 18th century
    * K - ms. property of E. Ullendorff of London, 18th century;
    * L - ms. abbadiano 99, 19th century;
    * M - ms. orient. 492 of the British Museum, 18th century
    * N - ms. Ethiopian 30 of Monaco of Baviera, 18th century;
    * O - ms. orient. 484 of the British Museum, 18th century;
    * P - ms. Ethiopian 71 of the Vatican, 18th century;
    * Q - ms. orient. 486 of the British Museum, 18th century, lacking chapters 1-60


Aramaic

Eleven Aramaic-language fragments of the Book of Enoch were found in cave 4 of Qumran in 1948,[30] and are in the care of the Israel Antiquities Authority. They were translated for and discussed by Józef Milik and Matthew Black in The Books of Enoch[31]. Another translation has been released by Vermes and Garcia-Martinez [32]. Milik described the documents as being white or cream in color, blackened in areas, made of leather which was smooth, thick and stiff. It was also partly damaged with the ink blurred and faint.

    * 4Q201 = 4QEnoch a ar, Enoch 2,1-5,6; 6,4-8,1; 8,3-9,3.6-8
    * 4Q202 = 4QEnoch b ar, Enoch 5,9-6,4; 6,7-8,1; 8,2-9,4; 10,8-12; 14,4-6;
    * 4Q204 = 4QEnoch c ar, Enoch 1,9-5,1; 6,7; 10,13-19; 12,3; 13,6-14,16; 30,1-32,1; 35,; 36,1-4; 106,13-107,2;
    * 4Q205 = 4QEnoch d ar; Enoch 89,29-31; 89,43-44
    * 4Q206 = 4QEnoch e ar; Enoch 22,3-7; 28,3-29,2; 31,2-32,3; 88,3; 89,1-6; 89,26-30; 89,31-37
    * 4Q207 = 4QEnoch f ar
    * 4Q208 = 4QEnastr a ar
    * 4Q209 = 4QEnastr b ar; Enoch 79,3-5; 78,17; 79,2 and large fragments that do not correspond to any part of the Ethiopian text
    * 4Q210 = 4QEnastr c ar; Enoch 76,3-10; 76,13-77,4; 78,6-8
    * 4Q211 = 4QEnastr d ar; large fragments that do not correspond to any part of the Ethiopian text
    * 4Q212 = 4QEn g ar; 91,10; 91,18-19; 92,1-2; 93,2-4; 93,9-10; 91,11-17; 93,11-93,1.

Also at Qumran (cave 1) have been discovered 3 tiny fragments in Hebrew (8,4-9,4; 106).

Greek and Latin

The 8th century work Chronographia Universalis by the Byzantine historian George Syncellus preserved some passages of the Book of Enoch in Greek (6,1-9,4; 15,8-16,1). Other Greek fragments known are:

    * Codex Panopolitanus (Cairo Papyrus 10759), named also Codex Gizeh or Akhmim fragements, consists of fragments of two 6th century papyri containing portions of chapters 1-32, recovered by a French archeological team at Akhmim in Egypt, and published five years later in 1892.
    * Vatican Library code Gr. 1809, f. 216v (11th century): including 89,42-49
    * Chester Beatty Papyri XII : including 97,6-107,3 (less chapter 105)
    * Oxyrhynchus Papyri 2069: including only a few letters, that made the identification uncertain, from 77,7-78,1; 78,1-3; 78,8; 85,10-86,2; 87:1-3

It has been claimed that several small additional fragments in Greek have been found at Qumran (7QEnoch: 7Q4, 7Q8, 7Q10-13), dating about 100 BC, ranging from 98:11? to 103:15[33] and written on papyrus with gridlines, but this identification is highly contested.

Of the Latin translation only 1,9 and 106,1-18 are known. The first passage occurs in Pseudo-Cyprian and Pseudo-Vigilius [34]; the second was discovered in 1893 by M. R. James in a 8th century manuscript in the British Museum and published in the same year[35].

Second Temple period

The 1976 publication by Milik[31] of the results of the paleographic dating of the Enochic fragments found in Qumran made a breakthrough. According to this scholar, who studied the original scrolls for many years, the oldest fragments of the Book of Watchers are dated 200-150 BC. Since the Book of Watchers shows evidence of multiple stages of composition, it is probable that this work was extant already in the third century BC[36]. The same can be said about the Astronomical Book.

It was no longer possible to claim that the core of Book of Enoch was composed in the wake of the Maccabean Revolt as a reaction to Hellenization"[37]:93. Scholars thus had to look for the origins of the Qumranic sections of 1 Enoch in the previous historical period, and the comparison with traditional material of such a time showed that these sections do not draw exclusively on categories and ideas prominent in the Hebrew Bible. Some scholars speak even of an "Enochic Judaism" from which the writers of Qumran scrolls were descended[38]. Margaret Barker argues that "Enoch is the writing of a very conservative group whose roots go right back to the time of the First Temple"[39]. The main peculiar aspects of the Enochic Judaism are the following:

    * the idea of the origin of the evil caused by the fallen angels, who came on the earth to unite with human women. These fallen angels are considered ultimately responsible for the spread of evil and impurity on the earth[37]:90;
    * the absence in 1 Enoch of formal parallels to the specific laws and commandment found in the Mosaic Torah and of references to issues like Shabbat observance or the rite of circumcision. The Sinaitic covenant and Torah are not of central importance in the Book of Enoch[40]:50-51;
    * the concept of "End of Days" as the time of final judgment that takes the place of promised earthly rewards[37]:92;
    * the rejection of the Second Temple's sacrifices considered impure: according to Enoch 89:73, the Jews, when returned from the exile, "reared up that tower (the temple) and they began again to place a table before the tower, but all the bread on it was polluted and not pure";
    * a solar calendar in opposition to the moon-based calendar used in the Second Temple (a very important aspect for the determination of the dates of religious feasts);
    * an interest in the angelic world that involves life after death[41].

Most Qumran fragments are relatively early, with none written from the last period of the Qumranic experience. Thus it is probable that Qumran community gradually lost interest in the Book of Enoch[42].

The relation between 1 Enoch and the Essenes was noted even before the discovery of the Dead Sea Scrolls[43]. While there is consensus to consider the sections of the Book of Enoch found in Qumran as texts used by the Essenes, the same is not so clear for the Enochic texts not found in Qumran (mainly the Book of Parables): it was proposed[44] to consider these parts as expression of the mainstream, but not-Qumranic, essenic movement. The main peculiar aspects of the not-Qumranic units of 1 Enoch are the following:

    * a Messiah called "Son of Man", with divine attributes, generated before the creation, who will act directly in the final judgment and sit on a throne of glory (1 Enoch 46:1-4, 48:2-7, 69:26-29)[13]:562-563
    * the sinners usually seen as the wealthy ones and the just as the oppressed (a theme we find also in the Psalms of Solomon).

Early Influence

Classical Rabbinic literature is characterized by near silence concerning Enoch. It seems plausible that Rabbinic polemics against Enochic texts and traditions might have led to the loss of these books to Rabbinic Judaism.[45]

The Book of Enoch plays an important role in the history of the Jewish mysticism: the great scholar Gershom Scholem wrote: "the main subjects of the later Merkabah mysticism already occupy a central position in the older esoteric literature, best represented by the Book of Enoch"[46]. Particular attention is paid to the detailed description of the throne of God included in chapter 14 of 1 Enoch.

For the quotation of the Book of Watchers in the Christian Letter of Jude see section: Canonicity.

There is little doubt that 1 Enoch was influential in molding New Testament doctrines about the Messiah, the Son of Man, the messianic kingdom, demonology, the resurrection, and eschatology[2]:10. The limits of the influence of 1Enoch are discussed at length by RH Charles [47], E Isaac [2], GW Nickelsburg [48] in their respective translations and commentaries. It is possible that the earlier sections of 1Enoch had direct textual and content influence on many Biblical apocrypha, as Jubilees, 2 Baruch, 2 Esdras, Apocalypse of Abraham and 2 Enoch, though even in these cases, the connection is typically more branches of a common trunk than direct development.[49]

The Greek text was known to, and quoted, both positively and negatively, by many Church Fathers: references can be found in Justin Martyr, Minucius Felix, Irenaeus, Origen, Cyprian, Hippolytus, Commodianus, Lactantius and Cassian[50]:430, although these references come exclusively from the first five chapters of 1 Enoch. After Cassian (died 435 CE), and before the modern "rediscovery", some excerpts are given in the Byzantine Empire by the 8th century monk George Syncellus in his chronography and in the 9th century it is listed as an apocryphon of the New Testament by Patriarch Nicephorus[51].

Rediscovery

Outside of Ethiopia, the text of the Book of Enoch was considered lost until the beginning of the 17th century, when it was confidently asserted that the book was found in an Ethiopic (Ge'ez) language translation there, and Nicolas-Claude Fabri de Peiresc bought a book that was claimed to be identical to the one quoted by the Epistle of Jude and the Church Fathers. Hiob Ludolf, the great Ethiopic scholar of the 17th and 18th centuries, soon claimed it to be a forgery produced by Abba Bahaila Michael[52].

Better success was achieved by the famous Scottish traveller James Bruce, who in 1773 returned to Europe from six years in Abyssinia with three copies of a Ge'ez version[53]. One is preserved in the Bodleian Library, another was presented to the royal library of France, while the third was kept by Bruce. The copies remained unused until the 1800s, Silvestre de Sacy, in "Notices sur le livre d'Enoch"[54] included extracts of the books with Latin translations (Enoch chapters 1,2,5-16,22,32). From this a German translation was made by Rink in 1801.

The first English translation of the Bodleian/Ethiopic manuscript was published in 1821 by Richard Laurence, titled The Book of Enoch, the prophet: an apocryphal production, supposed to have been lost for ages; but discovered at the close of the last century in Abyssinia; now first translated from an Ethiopic manuscript in the Bodleian Library. Oxford, 1821. Revised editions appeared in 1833, 1838, and 1842.

Laurence in 1838 also released the first Ethiopic text of 1 Enoch to be published in the West, under the title: Libri Enoch Prophetae Versio Aethiopica. The text, divided into 105 chapters, was soon considered unreliable as it was the transcription of a single Ethiopic manuscript[55].

In 1833 Professor Andreas Gottlieb Hoffmann of the University of Jena released a German translation, based on Laurence's work, called Das Buch Henoch in vollständiger Uebersetzung, mit fortlaufendem Kommentar, ausführlicher Einleitung und erläuternden Excursen. Two other translations came out around the same time one in 1836 called Enoch Restitutus, or an Attempt (Rev Edward Murray) and in 1840 Prophetae veteres Pseudepigraphi, partim ex Abyssinico vel Hebraico sermonibus Latine bersi (A. F. Gfrörer). However both are considered to be poor - the 1836 translation most of all and is discussed in Hoffmann[56].

The first critical edition, based on five manuscripts, appeared in 1851 as Liber Henoch, Aethiopice, ad quinque codicum fidem editus, cum variis lectionibus, by August Dillmann. It was followed in 1853 by a German translation of the book by the same author with commentary titled Das Buch Henoch, übersetzt und erklärt. It was considered the standard edition of 1 Enoch until the work of Charles.

The generation of Enoch scholarship from 1890 to the WW1 was dominated by Robert Henry Charles. His 1893 translation and commentary of the Ethiopic text already represented an important advancement as it was based on ten additional manuscripts. In 1906 R.H. Charles published a new critical edition of the Ethiopic text, using 23 Ethiopic manuscripts and all available sources at his time. The English translation of the reconstructed text appeared in 1912 and the same year in his collection of The Apocrypha and Pseudepigrapha of the Old Testament.

The publication, in the early 1950s, of the first Aramaic fragments of 1 Enoch among the Dead Sea Scrolls profoundly changed the study of the document, as it provided evidence of its antiquity and original text. The official edition of all Enoch fragments appeared in 1976, by Jozef Milik.

In 1978 a new edition of the Ethiopic text was edited by Michael Knibb, with an English translation, while a new commentary appeared in 1985 by Matthew Black. The renewed interest in 1 Enoch spawned a number of other translations: in Hebrew (A. Kahana, 1956), Danish (Hammershaimb, 1956), Italian (Fusella, 1981), Spanish (1982), French (Caquot, 1984) and other modern languages.

In 2001 George W.E. Nickelsburg published the first volume of a comprehensive commentary on 1 Enoch in the Hermeneia series[40]. Since the year 2000, the Enoch seminar has devoted several meetings to the Enoch literature and has become the center of a lively debate concerning the hypothesis that the Enoch literature attests the presence of an autonomous non-Mosaic tradition of dissent in Second Temple Judaism.

The Book of the Watchers

This first section of the Book of Enoch describes the fall of the Watchers, the angels who fathered the Nephilim (cf. the bene Elohim, Genesis 6:1-2) and narrates the travels of Enoch in the heavens. This section is said to have been composed in the fourth or third century BC according to Western scholars.[57]

Content of the Book of the Watchers

I-V. Parable of Enoch on the Future Lot of the Wicked and the Righteous.

VI-XI. The Fall of the Angels: the Demoralization of Mankind: the Intercession of the Angels on behalf of Mankind. The Dooms pronounced by God on the Angels of the Messianic Kingdom.

XII-XVI. Dream-Vision of Enoch: his Intercession for Azazel and the fallen angels: and his Announcement of their first and final Doom.

XVII-XXXVI. Enoch's Journeys through the Earth and Sheol:

    * XVII-XIX. The First Journey.
    * XX. Names and Functions of the Seven Archangels.
    * XXI. Preliminary and final Place of Punishment of the fallen Angels (stars).
    * XXII. Sheol or the Underworld.
    * XXIII. The fire that deals with the Luminaries of Heaven.
    * XXIV-XXV. The Seven Mountains in the North-West and the Tree of Life.
    * XXVI. Jerusalem and the Mountains, Ravines, and Streams.
    * XXVII. The Purpose of the Accursed Valley.
    * XXVIII-XXXIII. Further Journey to the East.
    * XXXIV-XXXV. Enoch's Journey to the North.
    * XXXVI. The Journey to the South.

Description of the Book of the Watchers

The introduction to the Book of Enoch tells us that Enoch is "a just man, whose eyes were opened by God so that he saw a vision of the Holy One in the heavens, which the sons of God showed to me, and from them I heard everything, and I knew what I saw, but [these things that I saw will] not [come to pass] for this generation, but for a generation that has yet to come."

It discusses God coming to Earth on Mount Sinai with His hosts to pass judgement on mankind. It also tells us about the luminaries rising and setting in the order and in their own time and never change.

    "Observe and see how (in the winter) all the trees seem as though they had withered and shed all their leaves, except fourteen trees, which do not lose their foliage but retain the old foliage from two to three years till the new comes."

How all things are ordained by God and take place in his own time. The sinners shall perish and the great and the good shall live on in light, joy and peace.

    "And all His works go on thus from year to year for ever, and all the tasks which they accomplish for Him, and their tasks change not, but according as God hath ordained so is it done."

The first section of the book depicts the interaction of the fallen angels with mankind; Sêmîazâz compels the other 199 fallen angels to take human wives to "beget us children".

    "And Semjâzâ, who was their leader, said unto them: 'I fear ye will not indeed agree to do this deed, and I alone shall have to pay the penalty of a great sin.' And they all answered him and said: 'Let us all swear an oath, and all bind ourselves by mutual imprecations not to abandon this plan but to do this thing.'. Then sware they all together and bound themselves by mutual imprecations upon it. And they were in all two hundred; who descended in the days of Jared on the summit of Mount Hermon, and they called it Mount Hermon, because they had sworn and bound themselves by mutual imprecations upon it."

The names of the leaders are given as "Samyaza (Shemyazaz), their leader, Araqiel, Râmêêl, Kokabiel, Tamiel, Ramiel, Dânêl, Chazaqiel, Baraqiel, Asael, Armaros, Batariel, Bezaliel, Ananiel, Zaqiel, Shamsiel, Satariel, Turiel, Yomiel, Sariel."

This results in the creation of the Nephilim (Genesis) or Anakim/Anak (Giants) as they are described in the book:

    "And they became pregnant, and they bare great giants, whose height was three thousand ells[58]: Who consumed all the acquisitions of men. And when men could no longer sustain them, the giants turned against them and devoured mankind. And they began to sin against birds, and beasts, and reptiles, and fish, and to devour one another's flesh, and drink the blood."

It also discusses the teaching of humans by the fallen angels chiefly Azâzêl:

    "And Azâzêl taught men to make swords, and knives, and shields, and breastplates, and made known to them the metals of the earth and the art of working them, and bracelets, and ornaments, and the use of antimony, and the beautifying of the eyelids, and all kinds of costly stones, and all colouring tinctures. And there arose much godlessness, and they committed fornication, and they were led astray, and became corrupt in all their ways. Semjâzâ taught enchantments, and root-cuttings, Armârôs the resolving of enchantments, Barâqîjâl, taught astrology, Kôkabêl the constellations, Ezêqêêl the knowledge of the clouds, Araqiêl the signs of the earth, Shamsiêl the signs of the sun, and Sariêl the course of the moon."

Michael, Uriel, Raphael, and Gabriel appeal to God to judge the inhabitants of the world and the fallen angels. Uriel is then sent by God to tell Noah of the coming apocalypse and what he needs to do.

    "Then said the Most High, the Holy and Great One spoke, and sent Uriel to the son of Lamech, and said to him: Go to Noah and tell him in my name "Hide thyself!" and reveal to him the end that is approaching: that the whole earth will be destroyed, and a deluge is about to come upon the whole earth, and will destroy all that is on it. And now instruct him that he may escape and his seed may be preserved for all the generations of the world."

God commands Raphael to imprison Azâzêl:

    "the Lord said to Raphael: 'Bind Azâzêl hand and foot, and cast him into the darkness: and make an opening in the desert, which is in Dûdâêl (Gods Kettle/Crucible/Cauldron), and cast him therein. And place upon him rough and jagged rocks, and cover him with darkness, and let him abide there for ever, and cover his face that he may not see light. And on the day of the great judgement he shall be cast into the fire. And heal the earth which the angels have corrupted, and proclaim the healing of the earth, that they may heal the plague, and that all the children of men may not perish through all the secret things that the Watchers have disclosed and have taught their sons. And the whole earth has been corrupted through the works that were taught by Azâzêl: to him ascribe all sin."

God gave Gabriel instructions concerning the Nephilim and the imprisonment of the fallen angels:

    "And to Gabriel said the Lord: 'Proceed against the biters and the reprobates, and against the children of fornication: and destroy [the children of fornication and] the children of the Watchers from amongst men [and cause them to go forth]: send them one against the other that they may destroy each other in battle"

Some,[citation needed] including R.H. Charles, suggest that 'biters' should read 'bastards' but the name is so unusual that some[citation needed] believe that the implication that's made by the reading of 'biters' is more or less correct.

The Lord commands Michael to bind the fallen angels.

    "And the Lord said unto Michael: 'Go, bind Semjâzâ and his associates who have united themselves with women so as to have defiled themselves with them in all their uncleanness. 12. And when their sons have slain one another, and they have seen the destruction of their beloved ones, bind them fast for seventy generations in the valleys of the earth, till the day of their judgement and of their consummation, till the judgement that is for ever and ever is consummated. 13. In those days they shall be led off to the abyss of fire: (and) to the torment and the prison in which they shall be confined for ever. And whosoever shall be condemned and destroyed will from thenceforth be bound together with them to the end of all generations."

Book of Parables

Dated: presumed by western scholars to be written during 1st century BC or very beginning of 1st century CE.[59]

No fragments of chapters 37-71 (Book of Parables) were found at Qumran. This led J.T. Milik in 1976[31], in line with many scholars of the 19th century as Lucke (1832), Hofman (1852), Wiesse (1856) and Phillippe (1868), to believe that those chapters were written in later Christian times by a Jewish Christian to enhance Christian beliefs with Enoch's authoritative name.

However, J.H. Charlesworth summarized[60] the current scholarly consensus, saying: "It became obvious that Milik had not proved his position, as Fitzmyer pointed out as soon as The Book of Enoch had been published. Repeatedly the specialists on I Enoch have come out in favor of the Jewish nature and its first century CE origin, and probable pre-70 date. The list of specialists on I Enoch arguing for this position has become overwhelmingly impressive: Isaac, Nickelsburg, Stone, Knibb, Anderson, Black, VanderKam, Greenfield and Sutter. The consensus communis is unparalleled in almost any other area of research; no specialists now argue that I Enoch 37-71 is a Christian and postdates the first century." .

The Book of Parables appears to be based on the Book of Watchers, but presents a later development of the idea of final judgement and eschatology, concerned not only with the destiny of the fallen angels but also of the evil kings of the earth. The Book of Parables uses the expression "Son of Man" for the eschatological protagonist, who is also called “Righteous One,” “Chosen One,” and “Messiah”, and narrates his pre-existence and his sitting on the throne of glory in the final judgment. See also Article Son of Man.

Content of the Book of Parables

XXXVIII-XLIV. The First Parable.

    * VIII. The Coming Judgement of the Wicked.
    * IX. The Abode of the Righteous and the Elect One: the Praises of the Blessed.
    * XL-XLI. 2. The Four Archangels.
    * XLI. 3-9. Astronomical Secrets.
    * XLII. The Dwelling-places of Wisdom and of Unrighteousness.
    * XLIII-XLIV. Astronomical Secrets.

XLV-LVII. The Second Parable.

    * XLV. The Lot of the Apostates: the New Heaven and the New Earth.
    * XLVI. The Head of Days and the Son of Man.
    * XLVII. The Prayer of the Righteous for Vengeance and their Joy at its coming.
    * XLVIII. The Fount of Righteousness: the Son of Man -the Stay of the Righteous: Judgement of the Kings and the Mighty.
    * XLIX. The Power and Wisdom of the Elect One.
    * L. The Glorification and Victory of the Righteous: the Repentance of the Gentiles.
    * LI. The Resurrection of the Dead, and the Separation by the Judge of the Righteous and the Wicked.
    * LII. The Six Metal Mountains and the Elect One.
    * LIII-LIV. The Valley of Judgement: the Angels of Punishment: the Communities of the Elect One.
    * LIV.7.-LV.2. Noachic Fragment on the first World Judgement.
    * LV.3.-LVI.4. Final Judgement of Azazel, the Watchers and their children.
    * LVI.5-8. Last Struggle of the Heathen Powers against Israel.
    * LVII. The Return from the Dispersion.

LVIII-LXXI. The Third Parable.

    * LVIII. The Blessedness of the Saints.
    * LIX. The Lights and the Thunder.
    * [Book Of Noah fragments]
    * LX. Quaking of the Heaven: Behemoth and Leviathan: the Elements.
    * LXI. Angels go off to measure Paradise: the Judgement of the Righteous by the Elect One: the Praise of the Elect One and of God.
    * LXII. Judgement of the Kings and the Mighty: Blessedness of the Righteous.
    * LXIII. The unavailing Repentance of the Kings and the Mighty.
    * LXIV. Vision of the Fallen Angels in the Place of Punishment.
    * LXV. Enoch foretells to Noah the Deluge and his own Preservation.
    * LXVI. The Angels of the Waters bidden to hold them in Check.
    * LXVII. God's Promise to Noah: Places of Punishment of the Angels and of the Kings.
    * LXVIII. Michael and Raphael astonished at the Severity of the Judgement.
    * LXIX. The Names and Functions of the (fallen Angels and) Satans: the secret Oath.
    * LXX. The Final Translation of Enoch.
    * LXXI. Two earlier Visions of Enoch.


The Astronomical Book

Dated: written in the fourth/third century BC according to theory of western scholars.

This book contains descriptions of the movement of heavenly bodies and of the firmament, as a knowledge revealed to Enoch in his trips to Heaven, and it describes a Solar calendar that was later described also in the Book of Jubilees which was used by the Dead Sea sect. The use of this calendar made it impossible to celebrate the festivals simultaneously with the Temple of Jerusalem.

The year was composed from 364 days, divided in 4 equal seasons of 91 days each. Each season was composed of three equal months of 30 days, plus an extra day at the end of the third month. The whole year was thus composed of exactly 52 weeks, and every calendar day occurred always on the same day of the week. Each year and each season started always on Wednesday, which was the fourth day of the creation narrated in Genesis, the day when the lights in the sky, the seasons, the days and the years were created. It is not known exactly how they used to reconcile this calendar with the tropical year of 365.24219 days. Probably they used to add a intercalary week every few years, in order to have the year always to start on Wednesday.

Content of the Astronomical Book

    * LXXII. The Sun.
    * LXXIII. The Moon and its Phases.
    * LXXIV. The Lunar Year.
    * LXXVI. The Twelve Winds and their Portals.
    * LXXVII. The Four Quarters of the World: the Seven Mountains, the Seven Rivers, Seven Great Islands.
    * LXXVIII. The Sun and Moon: the Waxing and Waning of the Moon.
    * LXXIX-LXXX.1. Recapitulation of several of the Laws.
    * LXXX.2-8. Perversion of Nature and the heavenly Bodies due to the Sin of Men.
    * LXXXI. The Heavenly Tablets and the Mission of Enoch.
    * LXXXII. Charge given to Enoch: the four Intercalary days: the Stars which lead the Seasons and the Months.


The Dream Visions

The Book of Dream Visions, containing a vision of a history of Israel all the way down to what the majority have interpreted as the Maccabean Revolt, is dated by most to Maccabean times (about 163-142 BC). It was written before the Flood according to the Ethiopian Christian Church.

Content of the Dream Visions

LXXXIII-LXXXIV. First Dream-Vision on the Deluge. LXXXV-XC. Second Dream-Vision of Enoch: the History of the World to the Founding of the Messianic Kingdom.

    * LXXXVI. The Fall of the Angels and the Demoralization of Mankind.
    * LXXXVII. The Advent of the Seven Archangels.
    * LXXXVIII. The Punishment of the Fallen Angels by the Archangels.
    * LXXXIX.1-9. The Deluge and the Deliverance of Noah.
    * LXXXIX.10-27. From the Death of Noah to the Exodus.
    * LXXXIX.28-40. Israel in the Desert, the Giving of the Law, the Entrance into Canaan.
    * LXXXIX.41-50. From the Time of the Judges to the Building of the Temple.
    * LXXXIX.51-67. The Two Kingdoms of Israel and Judah to the Destruction of Jerusalem.
    * LXXXIX.68-71. First Period of the Angelic Rulers -from the Destruction of Jerusalem to the Return from Captivity.
    * LXXXIX.72-77. Second Period -from the Time of Cyrus to that of Alexander the Great.
    * XC.1-5. Third Period -from Alexander the Great to the Graeco-Syrian Domination.
    * XC.6-12. Fourth Period Graeco-Syrian Domination to the Maccabean Revolt (debated).
    * XC.13-19. The last Assault of the Gentiles on the Jews (where vv. 13-15 and 16-18 are doublets).
    * XC.20-27. Judgement of the Fallen Angels, the Shepherds, and the Apostates.
    * XC.28-42. The New Jerusalem, the Conversion of the surviving Gentiles, the Resurrection of the Righteous, the Messiah. Enoch awakes and weeps.

Animals in the second Dream-Vision

The second Dream-Vision in this section of the Book of Enoch is an allegorical account of the history of Israel, that uses animals to represent human beings and human beings to represent angels.

One of several hypothetical reconstructions of the meanings in the dream is as follows based on the works of R. H. Charles and G. H. Schodde:

    * White color for moral purity; Black color for sin and contamination of the fallen angels; Red the color for blood reference to his martydom
    * White bull is Adam; Female heifer is Eve; Red calf is Abel; * Black calf is Cain; White calf is Seth;
    * White bull / man is Noah; White bull is Shem; Red bull is Japheth; Black bull is Ham; Lord of the sheep is God; Fallen star is either Samyaza or Azazel; Elephants are Giants; Camels are Nephilim; Asses are Elioud;
    * Sheep are the faithful; Rams are leaders; Herds are the tribes of Israel; Wild Asses are Ishmael, and his descendants including the Midianites; Wild Boars are Esau and his descendants, Edom and Amalek; Bears (Hyenas/Wolves in Ethiopic) are the Egyptians; Dogs are Philistines; Tigers are Arimathea; Hyenas are Assyrians; Ravens (Crows) are Seleucids (Syrians); Kites are Ptolemies; Eagles are possibly Macedonians; Foxes are Ammonites and Moabites;


Description of the Dream Visions

There are a great many links between the first book and this one, including the outline of the story and the imprisonment of the leaders and destruction of the Nephilim. The dream includes sections relating to the book of Watchers:

    "And those seventy shepherds were judged and found guilty, and they were cast into that fiery abyss. And I saw at that time how a like abyss was opened in the midst of the earth, full of fire, and they brought those blinded sheep." - The fall of the evil ones
    "And all the oxen feared them and were affrighted at them, and began to bite with their teeth and to devour, and to gore with their horns. And they began, moreover, to devour those oxen; and behold all the children of the earth began to tremble and quake before them and to flee from them." - The creation of the Nephilim et al.

86:4, 87:3, 88:2, and 89:6 all describe the types of Nephilim that are created during the times described in The Book of Watchers, though this doesn't mean that the authors of both books are the same. Similar references exist in Jubilees 7:21-22.

The book describes their release from the Ark along with three bulls white, red and black which are Shem, Japheth, and Ham in 90:9. It also covers the death of Noah described as the white bull and the creation of many nations:

    "And they began to bring forth beasts of the field and birds, so that there arose different genera: lions, tigers, wolves, dogs, hyenas, wild boars, foxes, squirrels, swine, falcons, vultures, kites, eagles, and ravens" 90:10

It then describes the story of Moses and Aaron (90:13-15) including the miracle of the river splitting in two for them to pass, and the creation of the stone commandments. Eventually arriving at a "pleasant and glorious land" (90:40) where attacked by dogs (Philistines), foxes (Ammonites, Moabites) and wild boars (Esau).

    "And that sheep whose eyes were opened saw that ram, which was amongst the sheep, till it †forsook its glory† and began to butt those sheep, and trampled upon them, and behaved itself unseemly. 45. And the Lord of the sheep sent the lamb to another lamb and raised it to being a ram and leader of the sheep instead of that ram which had †forsaken its glory†." - David replacing Saul as leader of Israel

The creation of Solomon's temple it also describes the house which may be the tabernacle "And that house became great and broad, and it was built for those sheep: (and) a tower lofty and great was built on the house for the Lord of the sheep, and that house was low, but the tower was elevated and lofty, and the Lord of the sheep stood on that tower and they offered a full table before Him". This interpretation is accepted by Dillmann p 262, Vernes p 89, and Schodde p. 107. It also describes the escape of Elijah the prophet, In 1 Kings 17:2-24 he is fed by 'ravens' so if Kings uses a similar analogy he may have been fed by the Seleucids.

    "saw the Lord of the sheep how He wrought much slaughter amongst them in their herds until those sheep invited that slaughter and betrayed His place."

This describes the various tribes of Israel 'inviting' in other nations 'betraying his place' i.e. the land promised to their ancestors by God.

This part of the book can be taken to be the kingdom splitting into the northern and southern tribes. That is Israel and Judah eventually leading to Israel falling to the Assyrians in 721 BC and Judah falling to the Babylonians a little over a century later 587 BC.

    "And He gave them over into the hands of the lions and tigers, and wolves and hyenas, and into the hand of the foxes, and to all the wild beasts, and those wild beasts began to tear in pieces those sheep." - God abandons Israel for they have abandoned him.

There is also mention in fifty nine of seventy shepherds with their own seasons; there seems to be some debate on the meaning of this section some suggesting that it's a reference to the 70 appointed times in 25:11, 9:2, 1:12. Another interpretation is the seventy weeks in Daniel 9:24. However the general interpretation is that these are simply Angels. This section of the book and later near the end describes the appointment by God of the 70 angels to protect the Israelites from enduring too much harm from the 'beasts and birds'. The later section (110:14) describes how the 70 angels are judged for causing more harm to Israel than he desired finding them guilty and are "cast into an abyss, full of fire and flaming, and full of pillars of fire."

    "And the lions and tigers eat and devoured the greater part of those sheep, and the wild boars eat along with them; and they burnt that tower and demolished that house." The sacking of Solomon's temple and the tabernacle in Jerusalem by the Babylonians as they take Judah in 587 BC/586 BC exiling the remaining Jews.
    "And forthwith I saw how the shepherds pastured for twelve hours, and behold three of those sheep turned back and came and entered and began to build up all that had fallen down of that house;"
    "Cyrus allowed Sheshbazzar, a prince from the tribe of Judah, to bring the Jews from Babylon back to Jerusalem. Jews were allowed to return with the Temple vessels that the Babylonians had taken. Construction of the Second Temple began." - History of ancient Israel and Judah the temple is finished being built in 515 BC.

The first part of this next section of the book seem to clearly describe the Maccabean revolt of 167 BC against the Seleucids. The following two quotes have been altered from their original form to make the meanings of the animal names clear.

    "And I saw in the vision how the (Seleucids) flew upon those (faithful) and took one of those lambs, and dashed the sheep in pieces and devoured them. And I saw till horns grew upon those lambs, and the (Seleucids) cast down their horns; and I saw till there sprouted a great horn of one of those (faithful), and their eyes were opened. And it looked at them and their eyes opened, and it cried to the sheep, and the rams saw it and all ran to it. And notwithstanding all this those (Macedonians) and vultures and (Seleucids) and (Ptolemies) still kept tearing the sheep and swooping down upon them and devouring them: still the sheep remained silent, but the rams lamented and cried out. And those (Seleucids) fought and battled with it and sought to lay low its horn, but they had no power over it." 109:8-12
    "All the (Macedonians) and vultures and (Seleucids) and (Ptolemies) were gathered together, and there came with them all the sheep of the field, yea, they all came together, and helped each other to break that horn of the ram." 110:16

According to this theory, the first sentence is most likely the death of High Priest Onias III who is murdered which is described in 1 Maccabees 3:33-35 (dies aprox 171 BC). The 'great horn' clearly isn't Mattathias the initiator of the rebellion as he dies a natural death as described in 1 Maccabees 2:49. It's also not Alexander the Great as the great horn is described as a warrior who has fought the Macedonians, Seleucids and Ptolemies. Judas Maccabeus (167 BC-160 BC) has fought all three of these, with a large number of winning battles against the Seleucids over a large period of time "they had no power over it". He is also described as "one great horn among six others on the head of a lamb" possibly pertaining to his five brothers and Mattathias. If you take this in context of the history from Maccabeus time Dillman Chrest Aethiop says verse 13 can find its explanation in 1 Maccabees iii 7; vi. 52; v.; 2 Maccabees vi. 8 sqq., 13, 14; 1 Maccabees vii 41, 42 and 2 Maccabees x v, 8 sqq. The evidence does seem to suggest that this is in fact the life and times of Judas Maccabeus. He is eventually killed by the Seleucids at the Battle of Elasa where he faced "twenty thousand foot soldiers and two thousand cavalry". At one time it was believed this passage possibly belonged to John Hyrcanus; the only reason for this was the time between Alexander the Great and John Maccabeus was too short. However it has been asserted that evidence shows this section does indeed discuss Maccabeus.

It then describes:

    "And I saw till a great sword was given to the sheep, and the sheep proceeded against all the beasts of the field to slay them, and all the beasts and the birds of the heaven fled before their face."

This might be simply the "power of God", God was with them to avenge the death. It may also be perhaps Jonathan Apphus taking over command of the rebels to battle on after Judas death. Other possible appearances are John Hyrcanus (Hyrcanus I) (Hasmonean dynasty) "And all that had been destroyed and dispersed, and all the beasts of the field, and all the birds of the heaven, assembled in that house, and the Lord of the sheep rejoiced with great joy because they were all good and had returned to His house." Possibly describing John's reign a time of great peace and prosperity. Certain scholars also claim Alexander Jannaeus of Judaea is alluded to in this book.

The end of the book describes the new Jerusalem, culminating in the birth of a Messiah:

    "And I saw that a white bull was born, with large horns and all the beasts of the field and all the birds of the air feared him and made petition to him all the time. 38. And I saw till all their generations were transformed, and they all became white bulls; and the first among them became a lamb, and that lamb became a great animal and had great black horns on its head; and the Lord of the sheep rejoiced over it and over all the oxen."

Still another interpretation, which has just as much as credibility, is that the last chapters of this section simply refer to infamous battle of Armageddon, where all of the nations of the world march against Israel; this interpretation is supported by the War Scroll, which describes what this epic battle may be like, according to the group(s) that existed at Qumran.

The Epistle of Enoch

Dated: some scholars propose a date somewhere between the 170 BC and the 1st century BC.

This section can be studied as formed by five sub-sections[61], mixed by the final redactor:

    * Apocalypse of Weeks (93:1-10 91:11-17): this sub-section, dated usually the first half of 2nd century BC, narrates the history of the world using a ten periods (said "weeks") scheme, of which seven regard the past and three the future events (the final judgment). The climax is in the seventh part of the tenth week where new heaven shall appear and there will be many weeks without number for ever, and all shall be in goodness and righteousness.
    * Exhortation (91:1-10 91:18-19) this short list of exhortations to follow the righteousness said by Enoch to his son Methuselah looks like to be a bridge to next sub-section.
    * Epistle (92:1-5 93:11-105:2): the first part of the epistle sketches the wisdom of the Lord, final reward of the justs and the punishment of the evils, and the two separated paths of righteousness and unrighteousness. Then we have six oracles against the sinners, the witness of the whole creation against them and the assurance of the fate after death. According Boccaccini[44]:131-138 the epistle is composed by two layers: a "proto-epistle", with a theology near the deterministic viewpoint of the Qumran group, and a slightly later part (94:4-104:6) that points out the personal responsibility of the single, describing often the sinners as the wealthy ones and the justs as the oppressed (a theme we find also in the Book of Parables).
    * Birth of Noah (106-107): this part appears in Qumran fragments separated from the previous text by a blank line, thus looking like an appendix. It narrates of the deluge and of Noah who is born already with the appearance of an angel. Probably this text derives, as other small portions of 1 Enoch, from an originally separated book (see Book of Noah), but was arranged by the redactor as direct speech of Enoch himself.
    * Conclusion (108): this second appendix was not found in Qumram and is considered to be work of the final redactor. It highlights the "generation of light" in opposition to the sinners destined to the darkness.


Content of the Epistle of Enoch

XCII, XCI.1-10, 18-19. Enoch's Book of Admonition for his Children.

    * XCI.1-10, 18-19. Enoch's Admonition to his Children.
    * XCIII, XCI.12-17. The Apocalypse of Weeks.
    * XCI.12-17. The Last Three Weeks.
    * XCIV.1-5. Admonitions to the Righteous.
    * XCIV.6-11. Woes for the Sinners.
    * XCV. Enoch's Grief: fresh Woes against the Sinners.
    * XCVI. Grounds of Hopefulness for the Righteous: Woes for the Wicked.
    * XCVII. The Evils in Store for Sinners and the Possessors of Unrighteous Wealth.
    * XCVIII. Self-indulgence of Sinners: Sin originated by Man: all Sin recorded in Heaven: Woes for the Sinners.
    * XCIX. Woes pronounced on the Godless, the Lawbreakers: evil Plight of Sinners in The Last Days: further Woes.
    * C. The Sinners destroy each other: Judgement of the Fallen Angels: the Safety of the Righteous: further Woes for the Sinners.
    * CI. Exhortation to the fear of God: all Nature fears Him but not the Sinners.
    * CII. Terrors of the Day of Judgement: the adverse Fortunes of the Righteous on the Earth.
    * CIII. Different Destinies of the Righteous and the Sinners: fresh Objections of the Sinners.
    * CIV. Assurances given to the Righteous: Admonitions to Sinners and the Falsifiers of the Words of Uprightness.
    * CV. God and the Messiah to dwell with Man.
    * CVI-CVII. (first appendix) Birth of Noah.
    * CVIII. (second appendix) Conclusion.

Names of the fallen angels

Some of the fallen angels that are given in 1 Enoch have other names such as Rameel ('morning of God'), who becomes Azazel and is also called Gadriel ('wall of God') in Chapter 69. Another example is that Araqiel ('Earth of God') becomes Aretstikapha ('world of distortion') in Chapter 69.

"Azaz" as in Azazel means strength, so the name Azazel can refer to strength of God. But the sense in which it is used most-probably means impudent (showing strength towards) which comes out as arrogant to God. This is also a key point to his being Satan in modern thought.

The suffix of the names 'el' means 'God' (List of names referring to El) which is used in the names of high ranking angels. The Archangels all include this such as Uriel (Flame of God) or Michael "who is like God?". Another is given as Gadrel, who is said to have tempted Eve.

Footnotes

   1. ^ There are two other books named "Enoch": 2 Enoch, surviving only in Old Slavonic (Eng. trans. by R. H. Charles 1896) and 3 Enoch (surviving in Hebrew, c. 5th to 6th century CE).
   2. ^ a b c E. Isaac 1 Enoch, a new Translation and Introduction in ed. James Charlesworth The Old Testament Pseudepigrapha, Vol 1 ISBN 0385096305 (1983)
   3. ^ a b Wossenie Yifru, 1990 Henok Metsiet, Vol. I, Ethiopian Research Council
   4. ^ Fahlbusch E., Bromiley G.W. The Encyclopedia of Christianity: P-Sh pag 411, ISBN 0802824161 (2004)
   5. ^ "Apocalyptic Literature" (column 220), Encyclopedia Biblica
   6. ^ Nickelsburg, George W. (2001). 1 Enoch 1; A Commentary on the Book of 1 Enoch, Chapters 1-36; 81-108. Hermeneia. Fortress Press. p. 14. ISBN 0800660749.
   7. ^ Vanderkam, JC. (2004). 1 Enoch: A New Translation. Minneapolis:Fortress. pp. 1ff (ie. preface summary). ; Nickelsburg, GW. (2004). 1 Enoch: A Commentary. Minneapolis:Fortress. pp. 7–8.
   8. ^ Emanuel Tov and Craig Evans, Exploring the Origins of the Bible: Canon Formation in Historical, Literary, and Theological Perspective, Acadia 2008
   9. ^ Philip R. Davies, Scribes and Schools: The Canonization of the Hebrew Scriptures London: SPCK, 1998
  10. ^ E Isaac, in Old Testament Pseudepigrapha, ed. Charlesworth, Doubleday, 1983
  11. ^ "1 Enoch contains three [geographical] name midrashim [on] Mt. Hermon, Dan, and Abel Beit-Maacah" Esther and Hanan Eshel, George W.E. Nickelsburg in perspective: an ongoing dialogue of learning p459. Also in Esther and Hanan Eshel, Toponymic Midrash in 1 Enoch and in Other Second Temple Jewish Literature, Historical and Philological Studies on Judaism 2002 Vol24 pp. 115-130
  12. ^ transl. P. Schaff Early Christian Fathers http://www.newadvent.org/fathers/01286.htm
  13. ^ a b Clontz, T.E. and J., "The Comprehensive New Testament with complete textual variant mapping and references for the Dead Sea Scrolls, Philo, Josephus, Nag Hammadi Library, Pseudepigrapha, Apocrypha, Plato, Egyptian Book of the Dead, Talmud, Old Testament, Patristic Writings, Dhammapada, Tacitus, Epic of Gilgamesh", Cornerstone Publications, 2008, p.711, ISBN 978-0-977873-71-5
  14. ^ "1.9 In 'He comes with ten thousands of His holy ones the text reproduces the Massoretic of Deut.33,2 in reading ATAH = erchetai, whereas the three Targums, the Syriac and Vulgate read ATIH, = met'autou. Here the LXX diverges wholly. The reading ATAH is recognised as original. The writer of 1-5 therefore used the Hebrew text and presumably wrote in Hebrew." R.H.Charles, Book of Enoch: Together with a Reprint of the Greek Fragments London 1912, p.lviii
  15. ^ "We may note especially that 1:1, 3-4, 9 allude unmistakably to Deuteronomy 33:1-2 (along with other passages in the Hebrew Bible), implying that the author, like some other Jewish writers, read Deuteronomy 33-34, the last words of Moses in the Torah, as prophecy of the future history of Israel, and 33:2 as referring to the eschatological theophany of God as judge." Richard Bauckham, The Jewish world around the New Testament: collected essays. 1999 p276
  16. ^ "The introduction.. picks up various biblical passages and re-interprets them, applying them to Enoch. Two passages are central to it The first is Deuteronomy 33:1 .. the second is Numbers 24:3-4 Michael E. Stone Selected studies in pseudepigrapha and apocrypha with special reference to the Armenian Tradition (Studia in Veteris Testamenti Pseudepigrapha No 9) p.422.
  17. ^ John Barton, The Old Testament: Canon, Literature and Theology Society for Old Testament Study 2007
  18. ^ Nickelsburg, op.cit. see index re. Jude
  19. ^ Bauckham, R. 2 Peter, Jude Word Biblical Commentary Vol. 50, 1983
  20. ^ Jerome H. Neyrey 2 Peter, Jude, The Anchor Yale Bible Commentaries 1994
  21. ^ Peter H. Davids, The Letters of 2 Peter and Jude, The Pillar New Testament commentary (Grand Rapids, Mich.: William B. Eerdmans Pub. Co., 2006). 76.
  22. ^ Nickelsburg, 1 Enoch, Fortress, 2001
  23. ^ "Apocalyptic Literature", Encyclopedia Biblica
  24. ^ Athenagoras of Athens, in Embassy for the Christians 24
  25. ^ Clement of Alexandria, in Eclogae prophetice II
  26. ^ Ireneaus, in Adversus haereses IV,16,2
  27. ^ Tertullian, in De cultu foeminarum I,3 and in De Idolatria XV
  28. ^ The Ante-Nicene Fathers (ed. Alexander Roberts and James Donaldson; vol 4.16: On the Apparel of Women (De cultu foeminarum) I.3: "Concerning the Genuineness of 'The Prophecy of Enoch'")
  29. ^ Cf. Gerome, Catal. Script. Eccles. 4.
  30. ^ The Online Critical Pseudepigrapha
  31. ^ a b c Josef T. Milik (with Matthew Black). The Books of Enoch, Aramaic Fragments of Qumran Cave 4 (Oxford: Clarendon, 1976)
  32. ^ Vermes 513-515; Garcia-Martinez 246-259
  33. ^ P. Flint The Greek fragments of Enoch from Qumran cave 7 in ed.Boccaccini Enoch and Qumran Origins 2005 ISBN 0802828787, pag 224-233
  34. ^ see Beer, Kautzsch, Apokryphen und Pseudepigraphen, l.c. p. 237
  35. ^ M.R. James, Apocrypha Anecdota T&S 2.3 Cambridge 1893 pp. 146-150
  36. ^ John Joseph Collins, The Apocalyptic Imagination: An Introduction to Jewish Apocalyptic Literature (1998) ISBN 0802843719, pag. 44
  37. ^ a b c Gabriele Boccaccini, Roots of Rabbinic Judaism: An Intellectual History, from Ezekiel to Daniel, (2002) ISBN 0802843611
  38. ^ John W. Rogerson, Judith Lieu, The Oxford Handbook of Biblical Studies Oxford University Press: 2006 ISBN 0199254257, pag 106
  39. ^ Margaret Barker, The Lost Prophet: The Book of Enoch and Its Influence on Christianity 1998 reprint 2005, ISBN 1905048181, pag 19
  40. ^ a b George W. E. Nickelsburg 1 Enoch: A Commentary on the Book of 1 Enoch, Fortress: 2001 ISBN 0800660749
  41. ^ John J. Collins in ed. Boccaccini Enoch and Qumran Origins: New Light on a Forgotten Connection 2005 ISBN 0802828787, pag 346
  42. ^ James C. VanderKam, Peter Flint, Meaning of the Dead Sea Scrolls 2005 ISBN 056708468X, pag 196
  43. ^ see the page "Essenes" in the 1906 JewishEncyclopedia
  44. ^ a b Gabriele Boccaccini Beyond the Essene Hypothesis (1998) ISBN 0802843603
  45. ^ Annette Yoshiko Reed, Fallen Angels and the History of Judaism and Christianity, 2005 ISBN 0521853788, pag 234
  46. ^ Gershom Scholem Major Trends in Jewish Mysticism (1995) ISBN 0805210423, pag 43
  47. ^ RH Charles, 1 Enoch SPCK London 1916
  48. ^ Nickelsburg 1 Enoch, Fortress, 2001
  49. ^ see Nickelsburg, op.cit.
  50. ^ P. Sacchi, Apocrifi dell'Antico Testamento 1, ISBN 9788802076065
  51. ^ Cf. Nicephorus (ed. Dindorf), I. 787
  52. ^ Ludolf, Commentarius in Hist. Aethip., p. 347
  53. ^ Bruce, Travels, vol 2, page 422
  54. ^ Silvestre de Sacy in Notices sur le livre d'Enoch in the Magazine Encyclopédique, an vi. tome I, p. 382
  55. ^ see the judgement on Laurence by Dillmann, Das Buch Henoch, p lvii
  56. ^ Hoffmann, Zweiter Excurs, pages 917-965
  57. ^ The Origins of Enochic Judaism (ed. Gabriele Boccaccini; Turin: Zamorani, 2002)
  58. ^ the Ethiopian text gives 300 cubits (135 m), which is probably a corruption of 30 cubits (13.5 m)
  59. ^ Enoch and the Messiah Son of Man: Revisiting the Book of Parables (ed. Gabriele Boccaccini; Grand Rapids: Eerdmans, 2007); Sabino Chiala', Libro delle Parabole di Enoch (Brescia: Paideia, 19977)
  60. ^ James H. Charlesworth, The Old Testament Pseudepigrapha and the New Testament, ISBN 0521301904 (1985) page 89
  61. ^ Loren T. Stuckenbruck, 1 Enoch 91-108 (2008) ISBN 3110191199

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Book_of_Enoch
以諾書Enoch
The Book of Enoch
translated from Ethiopic by Richard Laurence,
London, 1883.

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Chapter 1

1The word of the blessing of Enoch, how he blessed the elect and the righteous, who were to exist in the time of trouble; rejecting all the wicked and ungodly. Enoch, a righteous man, who was (1) with God, answered and spoke, while his eyes were open, and while he saw a holy vision in the heavens. This the angels showed me.

(1) N.B. The italicized words supply a gap in the text.

2From them I heard all things, and understood what I saw; that which will not take place in this generation, but in a generation which is to succeed at a distant period, on account of the elect.

3Upon their account I spoke and conversed with him, who will go forth from his habitation, the Holy and Mighty One, the God of the world:

4Who will hereafter tread upon Mount Sinai; appear with his hosts; and be manifested in the strength of his power from heaven.

5All shall be afraid, and the Watchers be terrified.

6Great fear and trembling shall seize them, even to the ends of the earth. The lofty mountains shall be troubled, and the exalted hills depressed, melting like a honeycomb in the flame. The earth shall be immerged, and all things which are in it perish; while judgment shall come upon all, even upon all the righteous:

7But to them shall he give peace: he shall preserve the elect, and towards them exercise clemency.

8Then shall all belong to God; be happy and blessed; and the splendour of the Godhead shall illuminate them.
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Chapter 2

1Behold, he comes with ten thousands of his saints, to execute judgment upon them, and destroy the wicked, and reprove all the carnal for everything which the sinful and ungodly have done, and committed against him. (2)

(2) Quoted by Jude, vss. 14, 15.
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Chapter 3

1All who are in the heavens know what is transacted there.

2They know that the heavenly luminaries change not their paths; that each rises and sets regularly, every one at its proper period, without transgressing the commands, which they have received. The behold the earth, and understand what is there transacted, from the beginning to the end of it.

3They see that every work of God is invariable in the period of its appearance. They behold summer and winter: perceiving that the whole earth is full of water; and that the cloud, the dew, and the rain refresh it.
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Chapter 4

1They consider and behold every tree, how it appears to wither, and every leaf to fall off, except of fourteen trees, which are not deciduous; which wait from the old, to the appearance of the new leaf, for two or three winters.
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Chapter 5

1Again they consider the days of summer, that the sun is upon it at its very beginning; while you seek for a covered and shady spot on account of the burning sun; while the earth is scorched up with fervid heat, and you become incapable of walking either upon the ground or upon the rocks in consequence of that heat.
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Chapter 6

1They consider how the trees, when they put forth their green leaves, become covered, and produce fruit; understanding everything, and knowing that He who lives for ever does all these things for you:

2That the works at the beginning of every existing year, that all his works, are subservient to him, and invariable; yet as God has appointed, so are all things brought to pass.

3They see, too, how the seas and the rivers together complete their respective operations:

4But you endure not patiently, nor fulfill the commandments of the Lord; but you transgress and calumniate his greatness; and malignant are the words in your polluted mouths against his Majesty.

5You withered in heart, no peace shall be to you!

6Therefore your days shall you curse, and the years of your lives shall perish; perpetual execration shall be multiplied, and you shall not obtain mercy.

7In those days shall you resign your peace with the eternal maledictions of all the righteous, and sinners shall perpetually execrate you;

8Shall execrate you with the ungodly.

9The elect shall possess light, joy, and peace; and they shall inherit the earth.

10But you, you unholy, shall be accursed.

11Then shall wisdom be given to the elect, all of whom shall live, and not again transgress by impiety or pride; but shall humble themselves, possessing prudence, and shall not repeat transgression.

12They shall not be condemned the whole period of their lives, not die in torment and indignation; but the sum of their days shall be completed, and they shall grow old in peace; while the years of their happiness shall be multiplied with joy, and with peace, for ever, the whole duration of their existence.
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Chapter 7

1It happened after the sons of men had multiplied in those days, that daughters were born to them, elegant and beautiful.

2And when the angels, (3) the sons of heaven, beheld them, they became enamoured of them, saying to each other, Come, let us select for ourselves wives from the progeny of men, and let us beget children.

(3) An Aramaic text reads "Watchers" here (J.T. Milik, Aramaic Fragments of Qumran Cave 4 [Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1976], p. 167).

3Then their leader Samyaza said to them; I fear that you may perhaps be indisposed to the performance of this enterprise;

4And that I alone shall suffer for so grievous a crime.

5But they answered him and said; We all swear;

6And bind ourselves by mutual execrations, that we will not change our intention, but execute our projected undertaking.

7Then they swore all together, and all bound themselves by mutual execrations. Their whole number was two hundred, who descended upon Ardis, (4) which is the top of mount Armon.

(4) Upon Ardis. Or, "in the days of Jared" (R.H. Charles, ed. and trans., The Book of Enoch [Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1893], p. 63).

8That mountain therefore was called Armon, because they had sworn upon it, (5) and bound themselves by mutual execrations.

(5) Mt. Armon, or Mt. Hermon, derives its name from the Hebrew word herem, a curse (Charles, p. 63).

9These are the names of their chiefs: Samyaza, who was their leader, Urakabarameel, Akibeel, Tamiel, Ramuel, Danel, Azkeel, Saraknyal, Asael, Armers, Batraal, Anane, Zavebe, Samsaveel, Ertael, Turel, Yomyael, Arazyal. These were the prefects of the two hundred angels, and the remainder were all with them. (6)

(6) The Aramaic texts preserve an earlier list of names of these Watchers: Semihazah; Artqoph; Ramtel; Kokabel; Ramel; Danieal; Zeqiel; Baraqel; Asael; Hermoni; Matarel; Ananel; Stawel; Samsiel; Sahriel; Tummiel; Turiel; Yomiel; Yhaddiel (Milik, p. 151).

10Then they took wives, each choosing for himself; whom they began to approach, and with whom they cohabited; teaching them sorcery, incantations, and the dividing of roots and trees.

11And the women conceiving brought forth giants, (7)

(7) The Greek texts vary considerably from the Ethiopic text here. One Greek manuscript adds to this section, "And they [the women] bore to them [the Watchers] three races–first, the great giants. The giants brought forth [some say "slew"] the Naphelim, and the Naphelim brought forth [or "slew"] the Elioud. And they existed, increasing in power according to their greatness." See the account in the Book of Jubilees.

12Whose stature was each three hundred cubits. These devoured all which the labor of men produced; until it became impossible to feed them;

13When they turned themselves against men, in order to devour them;

14And began to injure birds, beasts, reptiles, and fishes, to eat their flesh one after another, (8) and to drink their blood.

(8) Their flesh one after another. Or, "one another’s flesh." R.H. Charles notes that this phrase may refer to the destruction of one class of giants by another (Charles, p. 65).

15Then the earth reproved the unrighteous.
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Chapter 8

1Moreover Azazyel taught men to make swords, knives, shields, breastplates, the fabrication of mirrors, and the workmanship of bracelets and ornaments, the use of paint, the beautifying of the eyebrows, the use of stones of every valuable and select kind, and all sorts of dyes, so that the world became altered.

2Impiety increased; fornication multiplied; and they transgressed and corrupted all their ways.

3Amazarak taught all the sorcerers, and dividers of roots:

4Armers taught the solution of sorcery;

5Barkayal taught the observers of the stars, (9)

(9) Observers of the stars. Astrologers (Charles, p. 67).

6Akibeel taught signs;

7Tamiel taught astronomy;

8And Asaradel taught the motion of the moon,

9And men, being destroyed, cried out; and their voice reached to heaven.
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Chapter 9

1Then Michael and Gabriel, Raphael, Suryal, and Uriel, looked down from heaven, and saw the quantity of blood which was shed on earth, and all the iniquity which was done upon it, and said one to another, It is the voice of their cries;

2The earth deprived of her children has cried even to the gate of heaven.

3And now to you, O you holy one of heaven, the souls of men complain, saying, Obtain Justice for us with (10) the Most High. Then they said to their Lord, the King, You are Lord of lords, God of gods, King of kings. The throne of your glory is for ever and ever, and for ever and ever is your name sanctified and glorified. You are blessed and glorified.

(10) Obtain justice for us with. Literally, "Bring judgment to us from." (Richard Laurence, ed. and trans., The Book of Enoch the Prophet [London: Kegan Paul, Trench & Co., 1883], p. 9).

4You have made all things; you possess power over all things; and all things are open and manifest before you. You behold all things, and nothing can be concealed from you.

5You have seen what Azazyel has done, how he has taught every species of iniquity upon earth, and has disclosed to the world all the secret things which are done in the heavens.

6Samyaza also has taught sorcery, to whom you have given authority over those who are associated with him. They have gone together to the daughters of men; have lain with them; have become polluted;

7And have discovered crimes (11) to them.

(11) Discovered crimes. Or, "revealed these sins" (Charles, p. 70).

8The women likewise have brought forth giants.

9Thus has the whole earth been filled with blood and with iniquity.

10And now behold the souls of those who are dead, cry out.

11And complain even to the gate of heaven.

12Their groaning ascends; nor can they escape from the unrighteousness which is committed on earth. You know all things, before they exist.

13You know these things, and what has been done by them; yet you do not speak to us.

14What on account of these things ought we to do to them?
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Chapter 10

1Then the Most High, the Great and Holy One spoke,

2And sent Arsayalalyur (12) to the son of Lamech,

(12) Arsayalalyur. Here one Greek text reads "Uriel."

3Saying, Say to him in my name, Conceal yourself.

4Then explain to him the consummation which is about to take place; for all the earth shall perish; the waters of a deluge shall come over the whole earth, and all things which are in it shall be destroyed.

5And now teach him how he may escape, and how his seed may remain in all the earth.

6Again the Lord said to Raphael, Bind Azazyel hand and foot; cast him into darkness; and opening the desert which is in Dudael, cast him in there.

7Throw upon him hurled and pointed stones, covering him with darkness;

8There shall he remain for ever; cover his face, that he may not see the light.

9And in the great day of judgment let him be cast into the fire.

10Restore the earth, which the angels have corrupted; and announce life to it, that I may revive it.

11All the sons of men shall not perish in consequence of every secret, by which the Watchers have destroyed, and which they have taught, their offspring.

12All the earth has been corrupted by the effects of the teaching of Azazyel. To him therefore ascribe the whole crime.

13To Gabriel also the Lord said, Go to the biters, (13) to the reprobates, to the children of fornication; and destroy the children of fornication, the offspring of the Watchers, from among men; bring them forth, and excite them one against another. Let them perish by mutual slaughter; for length of days shall not be theirs.

(13) Biters. More accurately, "bastards" (Charles, p. 73; Michael A. Knibb, ed. and trans., The Ethiopic Book of Enoch [Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1978], p. 88).

14They shall all entreat you, but their fathers shall not obtain their wishes respecting them; for they shall hope for eternal life, and that they may live, each of them, five hundred years.

15To Michael likewise the Lord said, Go and announce his crime to Samyaza, and to the others who are with him, who have been associated with women, that they might be polluted with all their impurity. And when all their sons shall be slain, when they shall see the perdition of their beloved, bind them for seventy generations underneath the earth, even to the day of judgment, and of consummation, until the judgment, the effect of which will last for ever, be completed.

16Then shall they be taken away into the lowest depths of the fire in torments; and in confinement shall they be shut up for ever.

17Immediately after this shall he, (14) together with them, burn and perish; they shall be bound until the consummation of many generations.

(14) He. I.e., Samyaza.

18Destroy all the souls addicted to dalliance, (15) and the offspring of the Watchers, for they have tyrannized over mankind.

(15) Dalliance. Or, "lust" (Knibb, p. 90; cp. Charles, p. 76).

19Let every oppressor perish from the face of the earth;

20Let every evil work be destroyed;

21The plant of righteousness and of rectitude appear, and its produce become a blessing.

22Righteousness and rectitude shall be for ever planted with delight.

23And then shall all the saints give thanks, and live until they have begotten a thousand children, while the whole period of their youth, and their sabbaths shall be completed in peace. In those days all the earth shall be cultivated in righteousness; it shall be wholly planted with trees, and filled with benediction; every tree of delight shall be planted in it.

24In it shall vines be planted; and the vine which shall be planted in it shall yield fruit to satiety; every seed, which shall be sown in it, shall produce for one measure a thousand; and one measure of olives shall produce ten presses of oil.

25Purify the earth from all oppression, from all injustice, from all crime, from all impiety, and from all the pollution which is committed upon it. Exterminate them from the earth.

26Then shall all the children of men be righteous, and all nations shall pay me divine honours, and bless me; and all shall adore me.

27The earth shall be cleansed from all corruption, from every crime, from all punishment, and from all suffering; neither will I again send a deluge upon it from generation to generation for ever.

28In those days I will open the treasures of blessing which are in heaven, that I may cause them to descend upon earth, and upon all the works and labour of man.

29Peace and equity shall associate with the sons of men all the days of the world, in every generation of it.
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(No Chapter 11)
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Chapter 12

1Before all these things Enoch was concealed; nor did any one of the sons of men know where he was concealed, where he had been, and what had happened.

2He was wholly engaged with the holy ones, and with the Watchers in his days.

3I, Enoch, was blessing the great Lord and King of peace.

4And behold the Watchers called me Enoch the scribe.

5Then the Lord said to me: Enoch, scribe of righteousness, go tell the Watchers of heaven, who have deserted the lofty sky, and their holy everlasting station, who have been polluted with women.

6And have done as the sons of men do, by taking to themselves wives, and who have been greatly corrupted on the earth;

7That on the earth they shall never obtain peace and remission of sin. For they shall not rejoice in their offspring; they shall behold the slaughter of their beloved; shall lament for the destruction of their sons; and shall petition for ever; but shall not obtain mercy and peace.
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Chapter 13

1Then Enoch, passing on, said to Azazyel: You shalt not obtain peace. A great sentence is gone forth against you. He shall bind you;

2Neither shall relief, mercy, and supplication be yours, on account of the oppression which you have taught;

3And on account of every act of blasphemy, tyranny, and sin, which you have discovered to the children of men.

4Then departing from him I spoke to them all together;

5And they all became terrified, and trembled;

6Beseeching me to write for them a memorial of supplication, that they might obtain forgiveness; and that I might make the memorial of their prayer ascend up before the God of heaven; because they could not themselves thenceforwards address him, nor raise up their eyes to heaven on account of the disgraceful offence for which they were judged.

7Then I wrote a memorial of their prayer and supplications, for their spirits, for everything which they had done, and for the subject of their entreaty, that they might obtain remission and rest.

8Proceeding on, I continued over the waters of Danbadan, (16) which is on the right to the west of Armon, reading the memorial of their prayer, until I fell asleep.

(16) Danbadan. Dan in Dan (Knibb, p. 94).

9And behold a dream came to me, and visions appeared above me. I fell down and saw a vision of punishment, that I might relate it to the sons of heaven, and reprove them. When I awoke I went to them. All being collected together stood weeping in Oubelseyael, which is situated between Libanos and Seneser, (17) with their faces veiled.

(17) Libanos and Seneser. Lebanon and Senir (near Damascus).

10I related in their presence all the visions which I had seen, and my dream;

11And began to utter these words of righteousness, reproving the Watchers of heaven.
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Chapter 14

1This is the book of the words of righteousness, and of the reproof of the Watchers, who belong to the world, (18) according to that which He, who is holy and great, commanded in the vision. I perceived in my dream, that I was now speaking with a tongue of flesh, and with my breath, which the Mighty One has put into the mouth of men, that they might converse with it.

(18) Who belong to the world. Or, "who (are) from eternity" (Knibb, p. 95).

2And understand with the heart. As he has created and given to men the power of comprehending the word of understanding, so has he created and given to me the power of reproving the Watchers, the offspring of heaven. I have written your petition; and in my vision it has been shown me, that what you request will not be granted you as long as the world endures.

3Judgment has been passed upon you: your request will not be granted you.

4From this time forward, never shall you ascend into heaven; He has said, that on the earth He will bind you, as long as the world endures.

5But before these things you shall behold the destruction of your beloved sons; you shall not possess them, but they shall fall before you by the sword.

6Neither shall you entreat for them, not for yourselves;

7But you shall weep and supplicate in silence. The words of the book which I wrote. (19)

(19) But you shall weep…I wrote. Or, "Likewise despite your tears and prayers you will receive nothing whatever contained in the writing which I have written" (Charles, p. 80).

8A vision thus appeared to me.

9Behold, in that vision clouds and a mist invited me; agitated stars and flashes of lightning impelled and pressed me forwards, while winds in the vision assisted my flight, accelerating my progress.

10They elevated me aloft to heaven. I proceeded, until I arrived at a wall built with stones of crystal. A vibrating flame (20) surrounded it, which began to strike me with terror.

(20) Vibrating flame. Literally, "a tongue of fire"

11Into this vibrating flame I entered;

12And drew nigh to a spacious habitation built also with stones of crystal. Its walls too, as well as pavement, were formed with stones of crystal, and crystal likewise was the ground. Its roof had the appearance of agitated stars and flashes of lightning; and among them were cherubim of fire in a stormy sky. (21) A flame burned around its walls; and its portal blazed with fire. When I entered into this dwelling, it was hot as fire and cold as ice. No trace of delight or of life was there. Terror overwhelmed me, and a fearful shaking seized me.

(21) In a stormy sky. Literally, "and their heaven was water" (Charles, p. 81).

13Violently agitated and trembling, I fell upon my face. In the vision I looked.

14And behold there was another habitation more spacious than the former, every entrance to which was open before me, erected in the midst of a vibrating flame.

15So greatly did it excel in all points, in glory, in magnificence, and in magnitude, that it is impossible to describe to you either the splendour or the extent of it.

16Its floor was on fire; above were lightnings and agitated stars, while its roof exhibited a blazing fire.

17Attentively I surveyed it, and saw that it contained an exalted throne;

18The appearance of which was like that of frost; while its circumference resembled the orb of the brilliant sun; and there was the voice of the cherubim.

19From underneath this mighty throne rivers of flaming fire issued.

20To look upon it was impossible.

21One great in glory sat upon it:

22Whose robe was brighter than the sun, and whiter than snow.

23No angel was capable of penetrating to view the face of Him, the Glorious and the Effulgent; nor could any mortal behold Him. A fire was flaming around Him.

24A fire also of great extent continued to rise up before Him; so that not one of those who surrounded Him was capable of approaching Him, among the myriads of myriads (22) who were before Him. To Him holy consultation was needless. Yet did not the sanctified, who were near Him, depart far from Him either by night or by day; nor were they removed from Him. I also was so far advanced, with a veil on my face, and trembling. Then the Lord with his own mouth called me, saying, Approach hither, Enoch, at my holy word.

(22) Myriads of myriads. Ten thousand times ten thousands (Knibb, p. 99).

25And He raised me up, making me draw near even to the entrance. My eye was directed to the ground.
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Chapter 15

1Then addressing me, He spoke and said, Hear, neither be afraid, O righteous Enoch, you scribe of righteousness: approach hither, and hear my voice. Go, say to the Watchers of heaven, who have sent you to pray for them, You ought to pray for men, and not men for you.

2Wherefore have you forsaken the lofty and holy heaven, which endures for ever, and have lain with women; have defile yourselves with the daughters of men; have taken to yourselves wives; have acted like the sons of the earth, and have begotten an impious offspring? (23)

(23) An impious offspring. Literally, "giants" (Charles, p. 82; Knibb, p. 101).

3You being spiritual, holy, and possessing a life which is eternal, have polluted yourselves with women; have begotten in carnal blood; have lusted in the blood of men; and have done as those who are flesh and blood do.

4These however die and perish.

5Therefore have I given to them wives, that they might cohabit with them; that sons might be born of them; and that this might be transacted upon earth.

6But you from the beginning were made spiritual, possessing a life which is eternal, and not subject to death for ever.

7Therefore I made not wives for you, because, being spiritual, your dwelling is in heaven.

8Now the giants, who have been born of spirit and of flesh, shall be called upon earth evil spirits, and on earth shall be their habitation. Evil spirits shall proceed from their flesh, because they were created from above; from the holy Watchers was their beginning and primary foundation. Evil spirits shall they be upon earth, and the spirits of the wicked shall they be called. The habitation of the spirits of heaven shall be in heaven; but upon earth shall be the habitation of terrestrial spirits, who are born on earth. (24)

(24) Note the many implications of vss. 3-8 regarding the progeny of evil spirits.

9The spirits of the giants shall be like clouds, (25) which shall oppress, corrupt, fall, content, and bruise upon earth.

(25) The Greek word for "clouds" here, nephelas, may disguise a more ancient reading, Napheleim (Nephilim).

10They shall cause lamentation. No food shall they eat; and they shall be thirsty; they shall be concealed, and shall not (26) rise up against the sons of men, and against women; for they come forth during the days of slaughter and destruction.

(26) Shall not. Nearly all manuscripts contain this negative, but Charles, Knibb, and others believe the "not" should be deleted so the phrase reads "shall rise up."
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Chapter 16

1And as to the death of the giants, wheresoever their spirits depart from their bodies, let their flesh, that which is perishable, be without judgment. (27) Thus shall they perish, until the day of the great consummation of the great world. A destruction shall take place of the Watchers and the impious.

(27) Let their flesh…be without judgment. Or, "their flesh shall be destroyed before the judgment" (Knibb, p. 102).

2And now to the Watchers, who have sent you to pray for them, who in the beginning were in heaven,

3Say, In heaven have you been; secret things, however, have not been manifested to you; yet have you known a reprobated mystery.

4And this you have related to women in the hardness of your heart, and by that mystery have women and mankind multiplied evils upon the earth.

5Say to them, Never therefore shall you obtain peace.
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Chapter 17

1They raised me up into a certain place, where there was (28) the appearance of a burning fire; and when they pleased they assumed the likeness of men.

(28) Where there was. Or, "where they [the angels] were like" (Knibb, p. 103).

2They carried me to a lofty spot, to a mountain, the top of which reach to heaven.

3And I beheld the receptacles of light and of thunder at the extremities of the place, where it was deepest. There was a bow of fire, and arrows in their quiver, a sword of fire, and every species of lightning.

4Then they elevated me to a babbling stream, (29) and to a fire in the west, which received all the setting of the sun. I came to a river of fire, which flowed like water, and emptied itself into the great sea westwards.

(29) To a babbling stream. Literally, "to water of life, which spoke" (Laurence, p. 23).

5I saw every large river, until I arrived at the great darkness. I went to where all of flesh migrate; and I beheld the mountains of the gloom which constitutes winter, and the place from which issues the water in every abyss.

6I saw also the mouths of all the rivers in the world, and the mouths of the deep.
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Chapter 18

1I then surveyed the receptacles of all the winds, perceiving that they contributed to adorn the whole creation, and to preserve the foundation of the earth.

2I surveyed the stone which supports the corners of the earth.

3I also beheld the four winds, which bear up the earth, and the firmament of heaven.

4And I beheld the winds occupying the exalted sky.

5Arising in the midst of heaven and of earth, and constituting the pillars of heaven.

6I saw the winds which turn the sky, which cause the orb of the sun and of all the stars to set; and over the earth I saw the winds which support the clouds.

7I saw the path of the angels.

8I perceived at the extremity of the earth the firmament of heaven above it. Then I passed on towards the south;

9Where burnt, both by day and night, six mountains formed of glorious stones; three towards the east, and three towards the south.

10Those which were towards the east were of a variegated stone; one of which was of margarite, and another of antimony. Those towards the south were of a red stone. The middle one reached to heaven like the throne of God; a throne composed of alabaster, the top of which was of sapphire. I saw, too, a blazing fire hanging over all the mountains.

11And there I saw a place on the other side of an extended territory, where waters were collected.

12I likewise beheld terrestrial fountains, deep in the fiery columns of heaven.

13And in the columns of heaven I beheld fires, which descended without number, but neither on high, nor into the deep. Over these fountains also I perceived a place which had neither the firmament of heaven above it, nor the solid ground underneath it; neither was there water above it; nor anything on wing; but the spot was desolate.

14And there I beheld seven stars, like great blazing mountains, and like spirits entreating me.

15Then the angel said, This place, until the consummation of heaven and earth, will be the prison of the stars, and the host of heaven.

16The stars which roll over fire are those which transgressed the commandment of God before their time arrived; for they came not in their proper season. Therefore was He offended with them, and bound them, until the period of the consummation of their crimes in the secret year.
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Chapter 19

1Then Uriel said, Here the angels, who cohabited with women, appointed their leaders;

2And being numerous in appearance (30) made men profane, and caused them to err; so that they sacrificed to devils as to gods. For in the great day there shall be a judgment, with which they shall be judged, until they are consumed; and their wives also shall be judged, who led astray the angels of heaven that they might salute them.

(30) Being numerous in appearance. Or, "assuming many forms" (Knibb, p. 106).

3And I, Enoch, I alone saw the likeness of the end of all things. Nor did any human being see it, as I saw it.
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Chapter 20

1These are the names of the angels who watch.

2Uriel, one of the holy angels, who presides over clamor and terror.

3Raphael, one of the holy angels, who presides over the spirits of men.

4Raguel, one of the holy angels, who inflicts punishment on the world and the luminaries.

5Michael, one of the holy angels, who, presiding over human virtue, commands the nations.

6Sarakiel, one of the holy angels, who presides over the spirits of the children of men that transgress.

7Gabriel, one of the holy angels, who presides over Ikisat, (31) over paradise, and over the cherubim.

(31) Ikisat. The serpents (Charles, p. 92; Knibb, p. 107).
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Chapter 21

1Then I made a circuit to a place in which nothing was completed.

2And there I beheld neither the tremendous workmanship of an exalted heaven, nor of an established earth, but a desolate spot, prepared, and terrific.

3There, too, I beheld seven stars of heaven bound in it together, like great mountains, and like a blazing fire. I exclaimed, For what species of crime have they been bound, and why have they been removed to this place? Then Uriel, one of the holy angels who was with me, and who conducted me, answered: Enoch, wherefore do you ask; wherefore do you reason with yourself, and anxiously inquire? These are those of the stars which have transgressed the commandment of the most high God; and are here bound, until the infinite number of the days of their crimes be completed.

4From there I afterwards passed on to another terrific place;

5Where I beheld the operation of a great fire blazing and glittering, in the midst of which there was a division. Columns of fire struggled together to the end of the abyss, and deep was their descent. But neither its measurement nor magnitude was I able to discover; neither could I perceive its origin. Then I exclaimed, How terrible is this place, and how difficult to explore!

6Uriel, one of the holy angels who was with me, answered and said: Enoch, why are you alarmed and amazed at this terrific place, at the sight of this place of suffering? This, he said, is the prison of the angels; and here they are kept for ever.
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Chapter 22

1From there I proceeded to another spot, where I saw on the west a great and lofty mountain, a strong rock, and four delightful places.

2Internally it was deep, capacious, and very smooth; as smooth as if it had been rolled over: it was both deep and dark to behold.

3Then Raphael, one of the holy angels who were with me, answered and said, These are the delightful places where the spirits, the souls of the dead, will be collected; for them were they formed; and here will be collected all the souls of the sons of men.

4These places, in which they dwell, shall they occupy until the day of judgment, and until their appointed period.

5Their appointed period will be long, even until the great judgment. And I saw the spirits of the sons of men who were dead; and their voices reached to heaven, while they were accusing.

6Then I inquired of Raphael, an angel who was with me, and said, Whose spirit is that, the voice of which reaches to heaven, and accuses?

7He answered, saying, This is the spirit of Abel who was slain by Cain his brother; and who will accuse that brother, until his seed be destroyed from the face of the earth;

8Until his seed perish from the seed of the human race.

9At that time therefore I inquired respecting him, and respecting the general judgment, saying, Why is one separated from another? He answered, Three separations have been made between the spirits of the dead, and thus have the spirits of the righteous been separated.

10Namely, by a chasm, by water, and by light above it.

11And in the same way likewise are sinners separated when they die, and are buried in the earth; judgment not overtaking them in their lifetime.

12Here their souls are separated. Moreover, abundant is their suffering until the time of the great judgment, the castigation, and the torment of those who eternally execrate, whose souls are punished and bound there for ever.

13And thus has it been from the beginning of the world. Thus has there existed a separation between the souls of those who utter complaints, and of those who watch for their destruction, to slaughter them in the day of sinners.

14A receptacle of this sort has been formed for the souls of unrighteous men, and of sinners; of those who have completed crime, and associated with the impious, whom they resemble. Their souls shall not be annihilated in the day of judgment, neither shall they arise from this place. Then I blessed God,

15And said, Blessed by my Lord, the Lord of glory and of righteousness, who reigns over all for ever and for ever.
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Chapter 23

1From there I went to another place, towards the west, unto the extremities of the earth.

2Where I beheld a fire blazing and running along without cessation, which intermitted its course neither by day nor by night; but continued always the same.

3I inquired, saying, What is this, which never ceases?

4Then Raguel, one of the holy angels who were with me, answered,

5And said, This blazing fire, which you behold running towards the west, is that of all the luminaries of heaven.
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Chapter 24

1I went from there to another place, and saw a mountain of fire flashing both by day and night. I proceeded towards it; and perceived seven splendid mountains, which were all different from each other.

2Their stones were brilliant and beautiful; all were brilliant and splendid to behold; and beautiful was their surface. Three mountains were towards the east, and strengthened by being placed one upon another; and three were towards the south, strengthened in a similar manner. There were likewise deep valleys, which did not approach each other. And the seventh mountain was in the midst of them. In length they all resembled the seat of a throne, and odoriferous trees surrounded them.

3Among these there was a tree of an unceasing smell; nor of those which were in Eden was there one of all the fragrant trees which smelt like this. Its leaf, its flower, and its bark never withered, and its fruit was beautiful.

4Its fruit resembled the cluster of the palm. I exclaimed, Behold! This tree is goodly in aspect, pleasing in its leaf, and the sight of its fruit is delightful to the eye. Then Michael, one of the holy and glorious angels who were with me, and one who presided over them, answered,

5And said: Enoch, why do you inquire respecting the odour of this tree?

6Why are you inquisitive to know it?

7Then I, Enoch, replied to him, and said, Concerning everything I am desirous of instruction, but particularly concerning this tree.

8He answered me, saying, That mountain which you behold, the extent of whose head resembles the seat of the Lord, will be the seat on which shall sit the holy and great Lord of glory, the everlasting King, when he shall come and descend to visit the earth with goodness.

9And that tree of an agreeable smell, not one of carnal odor, there shall be no power to touch, until the period of the great judgment. When all shall be punished and consumed for ever, this shall be bestowed on the righteous and humble. The fruit of the tree shall be given to the elect. For towards the north life shall be planted in the holy place, towards the habitation of the everlasting King.

10Then shall they greatly rejoice and exult in the Holy One. The sweet odor shall enter into their bones; and they shall live a long life on the earth as your forefathers have lived; neither in their days shall sorrow, distress, trouble, and punishment afflict them.

11And I blessed the Lord of glory, the everlasting King, because He has prepared this tree for the saints, formed it, and declared that He would give it to them.
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Chapter 25

1From there I proceeded to the middle of the earth, and beheld a happy and fertile spot, which contained branches continually sprouting from the trees which were planted in it. There I saw a holy mountain, and underneath it water on the eastern side, which flowed towards the south. I saw also on the east another mountain as high as that; and between them there were deep, but not wide valleys.

2Water ran towards the mountain to the west of this; and underneath there was likewise another mountain.

3There was a valley, but not a wide one, below it; and in the midst of them were other deep and dry valleys towards the extremity of the three. All these valleys, which were deep, but not side, consisted of a strong rock, with a tree which was planted in them. And I wondered at the rock and at the valleys, being extremely surprised.
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Chapter 26

1Then I said, What means this blessed land, all these lofty trees, and the accursed valley between them?

2Then Uriel, one of the holy angels who were with me, replied, This valley is the accursed of the accursed for ever. Here shall be collected all who utter with their mouths unbecoming language against God, and speak harsh things of His glory. Here shall they be collected. Here shall be their territory.

3In the latter days an example of judgment shall be made of them in righteousness before the saints; while those who have received mercy shall for ever, all their days, bless God, the everlasting King.

4And at the period of judgment shall they bless Him for his mercy, as He has distributed it to them. Then I blessed God, addressing myself to Him, and making mention, as was meet, of His greatness.
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Chapter 27

1From there I proceeded towards the east to the middle of the mountain in the desert, the level surface only of which I perceived.

2It was full of trees of the seed alluded to; and water leaped down upon it.

3There appeared a cataract composed as of many cataracts both towards the west and towards the east. Upon one side were trees; upon the other water and dew.
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Chapter 28

1Then I went to another place from the desert; towards the east of that mountain which I had approached.

2There I beheld choice trees, (32) particularly, those which produce the sweet-smelling opiate, frankincense and myrrh; and trees unlike to each other.

(32) Choice trees. Literally, "trees of judgment" (Laurence, p. 35; Knibb, p. 117).

3And over it, above them, was the elevation of the eastern mountain at no great distance.
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Chapter 29

1I likewise saw another place with valleys of water which never wasted,

2Where I perceived a goodly tree, which in smell resembled Zasakinon. (33)

(33) Zasakinon. The mastic tree (Knibb, p. 118).

3And towards the sides of these valleys I perceived cinnamon of a sweet odour. Over them I advanced towards the east.
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Chapter 30

1Then I beheld another mountain containing trees, from which water flowed like Neketro, (34) Its name was Sarira, and Kalboneba. (35) And upon this mountain I beheld another mountain, upon which were trees of Alva. (36)
(34) Neketro. A nectar (Knibb, p. 119).
(35) Sarira, and Kalboneba. Styrax and galbanum (Knibb, p. 119).
(36) Alva. Aloe (Knibb, p. 119).

2These trees were full, like almond trees, and strong; and when they produced fruit, it was superior to all redolence.
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Chapter 31

1After these things, surveying the entrances of the north, above the mountains, I perceived seven mountains replete with pure nard, odoriferous trees, cinnamon and papyrus.

2From there I passed on above the summits of those mountains to some distance eastwards, and went over the Erythraean sea. (37) And when I was advanced far beyond it, I passed along above the angel Zateel, and arrived at the garden of righteousness. In this garden I beheld, among other trees, some which were numerous and large, and which flourished there.

(37) Erythraean sea. The Red Sea.

3Their fragrance was agreeable and powerful, and their appearance both varied and elegant. The tree of knowledge also was there, of which if any one eats, he becomes endowed with great wisdom.

4It was like a species of the tamarind tree, bearing fruit which resembled grapes extremely fine; and its fragrance extended to a considerable distance. I exclaimed, How beautiful is this tree, and how delightful is its appearance!

5Then holy Raphael, an angel who was with me, answered and said, This is the tree of knowledge, of which your ancient father and your aged mother ate, who were before you; and who, obtaining knowledge, their eyes being opened, and knowing themselves to be naked, were expelled from the garden.
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Chapter 32

1From there I went on towards the extremities of the earth; where I saw large beasts different from each other, and birds various in their countenances and forms, as well as with notes of different sounds.

2To the east of these beasts I perceived the extremities of the earth, where heaven ceased. The gates of heaven stood open, and I beheld the celestial stars come forth. I numbered them as they proceeded out of the gate, and wrote them all down, as they came out one by one according to their number. I wrote down their names altogether, their times and their seasons, as the angel Uriel, who was with me, pointed them out to me.

3He showed them all to me, and wrote down an account of them.

4He also wrote down for me their names, their regulations, and their operations.
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Chapter 33

1From there I advanced on towards the north, to the extremities of the earth.

2And there I saw a great and glorious wonder at the extremities of the whole earth.

3I saw there heavenly gates opening into heaven; three of them distinctly separated. The northern winds proceeded from them, blowing cold, hail, frost, snow, dew, and rain.

4From one of the gates they blew mildly; but when they blew from the two other gates, it was with violence and force. They blew over the earth strongly.
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Chapter 34

1From there I went to the extremities of the world westwards;

2Where I perceived three gates open, as I had seen in the north; the gates and passages through them being of equal magnitude.
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Chapter 35

1Then I proceeded to the extremities of the earth southwards; where I saw three gates open to the south, from which issued dew, rain, and wind.

2From there I went to the extremities of heaven eastwards; where I saw three heavenly gates open to the east, which had smaller gates within them. Through each of these small gates the stars of heaven passed on, and proceeded towards the west by a path which was seen by them, and that at every period of their appearance.

3When I beheld them, I blessed; every time in which they appeared, I blessed the Lord of glory, who had made those great and splendid signs, that they might display the magnificence of this works to angels and to the souls of men; and that these might glorify all his works and operations; might see the effect of his power; might glorify the great labour of his hands; and bless him for ever.
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(No Chapter 36)
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Chapter 37

1The vision which he saw, the second vision of wisdom, which Enoch saw, the son of Jared, the son of Malaleel, the son of Canan, the son of Enos, the son of Seth, the son of Adam. This is the commencement of the word of wisdom, which I received to declare and tell to those who dwell upon earth. Hear from the beginning, and understand to the end, the holy things which I utter in the presence of the Lord of spirits. Those who were before us thought it good to speak;

2And let not us, who come after, obstruct the beginning of wisdom. Until the present period never has there been given before the Lord of spirits that which I have received, wisdom according the capacity of my intellect, and according to the pleasure of the Lord of spirits; that which I have received from him, a portion of life eternal.

3And I obtained three parables, which I declared to the inhabitants of the world.
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Chapter 38

1Parable the first. When the congregation of the righteous shall be manifested; and sinners be judged for their crimes, and be troubled in the sight of the world;

2When righteousness shall be manifested (38) in the presence of the righteous themselves, who will be elected for their good works duly weighed by the Lord of spirits; and when the light of the righteous and the elect, who dwell on earth, shall be manifested; where will the habitation of sinners be? And where the place of rest for those who have rejected the Lord of spirits? It would have been better for them, had they never been born.

(38) When righteousness shall be manifested. Or, "when the Righteous One appears" (Knibb, p. 125; cp. Charles, p. 112).

3When, too, the secrets of the righteous shall be revealed, then shall sinners be judged; and impious men shall be afflicted in the presence of the righteous and the elect.

4From that period those who possess the earth shall cease to be powerful and exalted. Neither shall they be capable of beholding the countenances of the holy; for the light of the countenances of the holy, the righteous, and the elect, has been seen by the Lord of spirits. (39)

(39) For the light…Lord of spirits. Or, "for the light of the Lord of spirits will have appeared on the face of the holy, the righteous, and the chosen" (Knibb, p. 126).

5Yet shall not the mighty kings of that period be destroyed; but be delivered into the hands of the righteous and the holy.

6Nor thenceforwards shall any obtain commiseration from the Lord of spirits, because their lives in this world will have been completed.
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Chapter 39

1In those days shall the elect and holy race descend from the upper heavens, and their seed shall then be with the sons of men. Enoch received books of indignation and wrath, and books of hurry and agitation.

2Never shall they obtain mercy, saith the Lord of spirits.

3A cloud then snatched me up, and the wind raised me above the surface of the earth, placing me at the extremity of the heavens.

4There I saw another vision; I saw the habitations and resting places of the saints. There my eyes beheld their habitations with the angels, and their resting places with the holy ones. They were entreating, supplicating, and praying for the sons of men; while righteousness like water flowed before them, and mercy like dew was scattered over the earth. And thus shall it be with them for ever and for ever.

5At that time my eyes beheld the dwelling of the elect, of truth, faith, and righteousness.

6Countless shall be the number of the holy and the elect, in the presence of God for ever and for ever.

7Their residence I beheld under the wings of the Lord of spirits. All the holy and the elect sung before him, in appearance like a blaze of fire; their mouths being full of blessings, and their lips glorifying the name of the Lord of spirits. And righteousness incessantly dwelt before him.

8There was I desirous of remaining, and my soul longed for that habitation. There was my antecedent inheritance; for thus had I prevailed before the Lord of spirits.

9At that time I glorified and extolled the name of the Lord of spirits with blessing and with praise; for he has established it with blessing and with praise, according to his own good pleasure.

10That place long did my eyes contemplate. I blessed and said, Blessed be he, blessed from the beginning for ever. In the beginning, before the world was created, and without end is his knowledge.

11What is this world? Of every existing generation those shall bless you who do not spiritually sleep but stand before your glory, blessing, glorifying, exalting you, and saying, The holy, holy, Lord of spirits, fills the whole world of spirits.

12There my eyes beheld all who, without sleeping, stand before him and bless him, saying, Blessed be you, and blessed be the name of God for ever and for ever. Then my countenance became changed, until I was incapable of seeing.
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Chapter 40

1After this I beheld thousands of thousands, and myriads of myriads, and an infinite number of people, standing before the Lord of spirits.

2On the four wings likewise of the Lord of spirits, on the four sides, I perceived others, besides those who were standing before him. Their names, too, I know; because the angel, who proceeded with me, declared them to me, discovering to me every secret thing.

3Then I heard the voices of those upon the four sides magnifying the Lord of glory.

4The first voice blessed the Lord of spirits for ever and for ever.

5The second voice I heard blessing the Elect One, and the elect who suffer on account of the Lord of spirits.

6The third voice I heard petitioning and praying for those who dwell upon earth, and supplicate the name of the Lord of spirits.

7The fourth voice I heard expelling the impious angels, (40) and prohibiting them from entering into the presence of the Lord of spirits, to prefer accusations against (41) the inhabitants of the earth.
(40) Impious angels. Literally, "the Satans" (Laurence, p. 45; Knibb, p. 128). Ha-satan in Hebrew ("the adversary") was originally the title of an office, not the name of an angel.
(41) Prefer accusations against. Or, "to accuse" (Charles, p. 119).

8After this I besought the angel of peace, who proceeded with me, to explain all that was concealed. I said to him, Who are those whom I have seen on the four sides, and who words I have heard and written down? He replied, The first is the merciful, the patient, the holy Michael.

9The second is he who presides over every suffering and every affliction of the sons of men, the holy Raphael. The third, who presides over all that is powerful, is Gabriel. And the fourth, who presides over repentance, and the hope of those who will inherit eternal life, is Phanuel. These are the four angels of the most high God, and their four voices, which at that time I heard.
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Chapter 41

1After this I beheld the secrets of the heavens and of paradise, according to its divisions; and of human action, as they weight it there in balances. I saw the habitations of the elect, and the habitations of the holy. And there my eyes beheld all the sinners, who denied the Lord of glory, and whom they were expelling from there, and dragging away, as they stood there; no punishment proceeding against them from the Lord of spirits.

2There, too, my eyes beheld the secrets of the lightning and the thunder; and the secrets of the winds, how they are distributed as they blow over the earth: the secrets of the winds, of the dew, and of the clouds. There I perceived the place from which they issued forth, and became saturated with the dust of the earth.

3There I saw the wooden receptacles out of which the winds became separated, the receptacle of hail, the receptacle of snow, the receptacle of the clouds, and the cloud itself, which continued over the earth before the creation of the world.

4I beheld also the receptacles of the moon, whence they came, whither they proceeded, their glorious return, and how one became more splendid than another. I marked their rich progress, their unchangeable progress, their disunited and undiminished progress; their observance of a mutual fidelity by a stable oath; their proceeding forth before the sun, and their adherence to the path allotted them, (42) in obedience to the command of the Lord of spirits. Potent is his name for ever and for ever.

(42) Their proceeding forth…path allotted them. Or, "the sun goes out first and completes its journey" (Knibb, p. 129; cp. Charles, p. 122).

5After this I perceived, that the path both concealed and manifest of the moon, as well as the progress of its path, was there completed by day and by night; while each, one with another, looked towards the Lord of spirits, magnifying and praising without cessation, since praise to them is rest; for in the splendid sun there is a frequent conversion to blessing and to malediction.

6The course of the moon’s path to the righteous is light, but to sinners it is darkness; in the name of the Lord of spirits, who created a division between light and darkness, and, separating the spirits of men, strengthened the spirits of the righteous in the name of his own righteousness.

7Nor does the angel prevent this, neither is he endowed with the power of preventing it; for the Judge beholds them all, and judges them all in his own presence.
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Chapter 42

1Wisdom found not a place on earth where she could inhabit; her dwelling therefore is in heaven.

2Wisdom went forth to dwell among the sons of men, but she obtained not a habitation. Wisdom returned to her place, and seated herself in the midst of the angels. But iniquity went forth after her return, who unwillingly found a habitation, and resided among them, as rain in the desert, and as a dew in a thirsty land.
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Chapter 43

1I beheld another splendour, and the stars of heaven. I observed that he called them all by their respective names, and that they heard. In a righteous balance I saw that he weighed out with their light the amplitude of their places, and the day of their appearance, and their conversion. Splendour produced splendour; and their conversion was into the number of the angels, and of the faithful.

2Then I inquired of the angel, who proceeded with me, and explained to me secret things, What their names were. He answered. A similitude of those has the Lord of spirits shown you. They are names of the righteous who dwell upon earth, and who believe in the name of the Lord of spirits for ever and for ever.
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Chapter 44

1Another thing also I saw respecting splendour; that it rises out of the stars, and becomes splendour; being incapable of forsaking them.
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Chapter 45

1Parable the second, respecting these who deny the name of the habitation of the holy ones, and of the Lord of spirits.

2Heaven they shall not ascend, nor shall they come on the earth. This shall be the portion of sinners, who deny the name of the Lord of spirits, and who are thus reserved for the day of punishment and of affliction.

3In that day shall the Elect One sit upon a throne of glory; and shall choose their conditions and countless habitations, while their spirits within them shall be strengthened, when they behold my Elect One, for those who have fled for protection to my holy and glorious name.

4In that day I will cause my Elect One to dwell in the midst of them; will change the face of heaven; will bless it, and illuminate it for ever.

5I will also change the face of the earth, will bless it; and cause those whom I have elected to dwell upon it. But those who have committed sin and iniquity shall not inhabit it, for I have marked their proceedings. My righteous ones will I satisfy with peace, placing them before me; but the condemnation of sinners shall draw near, that I may destroy them from the face of the earth.
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Chapter 46

1There I beheld the Ancient of days, whose head was like white wool, and with him another, whose countenance resembled that of man. His countenance was full of grace, like that of one of the holy angels. Then I inquired of one of the angels, who went with me, and who showed me every secret thing, concerning this Son of man; who he was; whence he was and why he accompanied the Ancient of days.

2He answered and said to me, This is the Son of man, to whom righteousness belongs; with whom righteousness has dwelt; and who will reveal all the treasures of that which is concealed: for the Lord of spirits has chosen him; and his portion has surpassed all before the Lord of spirits in everlasting uprightness.

3This Son of man, whom you behold, shall raise up kings and the mighty from their dwelling places, and the powerful from their thrones; shall loosen the bridles of the powerful, and break in pieces the teeth of sinners.

4He shall hurl kings from their thrones and their dominions; because they will not exalt and praise him, nor humble themselves before him, by whom their kingdoms were granted to them. The countenance likewise of the mighty shall He cast down, filling them with confusion. Darkness shall be their habitation, and worms shall be their bed; nor from that their bed shall they hope to be again raised, because they exalted not the name of the Lord of spirits.

5They shall condemn the stars of heaven, shall lift up their hands against the Most High, shall tread upon and inhabit the earth, exhibiting all their acts of iniquity, even their works of iniquity. Their strength shall be in their riches, and their faith in the gods whom they have formed with their own hands. They shall deny the name of the Lord of spirits, and shall expel him from the temples, in which they assemble;

6And with him the faithful, (43) who suffer in the name of the Lord of spirits.

(43) Shall expel him…the faithful. Or, "will be driven from the houses of his congregation, and of the faithful" (Knibb, p. 132; cp. Charles, p. 131).
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Chapter 47

1In that day the prayer of the holy and the righteous, and the blood of the righteous, shall ascend from the earth into the presence of the Lord of spirits.

2In that day shall the holy ones assemble, who dwell above the heavens, and with united voice petition, supplicate, praise, laud, and bless the name of the Lord of spirits, on account of the blood of the righteous which has been shed; that the prayer of the righteous may not be intermitted before the Lord of spirits; that for them he would execute judgment; and that his patience may not endure for ever. (44)

(44) That his patience…endure for ever. Or, "(that) their patience may not have to last for ever" (Knibb, p. 133).

3At that time I beheld the Ancient of days, while he sat upon the throne of his glory, while the book of the living was opened in his presence, and while all the powers which were above the heavens stood around and before him.

4Then were the hearts of the saints full of joy, because the consummation of righteousness was arrived, the supplication of the saints heard, and the blood of the righteous appreciated by the Lord of spirits.
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Chapter 48

1In that place I beheld a fountain of righteousness, which never failed, encircled by many springs of wisdom. Of these all the thirsty drank, and were filled with wisdom, having their habitation with the righteous, the elect, and the holy.

2In that hour was this Son of man invoked before the Lord of spirits, and his name in the presence of the Ancient of days.

3Before the sun and the signs were created, before the stars of heaven were formed, his name was invoked in the presence of the Lord of spirits. A support shall he be for the righteous and the holy to lean upon, without falling; and he shall be the light of nations.

4He shall be the hope of those whose hearts are troubled. All, who dwell on earth, shall fall down and worship before him; shall bless and glorify him, and sing praises to the name of the Lord of spirits.

5Therefore the Elect and the Concealed One existed in his presence, before the world was created, and for ever.

6In his presence he existed, and has revealed to the saints and to the righteous the wisdom of the Lord of spirits; for he has preserved the lot of the righteous, because they have hated and rejected this world of iniquity, and have detested all its works and ways, in the name of the Lord of spirits.

7For in his name shall they be preserved; and his will shall be their life. In those days shall the kings of the earth and the mighty men, who have gained the world by their achievements, become humble in countenance.

8For in the day of their anxiety and trouble their souls shall not be saved; and they shall be in subjection to those whom I have chosen.

9I will cast them like hay into the fire, and like lead into the water. Thus shall they burn in the presence of the righteous, and sink in the presence of the holy; nor shall a tenth part of them be found.

10But in the day of their trouble, the world shall obtain tranquillity.

11In his presence shall they fall, and not be raised up again; nor shall there be any one to take them out of his hands, and to lift them up: for they have denied the Lord of spirits, and his Messiah. The name of the Lord of spirits shall be blessed.
Chapter 48A

(45)

(45) Two consecutive chapters are numbered "48."

1Wisdom is poured forth like water, and glory fails not before him for ever and ever; for potent is he in all the secrets of righteousness.

2But iniquity passes away like a shadow, and possesses not a fixed station: for the Elect One stands before the Lord of spirits; and his glory is for ever and ever; and his power from generation to generation.

3With him dwells the spirit of intellectual wisdom, the spirit of instruction and of power, and the spirit of those who sleep in righteousness; he shall judge secret things.

4Nor shall any be able to utter a single word before him; for the Elect One is in the presence of the Lord of Spirits, according to his own pleasure.
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Chapter 49

1In those days the saints and the chosen shall undergo a change. The light of day shall rest upon them; and the splendour and glory of the saints shall be changed.

2In the day of trouble evil shall be heaped up upon sinners; but the righteous shall triumph in the name of the Lord of spirits.

3Others shall be made to see, that they must repent, and forsake the works of their hands; and that glory awaits them not in the presence of the Lord of spirits; yet that by his name they may be saved. The Lord of spirits will have compassion on them; for great is his mercy; and righteousness is in his judgment, and in the presence of his glory; nor in his judgment shall iniquity stand. He who repents not before him shall perish.

4Henceforward I will not have mercy on them, saith the Lord of spirits.
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Chapter 50

1In those days shall the earth deliver up from her womb, and hell deliver up from hers, that which it has received; and destruction shall restore that which it owes.

2He shall select the righteous and holy from among them; for the day of their salvation has approached.

3And in those days shall the Elect One sit upon his throne, while every secret of intellectual wisdom shall proceed from his mouth, for the Lord of spirits has gifted and glorified him.

4In those days the mountains shall skip like rams, and the hills shall leap like young sheep (46) satiated with milk; and all the righteous shall become like angels in heaven.

(46) Cp. Psalm 114:4

5Their countenance shall be bright with joy; for in those days shall the Elect One be exalted. The earth shall rejoice; the righteous shall inhabit it, and the elect possess it.
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Chapter 51

1After that period, in the place where I had seen every secret sight, I was snatched up in a whirlwind, and carried off westwards.

2There my eyes beheld the secrets of heaven, and all which existed on earth; a mountain of iron, a mountain of copper, a mountain of silver, a mountain of gold, a mountain of fluid metal, and a mountain of lead.

3And I inquired of the angel who went with me, saying, What are these things, which in secret I behold?

4He said, All these things which you behold shall be for the dominion of the Messiah, that he may command, and be powerful upon earth.

5And that angel of peace answered me, saying, Wait but a short time, and you shalt understand, and every secret thing shall be revealed to you, which the Lord of spirits has decreed. Those mountains which you have seen, the mountain of iron, the mountain of copper, the mountain of silver, the mountain of gold, the mountain of fluid metal, and the mountain of lead, all these in the presence of the Elect One shall be like a honeycomb before the fire, and like water descending from above upon these mountains; and shall become debilitated before his feet.

6In those days men shall not be saved by gold and by silver.

7Nor shall they have it in their power to secure themselves, and to fly.

8There shall be neither iron for was, nor a coat of mail for the breast.

9Copper shall be useless; useless also that which neither rusts nor consumes away; and lead shall not be coveted.

10All these things shall be rejected, and perish from off the earth, when the Elect One shall appear in the presence of the Lord of spirits.
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Chapter 52

1There my eyes beheld a deep valley; and wide was its entrance.

2All who dwell on land, on the sea, and in islands, shall bring to it gifts, presents, and offerings; yet that deep valley shall not be full. Their hands shall commit iniquity. Whatsoever they produce by labour, the sinners shall devour with crime. But they shall perish from the face of the Lord of spirits, and from the face of his earth. They shall stand up, and shall not fail for ever and ever.

3I beheld the angels of punishment, who were dwelling there, and preparing every instrument of Satan.

4Then I inquired of the angel of peace, who proceeded with me, for whom those instruments were preparing.

5He said, These they are preparing for the kings and powerful ones of the earth, that thus they may perish.

6After which the righteous and chosen house of his congregation shall appear, and thenceforward unchangeable in the name of the Lord of spirits.

7Nor shall those mountains exist in his presence as the earth and the hills, as the fountains of water exist. And the righteous shall be relieved from the vexation of sinners.
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Chapter 53

1Then I looked and turned myself to another part of the earth, where I beheld a deep valley burning with fire.

2To this valley they brought monarchs and the mighty.

3And there my eyes beheld the instruments which they were making, fetters of iron without weight. (47)

(47) Without weight. Or, "of immeasurable weight" (Knibb, p. 138).

4Then I inquired of the angel of peace, who proceeded with me, saying, For whom are these fetters and instruments prepared?

5He replied, These are prepared for the host of Azazeel, that they may be delivered over and adjudged to the lowest condemnation; and that their angels may be overwhelmed with hurled stones, as the Lord of spirits has commanded.

6Michael and Gabriel, Raphael and Phanuel shall be strengthened in that day, and shall then cast them into a furnace of blazing fire, that the Lord of spirits may be avenged of them for their crimes; because they became ministers of Satan, and seduced those who dwell upon earth.

7In those days shall punishment go forth from the Lord of spirits; and the receptacles of water which are above the heavens shall be opened, and the fountains likewise, which are under the heavens and under the earth.

8All the waters, which are in the heavens and above them, shall be mixed together.

9The water which is above heaven shall be the agent; (48)

(48) Agent. Literally, "male" (Laurence, p. 61).

10And the water which is under the earth shall be the recipient: (49) and all shall be destroyed who dwell upon earth, and who dwell under the extremities of heaven.

(49) Recipient. Literally, "female" (Laurence, p. 61).

11By these means shall they understand the iniquity which they have committed on earth: and by these means shall they perish.
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Chapter 54

1Afterwards the Ancient of days repented, and said, In vain have I destroyed all the inhabitants of the earth.

2And he sware by his great name, saying, Henceforwards I will not act thus towards all those who dwell upon earth.

3But I will place a sign in the heavens; (50) and it shall be a faithful witness between me and them for ever, as long as the days of heaven and earth last upon the earth.

(50) Cp. Gen. 9:13, "I do set my bow in the cloud, and it shall be for a token of a covenant between me and the earth."

4Afterwards, according to this my decree, when I shall be disposed to seize them beforehand, by the instrumentality of angels, in the day of affliction and trouble, my wrath and my punishment shall remain upon them, my punishment and my wrath, saith God the Lord of spirits.

5O you kings, O you mighty, who inhabit the world you shall behold my Elect One, sitting upon the throne of my glory. And he shall judge Azazeel, all his associates, and all his hosts, in the name of the Lord of spirits.

6There likewise I beheld hosts of angels who were moving in punishment, confined in a net-work of iron and brass. Then I inquired of the angel of peace, who proceeded with me, To whom those under confinement were going.

7He said, To each of their elect and their beloved, (51) that they may be cast into the fountains and deep recesses of the valley.

(51) To each of…their beloved. Or, "Each to his own chosen ones and to his own beloved ones" (Knibb, p. 139).

8And that valley shall be filled with their elect and beloved; the days of whose life shall be consumed, but the days of their error shall be innumerable.

9Then shall princes (52) combine together, and conspire. The chiefs of the east, among the Parthians and Medes, shall remove kings, in whom a spirit of perturbation shall enter. They shall hurl them from their thrones, springing as lions from their dens, and like famished wolves into the midst of the flock.

(52) Princes. Or, "angels" (Charles, p. 149; Knibb, p. 140).

10They shall go up, and tread upon the land of their elect. The land of their elect shall be before them. The threshing-floor, the path, and the city of my righteous people shall impede the progress of their horses. They shall rise up to destroy each other; their right hand shall be strengthened; nor shall a man acknowledge his friend or his brother;

11Nor the son his father and his mother; until the number of the dead bodies shall be completed, by their death and punishment. Neither shall this take place without cause.

12In those days shall the mouth of hell be opened, into which they shall be immerged; hell shall destroy and swallow up sinners from the face of the elect.
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Chapter 55

1After this I beheld another army of chariots with men riding in them.

2And they came upon the wind from the east, from the west, and from the south. (53)

(53) From the south. Literally, "from the midst of the day" (Laurence, p. 63).

3The sound of the noise of their chariots was heard.

4And when that agitation took place; the saints out of heaven perceived it; the pillar of the earth shook from its foundation; and the sound was heard from the extremities of the earth unto the extremities of heaven at the same time.

5Then they all fell down, and worshipped the Lord of spirits.

6This is the end of the second parable.
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Chapter 56

1I now began to utter the third parable, concerning the saints and the elect.

2Blessed are you, O saints and elect, for glorious is your lot.

3The saints shall exist in the light of the sun, and the elect in the light of everlasting life, the days of whose life shall never terminate; nor shall the days of the saints be numbered, who seek for light, and obtain righteousness with the Lord of spirits.

4Peace be to the saints with the Lord of the world.

5Henceforward shall the saints be told to seek in heaven the secrets of righteousness, the portion of faith; for like the sun has it arisen upon the earth, while darkness has passed away. There shall be light interminable; nor shall they enter upon the enumeration of time; for darkness shall be previously destroyed, and light shall increase before the Lord of spirits; before the Lord of spirits shall the light of uprightness increase for ever.
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Chapter 57

1In those days my eyes beheld the secrets of the lightnings and the splendours, and the judgment belonging to them.

2They lighten for a blessing and for a curse, according to the will of the Lord of spirits.

3And there I saw the secrets of the thunder, when it rattles above in heaven, and its sound is heard.

4The habitations also of the earth were shown to me. The sound of the thunder is for peace and for blessing, as well as for a curse, according to the word of the Lord of spirits.

5Afterwards every secret of the splendours and of the lightnings was seen by me. For blessing and for fertility they lighten.
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Chapter 58

1In the five hundredth year, and in the seventh month, on the fourteenth day of the month, of the lifetime of Enoch, in that parable, I saw that the heaven of heavens shook; that it shook violently; and that the powers of the Most High, and the angels, thousands and thousands, and myriads of myriads, were agitated with great agitation. And when I looked, the Ancient of days was sitting on the throne of his glory, while the angels and saints were standing around him. A great trembling came upon me, and terror seized me. My loins were bowed down and loosened; my reins were dissolved; and I fell upon my face. The holy Michael, another holy angel, one of the holy ones, was sent, who raised me up.

2And when he raised me, my spirit returned; for I was incapable of enduring this vision of violence, its agitation, and the concussion of heaven.

3Then holy Michael said to me, Why are you disturbed at this vision?

4Hitherto has existed the day of mercy; and he has been merciful and longsuffering towards all who dwell upon the earth.

5But when the time shall come, then shall the power, the punishment, and the judgment take place, which the Lord of spirits has prepared for those who prostrate themselves to the judgment of righteousness, for those who abjure that judgment, and for those who take his name in vain.

6That day has been prepared for the elect as a day of covenant; and for sinners as a day of inquisition.

7In that day shall be distributed for food (54) two monsters; a female monster, whose name is Leviathan, dwelling in the depths of the sea, above the springs of waters;

(54) Distributed for food. Or, "separated from one another" (Knibb, p. 143).

8And a male monster, whose name is Behemoth; which possesses, moving on his breast, the invisible wilderness.

9His name was Dendayen in the east of the garden, where the elect and the righteous will dwell; where he received it from my ancestor, who was man, from Adam the first of men, (55) whom the Lord of spirits made.

(55) He received it…first of men. Or, "my [great-] grandfather was taken up, the seventh from Adam" (Charles, p. 155). This implies that this section of the book was written by Noah, Enoch's descendant, rather than Enoch. Scholars have speculated that this portion of the book may contain fragments of the lost Apocalypse of Noah.

10Then I asked of another angel to show me the power of those monsters, how they became separated, how they became separated on the same day, one being in the depths of the sea, and one in the dry desert.

11And he said, You, son of man, are here desirous of understanding secret things.

12And the angel of peace, who was with me, said, These two monsters are by the power of God prepared to become food, that the punishment of God may not be in vain.

13Then shall children be slain with their mothers, and sons with their fathers.

14And when the punishment of the Lord of spirits shall continue, upon them shall it continue, that the punishment of the Lord of spirits may not take place in vain. After that, judgment shall exist with mercy and longsuffering.
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Chapter 59

1Then another angel, who proceeded with me, spoke to me;

2And showed me the first and last secrets in heaven above, and in the depths of the earth:

3In the extremities of heaven, and in the foundations of it, and in the receptacle of the winds.

4He showed me how their spirits were divided; how they were balanced; and how both the springs and the winds were numbered according to the force of their spirit.

5He showed me the power of the moon's light, that its power is a just one; as well as the divisions of the stars, according to their respective names;

6That every division is divided; that the lightning flashes;

7That its troops immediately obey; and that a cessation takes place during thunder in continuance of its sound. Nor are the thunder and the lightning separated; neither do both of them move with one spirit; yet they are not separated.

8For when the lightning lightens, the thunder sounds, and the spirit at a proper period pauses, making an equal division between them; for the receptacle, upon which their periods depend, is loose as sand. Each of them at a proper season is restrained with a bridle; and turned by the power of the spirit, which thus propels them according to the spacious extent of the earth.

9The spirit likewise of the sea is potent and strong; and as a strong power causes it to ebb, so is it driven forwards, and scattered against the mountains of the earth. The spirit of the frost has its angel; in the spirit of hail there is a good angel; the spirit of snow ceases in its strength, and a solitary spirit is in it, which ascends from it like vapour, and is called refrigeration.

10The spirit also of mist dwells with them in their receptacle; but it has a receptacle to itself; for its progress is in splendour.

11In light, and in darkness, in winter and in summer. Its receptacle is bright, and an angel is in it.

12The spirit of dew has its abode in the extremities of heaven, in connection with the receptacle of rain; and its progress is in winter and in summer. The cloud produced by it, and the cloud of the mist, become united; one gives to the other; and when the spirit of rain is in motion from its receptacle, angels come, and opening its receptacle, bring it forth.

13When likewise it is sprinkled over all the earth, it forms an union with every kind of water on the ground; for the waters remain on the ground, because they afford nourishment to the earth from the Most High, who is in heaven.

14Upon this account therefore there is a regulation in the quantity of rain, which the angels receive.

15These things I saw; all of them, even paradise.
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Chapter 60

1In those days I beheld long ropes given to those angels; who took to their wings, and fled, advancing towards the north.

2And I inquired of the angel, saying, Wherefore have they taken those long ropes, and gone forth? He said, They are gone forth to measure.

3The angel, who proceeded with me, said, These are the measures of the righteous; and cords shall the righteous bring, that they may trust in the name of the Lord of spirits for ever and ever.

4The elect shall begin to dwell with the elect.

5And these are the measures which shall be given to faith, and which shall strengthen the words of righteousness.

6These measures shall reveal all the secrets in the depth of the earth.

7And it shall be, that those who have been destroyed in the desert, and who have been devoured by the fish of the sea, and by wild beasts, shall return, and trust in the day of the Elect One; for none shall perish in the presence of the Lord of spirits, nor shall any be capable of perishing.

8Then they received the commandment, all who were in the heavens above; to whom a combined power, voice, and splendour, like fire, were given.

9And first, with their voice, they blessed him, they exalted him, they glorified him with wisdom, and ascribed to him wisdom with the word, and with the breath of life.

10Then the Lord of spirits seated upon the throne of his glory the Elect One;

11Who shall judge all the works of the holy, in heaven above, and in a balance shall he weigh their actions. And when he shall lift up his countenance to judge their secret ways in the word of the name of the Lord of spirits, and their progress in the path of the righteous judgment of God most high;

12They shall all speak with united voice; and bless, glorify, exalt, and praise, in the name of the Lord of spirits.

13He shall call to every power of the heavens, to all the holy above, and to the power of God. The Cherubim, the Seraphim, and the Ophanin, all the angels of power, and all the angels of the Lords, namely, of the Elect One, and of the other Power, who was upon earth over the water on that day,

14Shall raise their united voice; shall bless, glorify, praise, and exalt with the spirit of faith, with the spirit of wisdom and patience, with the spirit of mercy, with the spirit of judgment and peace, and with the spirit of benevolence; all shall say with united voice; Blessed is He; and the name of the Lord of spirits shall be blessed for ever and for ever; all, who sleep not, shall bless it in heaven above.

15All the holy in heaven shall bless it; all the elect who dwell in the garden of life; and every spirit of light, who is capable of blessing, glorifying, exalting, and praising your holy name; and every mortal man, (56) more than the powers of heaven, shall glorify and bless your name for ever and ever.

(56) Every mortal man. Literally, "all of flesh" (Laurence, p. 73).

16For great is the mercy of the Lord of spirits; long-suffering is he; and all his works, all his power, great as are the things which he has done, has he revealed to the saints and to the elect, in the name of the Lord of spirits.
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Chapter 61

1Thus the Lord commanded the kings, the princes, the exalted, and those who dwell on earth, saying, Open your eyes, and lift up your horns, if you are capable of comprehending the Elect One.

2The Lord of spirits sat upon the throne of his glory.

3And the spirit of righteousness was poured out over him.

4The word of his mouth shall destroy all the sinners and all the ungodly, who shall perish at his presence.

5In that day shall all the kings, the princes, the exalted, and those who possess the earth, stand up, behold, and perceive, that he is sitting on the throne of his glory; that before him the saints shall be judged in righteousness;

6And that nothing, which shall be spoken before him, shall be spoken in vain.

7Trouble shall come upon them, as upon a woman in travail, whose labour is severe, when her child comes to the mouth of the womb, and she finds it difficult to bring forth.

8One portion of them shall look upon another. They shall be astonished, and shall humble their countenance;

9And trouble shall seize them, when they shall behold this Son of woman sitting upon the throne of his glory.

10Then shall the kings, the princes, and all who possess the earth, glorify him who has dominion over all things, him who was concealed; for from the beginning the Son of man existed in secret, whom the Most High preserved in the presence of his power, and revealed to the elect.

11He shall sow the congregation of the saints, and of the elect; and all the elect shall stand before him in that day.

12All the kings, the princes, the exalted, and those who rule over all the earth, shall fall down on their faces before him, and shall worship him.

13They shall fix their hopes on this Son of man, shall pray to him, and petition him for mercy.

14Then shall the Lord of spirits hasten to expel them from his presence. Their faces shall be full of confusion, and their faces shall darkness cover. The angels shall take them to punishment, that vengeance may be inflicted on those who have oppressed his children and his elect. And they shall become an example to the saints and to his elect. Through them shall these be made joyful; for the anger of the Lord of spirits shall rest upon them.

15Then the sword of the Lord of spirits shall be drunk with their blood; but the saints and elect shall be safe in that day; nor the face of the sinners and the ungodly shall they thenceforwards behold.

16The Lord of spirits shall remain over them:

17And with this Son of man shall they dwell, eat, lie down, and rise up, for ever and ever.

18The saints and the elect have arisen from the earth, have left off to depress their countenances, and have been clothed with the garment of life. That garment of life is with the Lord of spirits, in whose presence your garment shall not wax old, nor shall your glory diminish.
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Chapter 62

1In those days the kings who possess the earth shall be punished by the angels of his wrath, wheresoever they shall be delivered up, that he may give rest for a short period; and that they may fall down and worship before the Lord of spirits, confessing their sins before him.

2They shall bless and glorify the Lord of spirits, saying, Blessed is the Lord of spirits, the Lord of kings, the Lord of princes, the Lord of the rich, the Lord of glory, and the Lord of wisdom.

3He shall enlighten every secret thing.

4Your power is from generation to generation; and your glory for ever and ever.

5Deep are all your secrets, and numberless; and your righteousness cannot be calculated.

6Now we know, that we should glorify and bless the Lord of kings, him who is King over all things.

7They shall also say, Who has granted us rest to glorify, laud, bless, and confess in the presence of his glory?

8And now small is the rest we desire; but we do not find it; we reject, and do not possess it. Light has passed away from before us; and darkness has covered our thrones for ever.

9 For we have not confessed before him; we have not glorified the name of the Lord of kings; we have not glorified the Lord in all his works; but we have trusted in the sceptre of our dominion and of our glory.

10In the day of our suffering and of our trouble he will not save us, neither shall we find rest. We confess that our Lord is faithful in all his works, in all his judgments, and in his righteousness.

11In his judgments he pays no respect to persons; and we must depart from his presence, on account of our evil deeds.

12All our sins are truly without number.

13Then shall they say to themselves, Our souls are satiated with the instruments of crime;

14But that prevents us not from descending to the flaming womb of hell.

15Afterwards, their countenances shall be filled with darkness and confusion before the Son of man; from whose presence they shall be expelled, and before whom the sword shall remain to expel them.

16Thus saith the Lord of spirits, This is the decree and the judgment against the princes, the kings, the exalted, and those who possess the earth, in the presence of the Lord of spirits.
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Chapter 63

1I saw also other countenances in that secret place. I heard the voice of an angel, saying, These are the angels who have descended from heaven to earth, and have revealed secrets to the sons of men, and have seduced the sons of men to the commission of sin.
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Chapter 64

(57)

(57) Chapters 64, 65, 66 and the first verse of 67 evidently contain a vision of Noah and not of Enoch (Laurence, p. 78).

1In those days Noah saw that the earth became inclined, and that destruction approached.

2Then he lifted up his feet, and went to the ends of the earth, to the dwelling of his great-grandfather Enoch.

3And Noah cried with a bitter voice, Hear me; hear me; hear me: three times. And he said, Tell me what is transacting upon the earth; for the earth labours, and is violently shaken. Surely I shall perish with it.

4After this there was a great perturbation on earth, and a voice was heard from heaven. I fell down on my face, when my great-grandfather Enoch came and stood by me.

5He said to me, Why have you cried out to me with a bitter cry and lamentation?

6A commandment has gone forth from the Lord against those who dwell on the earth, that they may be destroyed; for they know every secret of the angels, every oppressive and secret power of the devils, (58) and every power of those who commit sorcery, as well as of those who make molten images in the whole earth.

(58) The devils. Literally, "the Satans" (Laurence, p. 78).

7They know how silver is produced from the dust of the earth, and how on the earth the metallic drop exists; for lead and tin are not produced from earth, as the primary fountain of their production.

8There is an angel standing upon it, and that angel struggles to prevail.

9Afterwards my great-grandfather Enoch seized me with his hand, raising me up, and saying to me, Go, for I have asked the Lord of spirits respecting this perturbation of the earth; who replied, On account of their impiety have their innumerable judgments been consummated before me. Respecting the moons have they inquired, and they have known that the earth will perish with those who dwell upon it, (59) and that to these there will be no place of refuge for ever.

(59) Respecting the moons…dwell upon it. Or, "Because of the sorceries which they have searched out and learnt, the earth and those who dwell upon it will be destroyed" (Knibb, p. 155).

10They have discovered secrets, and they are those who have been judged; but not you my son. The Lord of spirits knows that you are pure and good, free from the reproach of discovering secrets.

11He, the holy One, will establish your name in the midst of the saints, and will preserve you from those who dwell upon the earth. He will establish your seed in righteousness, with dominion and great glory; (60) and from your seed shall spring forth righteousness and holy men without number for ever.

(60) With dominion…glory. Literally, "for kings, and for great glory" (Laurence, p. 79).
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Chapter 65

1After this he showed me the angels of punishment, who were prepared to come, and to open all the mighty waters under the earth:

2That they may be for judgment, and for the destruction of all those who remain and dwell upon the earth.

3And the Lord of spirits commanded the angels who went forth, not to take up the men and preserve them.

4For those angels presiding over all the mighty waters. Then I went out from the presence of Enoch.
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Chapter 66

1In those days the word of God came to me, and said, Noah, behold, your lot has ascended up to me, a lot void of crime, a lot beloved and upright.

2Now then shall the angels labour at the trees; (61) but when they proceed to this, I will put my hand upon it, and preserve it.

(61) Shall…labour at the trees. Or, "are making a wooden (structure)" (Knibb, p. 156).

3The seed of life shall arise from it, and a change shall take place, that the dry land shall not be left empty. I will establish your seed before me for ever and ever, and the seed of those who dwell with you on the surface of the earth. It shall be blessed and multiplied in the presence of the earth, in the name of the Lord.

4And they shall confine those angels who disclosed impiety. In that burning valley it is, that they shall be confined, which at first my great-grandfather Enoch showed me in the west, where there were mountains of gold and silver, of iron, of fluid metal, and of tin.

5I beheld that valley in which there was great perturbation, and where the waters were troubled.

6And when all this was effected, from the fluid mass of fire, and the perturbation which prevailed (62) in that place, there arose a strong smell of sulphur, which became mixed with the waters; and the valley of the angels, who had been guilty of seduction, burned underneath its soil.

(62) The perturbation which prevailed. Literally, "troubled them" (Laurence, p. 81).

7Through that valley also rivers of fire were flowing, to which those angels shall be condemned, who seduced the inhabitants of the earth.

8And in those days shall these waters be to kings, to princes, to the exalted, and to the inhabitants of the earth, for the healing of the soul and body, and for the judgment of the spirit.

9Their spirits shall be full of revelry, (63) that they may be judged in their bodies; because they have denied the Lord of spirits, and although they perceive their condemnation day by day, they believe not in his name.

(63) Revelry. Or, "lust" (Knibb, p. 157).

10And as the inflammation of their bodies shall be great, so shall their spirits undergo a change for ever.

11For no word which is uttered before the Lord of spirits shall be in vain.

12Judgment has come upon them, because they trusted in their carnal revelry, and denied the Lord of spirits.

13In those days shall the waters of that valley be changed; for when the angels shall be judged, then shall the heat of those springs of water experience an alteration.

14And when the angels shall ascend, the water of the springs shall again undergo a change, and be frozen. Then I heard holy Michael answering and saying, This judgment, with which the angels shall be judged, shall bear testimony against the kings, the princes, and those who possess the earth.

15For these waters of judgment shall be for their healing, and for the death (64) of their bodies. But they shall not perceive and believe that the waters will be changed, and become a fire, which shall blaze for ever.

(64) Death. Or, "lust" (Charles, p. 176; Knibb, p. 158).
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Chapter 67

1After this he gave me the characteristical marks (65) of all the secret things in the book of my great-grandfather Enoch, and in the parables which had been given to him; inserting them for me among the words of the book of parables.

(65) Characteristical marks. Literally, "the signs" (Laurence, p. 83).

2At that that time holy Michael answered and said to Raphael, The power of the spirit hurries me away, and impels me on. The severity of the judgment, of the secret judgment of the angels, who is capable of beholding–the endurance of that severe judgment which has taken place and been made permanent–without being melted at the site of it? Again holy Michael answered and said to holy Raphael, Who is there whose heart is not softened by it, and whose reins are not troubled at this thing?

3Judgment has gone forth against them by those who have thus dragged them away; and that was, when they stood in the presence of the Lord of spirits.

4In like manner also holy Rakael said to Raphael, They shall not be before the eye of the Lord; (66) since the Lord of spirits has been offended with them; for like Lords (67) have they conducted themselves. Therefore will he bring upon them a secret judgment for ever and ever.
(66) They shall not…eye of the Lord. Or, "I will not take their part under the eye of the Lord" (Knibb, p. 159).
(67) For like Lords. Or, "for they act as if they were Lord" (Knibb, p. 159).

5For neither shall angel nor man receive a portion of it; but they alone shall receive their own judgment for ever end ever.
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Chapter 68

1After this judgment they shall be astonished and irritated; for it shall be exhibited to the inhabitants of the earth.

2Behold the names of those angels. These are their names. The first of them is Samyaza; the second, Arstikapha; the third, Armen; the fourth, Kakabael; the fifth, Turel; the sixth, Rumyel; the seventh, Danyal; the eighth, Kael; the ninth, Barakel; the tenth, Azazel; the eleventh, Armers; the twelfth, Bataryal; the thirteenth, Basasael; the fourteenth, Ananel; the fifteenth, Turyal; the sixteenth, Simapiseel; the seventeenth, Yetarel; the eighteenth, Tumael; the nineteenth, Tarel; the twentieth, Rumel; the twenty-first, Azazyel.

3These are the chiefs of their angels, and the names of the leaders of their hundreds, and the leaders of their fifties, and the leaders of their tens.

4The name of the first is Yekun: (68) he it was who seduced all the sons of the holy angels; and causing them to descend on earth, led astray the offspring of men.

(68) Yekun may simply mean "the rebel" (Knibb, p. 160).

5The name of the second is Kesabel, who pointed out evil counsel to the sons of the holy angels, and induced them to corrupt their bodies by generating mankind.

6The name of the third is Gadrel: he discovered every stroke of death to the children of men.

7He seduced Eve; and discovered to the children of men the instruments of death, the coat of mail, the shield, and the sword for slaughter; every instrument of death to the children of men.

8From his hand were these things derived to them who dwell upon earth, from that period for ever.

9The name of the fourth is Penemue: he discovered to the children of men bitterness and sweetness;

10And pointed out to them every secret of their wisdom.

11He taught men to understand writing, and the use of ink and paper.

12Therefore numerous have been those who have gone astray from every period of the world, even to this day.

13For men were not born for this, thus with pen and with ink to confirm their faith;

14Since they were not created, except that, like the angels, they might remain righteous and pure.

15Nor would death, which destroys everything, have effected them;

16But by this their knowledge they perish, and by this also its power consumes them.

17The name of the fifth is Kasyade: he discovered to the children of men every wicked stroke of spirits and of demons:

18The stroke of the embryo in the womb, to diminish it; (69) the stroke of the spirit by the bite of the serpent, and the stroke which is given in the mid-day by the offspring of the serpent, the name of which is Tabaet. (70)
(69) The stroke…to diminish it. Or, "the blows (which attack) the embryo in the womb so that it miscarries" (Knibb, p. 162).
(70) Tabaet. Literally, "male" or "strong" (Knibb, p. 162).

19This is the number of the Kasbel; the principal part of the oath which the Most High, dwelling in glory, revealed to the holy ones.

20Its name is Beka. He spoke to holy Michael to discover to them the sacred name, that they might understand that secret name, and thus remember the oath; and that those who pointed out every secret thing to the children of men might tremble at that name and oath.

21This is the power of that oath; for powerful it is, and strong.

22And he established this oath of Akae by the instrumentality of the holy Michael.

23These are the secrets of this oath, and by it were they confirmed.

24Heaven was suspended by it before the world was made, for ever.

25By it has the earth been founded upon the flood; while from the concealed parts of the hills the agitated waters proceed forth from the creation to the end of the world.

26By this oath the sea has been formed, and the foundation of it.

27During the period of its fury he established the sand against it, which continues unchanged for ever; and by this oath the abyss has been made strong; nor is it removable from its station for ever and ever.

28By this oath the sun and moon complete their progress, never swerving from the command given to them for ever and ever.

29By this oath the stars complete their progress;

30And when their names are called, they return an answer, for ever and ever.

31Thus in the heavens take place the blowings of the winds: all of them have breathings, (71) and effect a complete combination of breathings.

(71) Breathings. Or, "spirits" (Laurence, p. 87).

32There the treasures of thunder are kept, and the splendour of the lightning.

33There are kept the treasures of hail and of frost, the treasures of snow, the treasures of rain and of dew.

34All these confess and laud before the Lord of spirits.

35They glorify with all their power of praise; and he sustains them in all that act of thanksgiving; while they laud, glorify, and exalt the name of the Lord of spirits for ever and ever.

36And with them he establishes this oath, by which they and their paths are preserved; nor does their progress perish.

37Great was their joy.

38They blessed, glorified, and exalted, because the name of the Son of man was revealed to them.

39He sat upon the throne of his glory; and the principal part of the judgment was assigned to him, the Son of man. Sinners shall disappear and perish from the face of the earth, while those who seduced them shall be bound with chains for ever.

40According to their ranks of corruption shall they be imprisoned, and all their works shall disappear from the face of the earth; nor thenceforward shall there be any to corrupt; for the Son of man has been seen, sitting on the throne of his glory.

41Everything wicked shall disappear, and depart from before his face; and the word of the Son of man shall become powerful in the presence of the Lord of spirits.

42This is the third parable of Enoch.
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Chapter 69

1After this the name of the Son of man, living with the Lord of spirits, was exalted by the inhabitants of the earth.

2It was exalted in the chariots of the Spirit; and the name went forth in the midst of them.

3From that time I was not drawn into the midst of them; but he seated me between two spirits, between the north and the west, where the angels received their ropes, to measure out a place for the elect and the righteous.

4There I beheld the fathers of the first men, and the saints, who dwell in that place for ever.
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Chapter 70

1Afterwards my spirit was concealed, ascending into the heavens. I beheld the sons of the holy angels treading on flaming fire, whose garments and robes were white, and whose countenances were transparent as crystal.

2I saw two rivers of fire glittering like the hyacinth.

3Then I fell on my face before the Lord of spirits.

4And Michael, one of the archangels, took me by my right hand, raised me up, and brought me out to where was every secret of mercy and secret of righteousness.

5He showed me all the hidden things of the extremities of heaven, all the receptacles of the stars, and the splendours of all, from whence they went forth before the face of the holy.

6And he concealed the spirit of Enoch in the heaven of heavens.

7There I beheld, in the midst of that light, a building raised with stones of ice;

8And in the midst of these stone vibrations (72) of living fire. My spirit saw around the circle of this flaming habitation, on one of its extremities, that there were rivers full of living fire, which encompassed it.

(72) Vibrations. Literally, "tongues" (Laurence, p. 90).

9Then the Seraphim, the Cherubim, and Ophanin (73) surrounded it: these are those who never sleep, but watch the throne of his glory.

(73) Ophanin. The "wheels" of Ezek. 1:15-21 (Charles, p. 162).

10And I beheld angels innumerable, thousands of thousands, and myriads and myriads, who surrounded that habitation.

11Michael, Raphael, Gabriel, Phanuel and the holy angels who were in the heavens above, went in and out of it. Michael, Raphael, and Gabriel went out of that habitation, and holy angels innumerable.

12With them was the Ancient of days, whose head was white as wool, and pure, and his robe was indescribable.

13Then I fell upon my face, while all my flesh was dissolved, and my spirit became changed.

14I cried out with a loud voice, with a powerful spirit, blessing, glorifying, and exalting.

15And those blessings, which proceeded from my mouth, became acceptable in the presence of the Ancient of days.

16The Ancient of days came with Michael and Gabriel, Raphael and Phanuel, with thousands of thousands, and myriads and myriads, which could not be numbered.

17Then that angel came to me, and with his voice saluted me, saying, You are the Son of man, (74) who art born for righteousness, and righteousness has rested upon you.

(74) Son of man. Laurence's original translation renders this phrase "offspring of man." Knibb (p. 166) and Charles (p. 185) indicate that it should be "Son of man," consistent with the other occurrences of that term in the Book of Enoch.

18The righteousness of the Ancient of days shall not forsake you.

19He said, On you shall he confer peace in the name of the existing world; for from thence has peace gone forth since the world was created.

20And thus shall it happen to you for ever and ever.

21All who shall exist, and who shall walk in your path of righteousness, shall not forsake you for ever.

22With you shall be their habitations, with you their lot; nor from you shall they be separated for ever and ever.

23And thus shall length of days be with the Son of man. (75)

(75) Son of man. Literally, "offspring of man," or "the Christ who comes from the offspring of man."

24Peace shall be to the righteous; and the path of integrity shall the righteous pursue, in the name of the Lord of spirits, for ever and ever.
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Chapter 71

1The book of the revolutions of the luminaries of heaven, according to their respective classes, their respective powers, their respective periods, their respective names, the places where they commence their progress, and their respective months, which Uriel, the holy angel who was with me, explained to me; he who conducted them. The whole account of them, according to every year of the world for ever, until a new work shall be effected, which will be eternal.

2This is the first law of the luminaries. The sun and the light arrive at the gates of heaven, which are on the east, and on the west of it at the western gates of heaven.

3I beheld the gates whence the sun goes forth; and the gates where the sun sets;

4In which gates also the moon rises and sets; and I beheld the conductors of the stars, among those who precede them; six gates were at the rising, and six at the setting of the sun.

5All these respectively, one after another, are on a level; and numerous windows are on the right and on the left sides of those gates.

6First proceeds forth that great luminary, which is called the sun; the orb of which is as the orb of heaven, the whole of it being replete with splendid and flaming fire.

7Its chariot, where it ascends, the wind blows.

8The sun sets in heaven, and, returning by the north, to proceed towards the east, is conducted so as to enter by that gate, and illuminate the face of heaven.

9In the same manner it goes forth in the first month by the great gate.

10It goes forth through the fourth of those six gates, which are at the rising of the sun.

11And in the fourth gate, through which the sun with the moon proceeds, in the first part of it, (76) there are twelve open windows; from which issues out a flame, when they are opened in their proper periods.

(76) Through which…part of it. Or, "from which the sun rises in the first month" (Knibb, p. 168).

12When the sun rises in heaven, it goes forth through this fourth gate thirty days, and by the fourth gate in the west of heaven on a level with it descends.

13During that period the day is lengthened from the day, and the night curtailed from the night for thirty days. And then the day is longer by two parts than the night.

14The day is precisely ten parts, and the night is eight.

15The sun goes forth through this fourth gate, and sets in it, and turns to the fifth gate during thirty days; after which it proceeds from, and sets in, the fifth gate.

16Then the day becomes lengthened by a second portion, so that it is eleven parts: while the night becomes shortened, and is only seven parts.

17The sun now returns to the east, entering into the sixth gate, and rising and setting in the sixth gate thirty-one days, on account of its signs.

18At that period the day is longer than the night, being twice as long as the night; and become twelve parts;

19But the night is shortened, and becomes six parts. Then the sun rises up, that the day may be shortened, and the night lengthened.

20And the sun returns toward the east entering into the sixth gate, where it rises and sets for thirty days.

21When that period is completed, the day becomes shortened precisely one part, so that it is eleven parts, while the night is seven parts.

22Then the sun goes from the west, from that sixth gate, and proceeds eastwards, rising in the fifth gate for thirty days, and setting again westwards in the fifth gate of the west.

23At that period the day becomes shortened two parts; and is ten parts, while the night is eight parts.

24Then the sun goes from the fifth gate, as it sets in the fifth gate of the west; and rises in the fourth gate for thirty-one days, on account of its signs, setting in the west.

25At that period the day is made equal with the night; and, being equal with it, the night becomes nine parts, and the day nine parts.

26Then the sun goes from that gate, as it sets in the west; and returning to the east proceeds by the third gate for thirty days, setting in the west at the third gate.

27At that period the night is lengthened from the day during thirty mornings, and the day is curtailed from the day during thirty days; the night being ten parts precisely, and the day eight parts.

28The sun now goes from the third gate, as it sets in the third gate in the west; but returning to the east, it proceeds by the second gate of the east for thirty days.

29In like manner also it sets in the second gate in the west of heaven.

30At that period the night is eleven parts, and the day seven parts.

31Then the sun goes at that time from the second gate, as it sets in the second gate in the west; but returns to the east, proceeding by the first gate, for thirty-one days.

32And sets in the west in the first gate.

33At that period that night is lengthened as much again as the day.

34It is twelve parts precisely, while the day is six parts.

35The sun has thus completed its beginnings, and a second time goes round from these beginnings.

36Into that first gate it enters for thirty days, and sets in the west, in the opposite part of heaven.

37At that period the night is contracted in its length a fourth part, that is, one portion, and becomes eleven parts.

38The day is seven parts.

39Then the sun returns, and enters into the second gate of the east.

40It returns by these beginnings thirty days, rising and setting.

41At that period the night is contracted in its length. It becomes ten parts, and the day eight parts. Then the sun goes from that second gate, and sets in the west; but returns to the east, and rises in the east, in the third gate, thirty-one days, setting in the west of heaven.

42At that period the night becomes shortened. It is nine parts. And the night is equal with the day. The year is precisely three hundred and sixty-four days.

43The lengthening of the day and night, and the contraction of the day and night, are made to differ from each other by the progress of the sun.

44By means of this progress the day is daily lengthened, and the night greatly shortened.

45This is the law and progress of the sun, and its turning when it turns back, turning during sixty days, (77) and going forth. This is the great everlasting luminary, that which he names the sun for ever and ever.

(77) That is, it is sixty days in the same gates, viz. Thirty days twice every year (Laurence, p. 97).

46This also is that which goes forth a great luminary, and which is named after its peculiar kind, as God commanded.

47And thus it goes in and out, neither slackening nor resting; but running on in its chariot by day and by night. It shines with a seventh portion of light from the moon; (78) but the dimensions of both are equal.

(78) It shines with…from the moon. Or, "Its light is seven times brighter than that of the moon" (Knibb, p. 171). The Aramaic texts more clearly describe how the moon's light waxes and wanes by a half of a seventh part each day. Here in the Ethiopic version, the moon is thought of as two halves, each half being divided into seven parts. Hence, the "fourteen portions" of 72:9-10 (Knibb, p. 171).
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Chapter 72

1After this law I beheld another law of an inferior luminary, the name of which is the moon, and the orb of which is as the orb of heaven.

2Its chariot, which it secretly ascends, the wind blows; and light is given to it by measure.

3Every month at its exit and entrance it becomes changed; and its periods are as the periods of the sun. And when in like manner its light is to exist, (79) its light is a seventh portion from the light of the sun.

(79) And when in…is to exist. I.e., when the moon is full (Knibb, p. 171).

4Thus it rises, and at its commencement towards the east goes forth for thirty days.

5At that time it appears, and becomes to you the beginning of the month. Thirty days it is with the sun in the gate from which the sun goes forth.

6Half of it is in extent seven portions, one half; and the whole of its orb is void of light, except a seventh portion out of the fourteen portions of its light. And in a day it receives a seventh portion, or half that portion, of its light. Its light is by sevens, by one portion, and by the half of a portion. Its sets with the sun.

7And when the sun rises, the moon rises with it; receiving half a portion of light.

8On that night, when it commences its period, previously to the day of the month, the moon sets with the sun.

9And on that night it is dark in its fourteen portions, that is, in each half; but it rises on that day with one seventh portion precisely, and in its progress declines from the rising of the sun.

10During the remainder of its period its light increases to fourteen portions.
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Chapter 73

1Then I saw another progress and regulation which He effected in the law of the moon. The progress of the moons, and everything relating to them, Uriel showed me, the holy angel who conducted them all.

2Their stations I wrote down as he showed them to me.

3I wrote down their months, as they occur, and the appearance of their light, until it is completed in fifteen days.

4In each of its two seven portions it completes all its light at rising and at setting.

5On stated months it changes its settings; and on stated months it makes its progress through each gate. In two gates the moon sets with the sun, viz. in those two gates which are in the midst, in the third and fourth gate. From the third gate it goes forth for seven days, and makes its circuit.

6Again it returns to the gate whence the sun goes forth, and in that completes the whole of its light. Then it declines from the sun, and enters in eight days into the sixth gate, and returns in seven days to the third gate, from which the sun goes forth.

7When the sun proceeds to the fourth gate, the moon goes forth for seven days, until it passes from the fifth gate.

8Again it returns in seven days to the fourth gate, and completing all its light, declines, and passes on by the first gate in eight days;

9And returns in seven days to the fourth gate, from which the sun goes forth.

10Thus I beheld their stations, as according to the fixed order of the months the sun rises and sets.

11At those times there is an excess of thirty days belonging to the sun in five years; all the days belonging to each year of the five years, when completed, amount to three hundred and sixty-four days; and to the sun and stars belong six days; six days in each of the five years; thus thirty days belonging to them;

12So that the moon has thirty days less than the sun and stars.

13The moon brings on all the years exactly, that their stations may come neither too forwards nor too backwards a single day; but that the years may be changed with correct precision in three hundred and sixty-four days. In three years the days are one thousand and ninety-two; in five years they are one thousand eight hundred and twenty; and in eight years two thousand nine hundred and twelve days.

14To the moon alone belong in three years one thousand and sixty-two days; in five years it has fifty days less than the sun, for an addition being made to the one thousand and sixty-two days, in five years there are one thousand seven hundred and seventy days; and the days of the moon in eight years are two thousand eight hundred and thirty-two days.

15For its days in eight years are less than those of the sun by eighty days, which eighty days are its diminution in eight years.

16The year then becomes truly complete according to the station of the moon, and the station of the sun; which rise in the different gates; which rise and set in them for thirty days.
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Chapter 74

1These are the leaders of the chiefs of the thousands, those which preside over all creation, and over all the stars; with the four days which are added and never separated from the place allotted them, according to the complete calculation of the year.

2And these serve four days, which are not calculated in the calculation of the year.

3Respecting them, men greatly err, for these luminaries truly serve, in the dwelling place of the world, one day in the first gate, one in the third gate, one in the fourth gate, and one in the sixth gate.

4And the harmony of the world becomes complete every three hundred and sixty-fourth state of it. For the signs,

5The seasons,

6The years,

7And the days, Uriel showed me; the angel whom the Lord of glory appointed over all the luminaries.

8Of heaven in heaven, and in the world; that they might rule in the face of the sky, and appearing over the earth, become

9Conductors of the days and nights: the sun, the moon, the stars, and all the ministers of heaven, which make their circuit with all the chariots of heaven.

10Thus Uriel showed me twelve gates open for the circuit of the chariots of the sun in heaven, from which the rays of the sun shoot forth.

11From these proceed heat over the earth, when they are opened in their stated seasons. They are for the winds, and the spirit of the dew, when in their seasons they are opened; opened in heaven at its extremities.

12Twelve gates I beheld in heaven, at the extremities of the earth, through which the sun, moon, and stars, and all the works of heaven, proceed at their rising and setting.

13Many windows also are open on the right and on the left.

14One window at a certain season grows extremely hot. So also are there gates from which the stars go forth as they are commanded, and in which they set according to their number.

15I saw likewise the chariots of heaven, running in the world above to those gates in which the stars turn, which never set. One of these is greater than all, which goes round the whole world.
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Chapter 75

1And at the extremities of the earth I beheld twelve gates open for all the winds, from which they proceed and blow over the earth.

2Three of them are open in the front of heaven, three in the west, three on the right side of heaven, and three on the left. The first three are those which are towards the east, three are towards the north, three behind those which are upon the left, towards the south, and three on the west.

3From four of them proceed winds of blessing, and of health; and from eight proceed winds of punishment; when they are sent to destroy the earth, and the heaven above it, all its inhabitants, and all which are in the waters, or on dry land.

4The first of these winds proceeds from the gate termed the eastern, through the first gate on the east, which inclines southwards. From this goes forth destruction, drought, heat, and perdition.

5From the second gate, the middle one, proceeds equity. There issue from it rain, fruitfulness, health, and dew; and from the third gate northwards, proceed cold and drought.

6After these proceed the south winds through three principal gates; through their first gate, which inclines eastwards, proceeds a hot wind.

7But from the middle gate proceed grateful odour, dew, rain, health, and life.

8From the third gate, which is westwards, proceed dew, rain, blight, and destruction.

9After these are the winds to the north, which is called the sea. They proceed from three gates. The first (80) gate is that which is on the east, inclining southwards; from this proceed dew, rain, blight, and destruction. From the middle direct gate proceed rain, dew, life, and health. And from the third gate, which is westwards, inclining towards the south, proceed mist, frost, snow, rain, dew, and blight.

(80) First. Or, "seventh" (Knibb, p. 178).

10After these in the fourth quarter are the winds to the west. From the first gate, inclining northwards, proceed dew, rain, frost, cold, snow, and chill; from the middle gate proceed rain, health, and blessing;

11And from the last gate, which is southwards, proceed drought, destruction, scorching, and perdition.

12The account of the twelve gates of the four quarters of heaven is ended.

13All their laws, all their infliction of punishment, and the health produced by them, have I explained to you, my son Mathusala. (81)

(81) Mathusala. Enoch's son, Methuselah. Cp. Gen. 5:21.
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Chapter 76

1The first wind is called the eastern, because it is the first.

2The second is called the south, because the Most High there descends, and frequently there descends he who is blessed for ever.

3The western wind has the name of diminution, because there all the luminaries of heaven are diminished, and descend.

4The fourth wind, which is named the north, is divided into three parts; one of which is for the habitation of man; another for seas of water, with valleys, woods, rivers, shady places, and snow; and the third part contains paradise.

5Seven high mountains I beheld, higher than all the mountains of the earth, from which frost proceeds; while days, seasons, and years depart and pass away.

6Seven rivers I beheld upon earth, greater than all rivers, one of which takes its course from the west; into a great sea its water flows.

7Two come from the north to the sea, their waters flowing into the Erythraean sea, (82) on the east. And with respect to the remaining four, they take their course in the cavity of the north, two to their sea, the Erythraean sea, and two are poured into a great sea, where also it is said there is a desert.

(82) The Red Sea.

8Seven great islands I saw in the sea and on the earth. Seven in the great sea.
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Chapter 77

1The names of the sun are these: one Aryares, the other Tomas.

2The moon has four names. The first is Asonya; the second, Ebla; the third, Benase; and the fourth, Erae.

3These are the two great luminaries, whose orbs are as the orbs of heaven; and the dimensions of both are equal.

4In the orb of the sun there is a seventh portion of light, which is added to it from the moon. (83) By measure it is put in, until the seventh portion of the light of the sun is departed. They set, enter into the western gate, circuit by the north, and through the eastern gate go forth over the face of heaven.

(83) A seventh portion…from the moon. Or, "seven parts of light which are added to it more than to the moon" (Knibb, p. 182).

5When the moon rises, it appears in heaven; and the half of a seventh portion of light is all which is in it.

6In fourteen days the whole of its light is completed.

7By three quintuples light is put into it, until in fifteen days its light is completed, according to the signs of the year; it has three quintuples.

8The moon has the half of a seventh portion.

9During its diminution on the first day its light decreases a fourteenth part; on the second day it decreases a thirteenth part; on the third day a twelfth part; on the fourth day an eleventh part; on the fifth day a tenth part; on the sixth day a ninth part; on the seventh day it decreases an eighth part; on the eighth day it decreases a seventh part; on the ninth day it decreases a sixth part; on the tenth day it decreases a fifth part; on the eleventh day it decreases a fourth part; on the twelfth day it decreases third part; on the thirteenth day it decreases a second part; on the fourteenth day it decreases a half of its seventh part; and on the fifteenth day the whole remainder of its light is consumed.

10On stated months the moon has twenty-nine days.

11It also has a period of twenty-eight days.

12Uriel likewise showed me another regulation, when light is poured into the moon, how it is poured into it from the sun.

13All the time that the moon is in progress with its light, it is poured into it in the presence of the sun, until its light is in fourteen days completed in heaven.

14And when it is wholly extinguished, its light is consumed in heaven; and on the first day it is called the new moon, for on that day light is received into it.

15It becomes precisely completed on the day that the sun descends into the west, while the moon ascends at night from the east.

16The moon then shines all the night, until the sun rises before it; when the moon disappears in turn before the sun.

17Where light comes to the moon, there again it decreases, until all its light is extinguished, and the days of the moon pass away.

18Then its orb remains solitary without light.

19During three months it effects in thirty days each month its period; and during three more months it effects it in twenty-nine days each. These are the times in which it effects its decrease in its first period, and in the first gate, namely, in one hundred and seventy-seven days.

20And at the time of its going forth during three months it appears thirty days each, and during three more months it appears twenty-nine days each.

21In the night it appears for each twenty days as the face of a man, and in the day as heaven; for it is nothing else except its light.
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Chapter 78

1And now, my son Mathusala, I have shown you everything; and the account of every ordinance of the stars of heaven is finished.

2He showed me every ordinance respecting these, which takes place at all times and in all seasons under every influence, in all years, at the arrival and under the rule of each, during every month and every week. He showed me also the decrease of the moon, which is effected in the sixth gate; for in that sixth gate is its light consumed.

3From this is the beginning of the month; and its decrease is effected in the sixth gate in its period, until a hundred and seventy-seven days are completed; according to the mode of calculation by weeks, twenty-five weeks and two days.

4Its period is less that that of the sun, according to the ordinance of the stars, by five days in one half year (84) precisely.

(84) In one half year. Literally, "in one time" (Laurence, p. 110).

5When that their visible situation is completed. Such is the appearance and likeness of every luminary, which Uriel, the great angel who conducts them, showed to me.
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Chapter 79

1In those days Uriel answered and said to me, Behold, I have showed you all things, O Enoch;

2And all things have I revealed to you. You see the sun, the moon, and those which conduct the stars of heaven, which cause all their operations, seasons, and arrivals to return.

3In the days of sinners the years shall be shortened.

4Their seed shall be backward in their prolific soil; and everything done on earth shall be subverted, and disappear in its season. The rain shall be restrained, and heaven shall stand still.

5In those days the fruits of the earth shall be late, and not flourish in their season; and in their season the fruits of the trees shall be withholden.

6The moon shall change its laws, and not be seen at its proper period. But in those days shall heaven be seen; and barrenness shall take place in the borders of the great chariots in the west. Heaven shall shine more than when illuminated by the orders of light; while many chiefs among the stars of authority shall err, perverting their ways and works.

7Those shall not appear in their season, who commanded them, and all the classes of the stars shall be shut up against sinners.

8The thoughts of those who dwell on the earth shall transgress within them; and they shall be perverted in all their ways.

9They shall transgress, and think themselves (85) gods; while evil shall be multiplied among them.

(85) Themselves. Or, "them" i.e., the chiefs among the stars (vs. 6) (Knibb, p. 186).

10And punishment shall come upon them, so that all of them shall be destroyed.
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Chapter 80

1He said, O Enoch, look on the book which heaven has gradually dropped down; (86) and, reading that which is written in it, understand every part of it.

(86) The book which…dropped down. Or, "the book of the tablets of heaven" (Knibb, p. 186).

2Then I looked on all which was written, and understood all, reading the book and everything written in it, all the works of man;

3And of all the children of flesh upon earth, during the generations of the world.

4Immediately after I blessed the Lord, the King of glory, who has thus for ever formed the whole workmanship of the world.

5And I glorified the Lord, on account of his long-suffering and blessing towards the children of the world.

6At that time I said, Blessed is the man, who shall die righteous and good, against whom no catalogue of crime has been written, and with whom iniquity is not found.

7Then those three holy ones caused me to approach, and placed me on the earth, before the door of my house.

8And they said unto me, Explain everything to Mathusala your son; and inform all your children, that no flesh shall be justified before the Lord; for he is their Creator.

9During one year we shall leave you with your children, until you shalt again recover your strength, that you may instruct your family, write these things, and explain them to all your children. But in another year they shall take you from the midst of them, and your heart shall be strengthened; for the elect shall point out righteousness to the elect; the righteous with the righteous shall rejoice, congratulating each other; but the sinners with sinners shall die,

10And the perverted with the perverted shall be drowned.

11Those likewise who act righteously shall die on account of the works of man, and shall be gathered together on account of the works of the wicked.

12In those days they finished conversing with me.

13And I returned to my fellow men, blessing the Lord of worlds.
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Chapter 81

1Now, my son Mathusala, all these things I speak unto you, and write for you. To you I have revealed all, and have given you books of everything.

2Preserve, my son Mathusala, the books written by your father; that you may reveal them to future generations.

3Wisdom have I given you, to your children, and your posterity, that they may reveal to their children, for generations for ever, this wisdom in their thoughts; and that those who comprehend it may not slumber, but hear with their ears; that they may learn this wisdom, and be deemed worthy of eating this wholesome food.

4Blessed are all the righteous; blessed are all who walk in righteousness; in whom no crime is found, as in sinners, when all their days are numbered.

5With respect to the progress of the sun in heaven, it enters and goes out of each gate for thirty days, with the leaders of the thousand classes of the stars; with four which are added, and appertain to the four quarters of the year, which conduct them, and accompany them at four periods.

6Respecting these, men greatly err, and do not calculate them in the calculation of every age; for they greatly err respecting them; nor do men know accurately that they are in the calculation of the year. But indeed these are marked down for ever; one in the first gate, one in the third, one in the fourth, and one in the sixth:

7So that the year is completed in three hundred and sixty-four days.

8Truly has been stated, and accurately has been calculated that which is marked down; for the luminaries, the months, the fixed periods, the years, and the days, Uriel has explained to me, and communicated to me; whom the Lord of all creation, on my account, commanded (according to the might of heaven, and the power which it possesses both by night and by day) to explain the laws of light to man, of the sun, moon, and stars, and of all the powers of heaven, which are turned with their respective orbs.

9This is the ordinance of the stars, which set in their places, in their seasons, in their periods, in their days, and in their months.

10These are the names of the those who conduct them, who watch and enter in their seasons, according to their ordinance in their periods, in their months, in the times of their influence, and in their stations.

11Four conductors of them first enter, who separate the four quarters of the year. After these, twelve conductors of their classes, who separate the months and the year into three hundred and sixty-four days, with the leaders of a thousand, who distinguish between the days, as well as between the four additional ones; which, as conductors, divide the four quarters of the year.

12These leaders of a thousand are in the midst of the conductors, and the conductors are added each behind his station, and their conductors make the separation. These are the names of the conductors, who separate the four quarters of the year, who are appointed over them: Melkel, Helammelak,

13Meliyal, and Narel.

14And the names of those who conduct them are Adnarel, Jyasusal, and Jyelumeal.

15These are the three who follow after the conductors of the classes of stars; each following after the three conductors of the classes, which themselves follow after those conductors of the stations, who divide the four quarters of the year.

16In the first part of the year rises and rules Melkyas, who is named Tamani, and Zahay. (87)

(87) Tamani, and Zahay. Or, "the southern sun" (Knibb, p. 190).

17All the days of his influence, during which he rules, are ninety-one days.

18And these are the signs of the days which are seen upon the earth. In the days of his influence there is perspiration, heat, and trouble. All the trees become fruitful; the leaf of every tree comes forth; the corn is reaped; the rose and every species of flowers blossoms in the field; and the trees of winter are dried up.

19These are the names of the conductors who are under them: Barkel, Zelsabel; and another additional conductor of a thousand is named Heloyalef, the days of those influence have been completed. The other conductor next after them is Helemmelek, whose name they call the splendid Zahay. (88)

(88) Zahay. Or, "sun" (Knibb, p. 191).

20All the days of his light are ninety-one days.

21These are the signs of the days upon earth, heat and drought; while the trees bring forth their fruits, warmed and concocted, and give their fruits to dry.

22The flocks follow and yean. (89) All the fruits of the earth are collected, with everything in the fields, and the vines are trodden. This takes place during the time of his influence.

(89) Follow and yean. Mate and bear young.

23These are their names and orders, and the names of the conductors who are under them, of those who are chiefs of a thousand: Gedaeyal, Keel, Heel.

24And the name of the additional leader of a thousand is Asphael.

25The days of his influence have been completed.
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Chapter 82

1And now I have shown you, my son Mathusala, every sight which I saw prior to your birth. I will relate another vision, which I saw before I was married; they resemble each other.

2The first was when I was learning a book; and the other before I was married to your mother. I saw a potent vision;

3And on account of these things besought the Lord.

4I was lying down in the house of my grandfather Malalel, when I saw in a vision heaven purifying, and snatched away. (90)

(90) Purifying, and snatched away. Or, "was thrown down and removed" (Knibb, p. 192).

5And falling to the earth, (91) I saw likewise the earth absorbed by a great abyss; and mountains suspended over mountains.

(91) And falling to the earth. Or, "and when it fell upon the earth" (Knibb, p. 192).

6Hills were sinking upon hills, lofty trees were gliding off from their trunks, and were in the act of being projected, and of sinking into the abyss.

7Being alarmed at these things, my voice faltered. (92) I cried out and said, The earth is destroyed. Then my grandfather Malalel raised me up, and said to me: Why do you thus cry out, my son? And wherefore thus do you lament?

(92) My voice faltered. Literally, "the word fell down in my mouth" (Laurence, p. 118).

8I related to him the whole vision which I had seen. He said to me, Confirmed is that which you have seen, my son;

9And potent the vision of your dream respecting every secret sin of the earth. Its substance shall sink into the abyss, and a great destruction take place.

10Now, my son, rise up; and beseech the Lord of glory (for you are faithful), that a remnant may be left upon earth, and that he would not wholly destroy it. My son, all this calamity upon earth comes down from heaven; upon earth shall there be a great destruction.

11Then I arose, prayed, and entreated; and wrote down my prayer for the generations of the world, explaining everything to my son Mathusala.

12When I went down below, and looking up to heaven, beheld the sun proceeding from the east, the moon descending to the west, a few scattered stars, and everything which God has known from the beginning, I blessed the Lord of judgment, and magnified him: because he hath sent forth the sun from the chambers (93) of the east; that, ascending and rising in the face of heaven, it might spring up, and pursue the path which has been pointed out to it.

(93) Chambers. Literally, "windows" (Laurence, p. 119).
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Chapter 83

1I lifted up my hands in righteousness, and blessed the holy, and the Great One. I spoke with the breath of my mouth, and with a tongue of flesh, which God has formed for all the sons of mortal men, that with it they may speak; giving them breath, a mouth, and a tongue to converse with.

2Blessed are you, O Lord, the King, great and powerful in your greatness, Lord of all the creatures of heaven, King of kings, God of the whole world, whose reign, whose kingdom, and whose majesty endure for ever and ever.

3From generation to generation shall your dominion exist. All the heavens are your throne for ever, and all the earth your footstool for ever and for ever.

4For you have made them, and over all you reign. No act whatsoever exceeds your power. With your wisdom is unchangeable; nor from your throne and from your presence is it ever averted. You know all things, see and hear them; nor is anything concealed from you; for you perceive all things.

5The angels of your heavens have transgressed; and on mortal flesh shall your wrath remain, until the day of the great judgment.

6Now then, O God, Lord and mighty King, I entreat you, and beseech you to grant my prayer, that a posterity may be left to me on earth, and that the whole human race may not perish;

7That the earth may not be left destitute, and destruction take place for ever.

8O my Lord, let the race perish from off the earth which has offended you, but a righteous and upright race establish for a posterity (94) for ever. Hide not your face, O Lord, from the prayer of your servant.

(94) For a posterity. Literally, "for the plant of a seed" (Laurence, p. 121).
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Chapter 84

1After this I saw another dream, and explained it all to you, my son. Enoch arose and said to his son Mathusala, To you, my son, will I speak. Hear my word; and incline your ear to the visionary dream of your father. Before I married your mother Edna, I saw a vision on my bed; (95)

(95) This second vision of Enoch seems to portray in symbolic language the complete history of the world from the time of Adam down to the final judgment and the establishment of the Messianic Kingdom (Charles, p. 227).

2And behold, a cow sprung forth from the earth;

3And this cow was white.

4Afterwards a female heifer sprung forth; and with it another heifer: (96) one of them was black, and one was red. (97)
(96) Another heifer. The sense seems to require that the passage should read, "two other heifers" (Laurence, p. 121).
(97) Cain and Abel.

5The black heifer then struck the red one, and pursued it over the earth.

6From that period I could see nothing more of the red heifer; but the black one increased in bulk, and a female heifer came with him.

7After this I saw that many cows proceeded forth, resembling him, and following after him.

8The first female young one also went out in the presence of the first cow; and sought the red heifer, but found him not.

9And she lamented with a great lamentation, while she was seeking him.

10Then I looked until that first cow came to her, from which time she became silent, and ceased to lament.

11Afterwards she calved another white cow.

12And again calved many cows and black heifers.

13In my sleep also I perceived a white bull, which in like manner grew, and became a large white bull.

14After him many white cows came forth, resembling him.

15And they began to calve many other white cows, which resembled them and followed each other.
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Chapter 85

1Again I looked attentively, while sleeping, and surveyed heaven above.

2And behold a single star fell from heaven.

3Which being raised up, ate and fed among those cows.

4After that I perceived other large and black cows; and behold all of them changed their stalls and pastures, while their young began to lament one with another. Again I looked in my vision, and surveyed heaven; when behold I saw many stars which descended, and projected themselves from heaven to where the first star was,

5Into the midst of those young ones; while the cows were with them, feeding in the midst of them.

6I looked at and observed them; when behold, they all acted after the manner of horses, and began to approach the young cows, all of whom became pregnant, and brought forth elephants, camels, and asses.

7At these all the cows were alarmed and terrified; when they began biting with their teeth, swallowing, and striking with their horns.

8They began also to devour the cows; and behold all the children of the earth trembled, shook with terror at them, and suddenly fled away.
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Chapter 86

1Again I perceived them, when they began to strike and to swallow each other; and the earth cried out. Then I raised my eyes a second time towards heaven, and saw in a vision, that, behold, there came forth from heaven as it were the likeness of white men. One came forth from thence, and three with him.

2Those three, who came forth last, seized me by my hand; and raising me up from the generations of the earth, elevated me to a high station.

3Then they showed me a lofty tower on the earth, while every hill became diminished. And they said, Remain here, until you perceive what shall come upon those elephants, camels, and asses, upon the stars, and upon all the cows.
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Chapter 87

1Then I looked at that one of the four white men, who came forth first.

2He seized the first star which fell down from heaven.

3And, binding it hand and foot, he cast it into a valley; a valley narrow, deep, stupendous, and gloomy.

4Then one of them drew his sword, and gave it to the elephants, camels, and asses, who began to strike each other. And the whole earth shook on account of them.

5And when I looked in the vision, behold, one of those four angels, who came forth, hurled from heaven, collected together, and took all the great stars, whose form partly resembles that of horses; and binding them all hand and foot, cast them into the cavities of the earth.
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Chapter 88

1Then one of those four went to the white cows, and taught them a mystery. While the cow was trembling, it was born, and became a man, (98) and fabricated for himself a large ship. In this he dwelt, and three cows (99) dwelt with him in that ship, which covered them.
(98) Noah.
(99) Shem, Ham, and Japheth.

2Again I lifted up my eyes towards heaven, and saw a lofty roof. Above it were seven cataracts, which poured fourth on a certain village much water.

3Again I looked, and behold there were fountains open on the earth in that large village.

4The water began to boil up, and rose over the earth; so that the village was not seen, while its whole soil was covered with water.

5Much water was over it, darkness, and clouds. Then I surveyed the height of this water; and it was elevated above the village.

6It flowed over the village, and stood higher than the earth.

7Then all the cows which were collected there, while I looked on them, were drowned, swallowed up, and destroyed in the water.

8But the ship floated above it. All the cows, the elephants, the camels, and the asses, were drowned on the earth, and all cattle. Nor could I perceive them. Neither were they able to get out, but perished, and sunk into the deep.

9Again I looked in the vision until those cataracts from that lofty roof were removed, and the fountains of the earth became equalized, while other depths were opened;

10Into which the water began to descend, until the dry ground appeared.

11The ship remained on the earth; the darkness receded; and it became light.

12Then the white cow, which became a man, went out of the ship, and the three cows with him.

13One of the three cows was white, resembling that cow; one of them was red as blood; and one of them was black. And the white cow left them.

14Then began wild beasts and birds to bring forth.

15Of all these the different kinds assembled together, lions, tigers, wolves, dogs, wild boars, foxes, rabbits, and the hanzar.

16The siset, the avest, kites, the phonkas, and ravens.

17Then the white cow (100) was born in the midst of them.

(100) Abraham.

18And they began to bite each other; when the white cow, which was born in the midst of them, brought forth a wild ass and a white cow at the same time, and after that many wild asses. Then the white cow, (101) which was born, brought forth a black wild sow and a white sheep. (102)
(101) Isaac.
(102) Esau and Jacob.

19That wild sow also brought forth many swine.

20And that sheep brought forth twelve sheep. (103)

(103) The twelve patriarchs.

21When those twelve sheep grew up, they delivered one of them (104) to the asses. (105)
(104) Joseph.
(105) The Midianites.

22Again those asses delivered that sheep to the wolves, (106)

(106) The Egyptians.

23And he grew up in the midst of them.

24Then the Lord brought the eleven other sheep, that they might dwell and feed with him in the midst of the wolves.

25They multiplied, and there was abundance of pasture for them.

26But the wolves began to frighten and oppress them, while they destroyed their young ones.

27And they left their young in torrents of deep water.

28Now the sheep began to cry out on account of their young, and fled for refuge to their Lord. One (107) however, which was saved, escaped, and went away to the wild asses.

(107) Moses.

29I beheld the sheep moaning, crying, and petitioning their Lord.

30With all their might, until the Lord of the sheep descended at their voice from his lofty habitation; went to them; and inspected them.

31He called to that sheep which had secretly stolen away from the wolves, and told him to make the wolves understand that they were not to touch the sheep.

32Then that sheep went to the wolves with the word of the Lord, when another met him, (108) and proceeded with him.

(108) Aaron.

33Both of them together entered the dwelling of the wolves; and conversing with them made them understand, that thenceforwards they were not to touch the sheep.

34Afterwards I perceived the wolves greatly prevailing over the sheep with their whole force. The sheep cried out; and their Lord came to them.

35He began to strike the wolves, who commenced a grievous lamentation; but the sheep were silent, nor from that time did they cry out.

36I then looked at them, until they departed from the wolves. The eyes of the wolves were blind, who went out and followed them with all their might. But the Lord of the sheep proceeded with them, and conducted them.

37All his sheep followed him.

38His countenance was terrific and splendid, and glorious was his aspect. Yet the wolves began to follow the sheep, until they overtook them in a certain lake of water. (109)

(109) The Red Sea.

39Then that lake became divided; the water standing up on both sides before their face.

40And while their Lord was conducting them, he placed himself between them and the wolves.

41The wolves however perceived not the sheep, but went into the midst of the lake, following them, and running after them into the lake of water.

42But when they saw the Lord of the sheep, they turned to fly from before his face.

43Then the water of the lake returned, and that suddenly, according to its nature. It became full, and was raised up, until it covered the wolves. And I saw that all of them which had followed the sheep perished, and were drowned.

44But the sheep passed over this water, proceeding to a wilderness, which was without both water and grass. And they began to open their eyes and to see.

45Then I beheld the Lord of the sheep inspecting them, and giving them water and grass.

46The sheep already mentioned was proceeding with them, and conducting them.

47And when he had ascended the top of the lofty rock, the Lord of the sheep sent him to them.

48Afterwards I perceived their Lord standing before them, with an aspect terrific and severe.

49And when they all beheld him, they were frightened at his countenance.

50All of them were alarmed, and trembled. They cried out after that sheep; and to the other sheep who had been with him, and who was in the midst of them, saying, We are not able to stand before our Lord, or to look upon him.

51Then that sheep who conducted them went away, and ascended the top of the rock;

52When the rest of the sheep began to grow blind, and to wander from the path which he had shown them; but he knew it not.

53Their Lord however was moved with great indignation against them; and when that sheep had learned what had happened,

54He descended from the top of the rock, and coming to them, found that there were many,

55Which had become blind;

56And had wandered from his path. As soon as they beheld him, they feared, and trembled at his presence;

57And became desirous of returning to their fold,

58Then that sheep, taking with him other sheep, went to those which had wandered.

59And afterwards began to kill them. They were terrified at his countenance. Then he caused those which had wandered to return; who went back to their fold.

60I likewise saw there in the vision, that this sheep became a man, built a house (110) for the Lord of the sheep, and made them all stand in the house.

(110) A house. A tabernacle (Milik, p. 205).

61I perceived also that the sheep which proceeded to meet this sheep, their conductor, died. I saw, too, that all the great sheep perished, while smaller ones rose up in their place, entered into a pasture, and approached a river of water. (111)

(111) The river Jordan.

62Then that sheep, their conductor, who became a man, was separated from them, and died.

63All the sheep sought after him, and cried for him with bitter lamentation.

64I saw likewise that they ceased to cry after that sheep, and passed over the river of water.

65And that there arose other sheep, all of whom conducted them, (112) instead of those who were dead, and who had previously conducted them.

(112) The Judges of Israel.

66Then I saw that the sheep entered into a goodly place, and a territory delectable and glorious.

67I saw also that they became satiated; that their house was in the midst of a delectable territory; and that sometimes their eyes were opened, and that sometimes they were blind; until another sheep (113) arose and conducted them. He brought them all back; and their eyes were opened.

(113) Samuel.

68Then dogs, foxes, and wild boars began to devour them, until again another sheep (114) arose, the master of the flock, one of themselves, a ram, to conduct them. This ram began to butt on every side those dogs, foxes, and wild boars, until they all perished.

(114) Saul.

his eyes, and saw the ram in the midst of them, who had laid aside his glory.

70And he began to strike the sheep, treading upon them, and behaving himself without dignity.

71Then their Lord sent the former sheep again to a still different sheep, (115) and raised him up to be a ram, and to conduct them instead of that sheep who had laid aside his glory.

(115) David.

72Going therefore to him, and conversing with him alone, he raised up that ram, and made him a prince and leader of the flock. All the time that the dogs (116) troubled the sheep,

(116) The Philistines.

73The first ram paid respect to this latter ram.

74Then the latter ram arose, and fled away from before his face. And I saw that those dogs caused the first ram to fall.

75But the latter ram arose, and conducted the smaller sheep.

76That ram likewise begat many sheep, and died.

77Then there was a smaller sheep, (117) a ram, instead of him, which became a prince and leader, conducting the flock.

(117) Solomon.

78And the sheep increased in size, and multiplied.

79And all the dogs, foxes, and wild boars feared, and fled away from him.

80That ram also struck and killed all the wild beasts, so that they could not again prevail in the midst of the sheep, nor at any time ever snatch them away.

81And that house was made large and wide; a lofty tower being built upon it by the sheep, for the Lord of the sheep.

82The house was low, but the tower was elevated and very high.

83Then the Lord of the sheep stood upon that tower, and caused a full table to approach before him.

84Again I saw that those sheep wandered, and went various ways, forsaking that their house;

85And that their Lord called to some among them, whom he sent (118) to them.

(118) The prophets.

86But these the sheep began to kill. And when one of them was saved from slaughter (119) he leaped, and cried out against those who were desirous of killing him.

(119) Elijah.

87But the Lord of the sheep delivered him from their hands, and made him ascend to him, and remain with him.

88He sent also many others to them, to testify, and with lamentations to exclaim against them.

89Again I saw, when some of them forsook the house of their Lord, and his tower; wandering on all sides, and growing blind,

90I saw that the Lord of the sheep made a great slaughter among them in their pasture, until they cried out to him in consequence of that slaughter. Then he departed from the place of his habitation, and left them in the power of lions, tigers, wolves, and the zeebt, (120) and in the power of foxes, and of every beast.

(120) Zeebt. Hyenas. (Knibb, p. 209).

91And the wild beasts began to tear them.

92I saw, too, that he forsook the house of their fathers, and their tower; giving them all into the power of lions to tear and devour them; into the power of every beast.

93Then I began to cry out with all my might, imploring the Lord of the sheep, and showing him how the sheep were devoured by all the beasts of prey.

94But he looked on in silence, rejoicing that they were devoured, swallowed up, and carried off; and leaving them in the power of every beast for food. He called also seventy shepherds, and resigned to them the care of the sheep, that they might overlook them;

95Saying to them and to their associates, Every one of you henceforwards overlook the sheep, and whatsoever I command you, do; and I will deliver them to you numbered.

96I will tell you which of them shall be slain; these destroy. And he delivered the sheep to them.

97Then he called to another, and said, Understand, and watch everything which the shepherds shall do to these sheep; for many more of them shall perish than I have commanded.

98Of every excess and slaughter, which the shepherds shall commit, there shall be an account; as, how many may have perished by my command, and how many they may have destroyed of their own heads.

99Of all the destruction brought about by each of the shepherds there shall be an account; and according to the number I will cause a recital to be made before me, how many they have destroyed of their own heads, and how many they have delivered up to destruction, that I may have this testimony against them; that I may know all their proceedings; and that, delivering the sheep to them, I may see what they will do; whether they will act as I have commanded them, or not.

100Of this, however, they shall be ignorant; neither shall you make any explanation to them, neither shall you reprove them; but there shall be an account of all the destruction done by them in their respective seasons. Then they began to kill, and destroy more than it was commanded them.

101And they left the sheep in the power of the lions, so that very many of them were devoured and swallowed up by lions and tigers; and wild boars preyed upon them. That tower they burnt, and overthrew that house.

102Then I grieved extremely on account of the tower, and because the house of the sheep was overthrown.

103Neither was I afterwards able to perceive whether they again entered that house.

104The shepherds likewise, and their associates, delivered them to all the wild beasts, that they might devour them. Each of them in his season, according to his number, was delivered up; each of them, one with another, was described in a book, how many of them, one with another, were destroyed, in a book.

105More, however, than was ordered, every shepherd killed and destroyed.

106Then I began to weep, and was greatly indignant, on account of the sheep.

107In like manner also I saw in the vision him who wrote, how he wrote down one, destroyed by the shepherds, every day. He ascended, remained, and exhibited each of his books to the Lord of the sheep, containing all which they had done, and all which each of them had made away with;

108And all which they had delivered up to destruction.

109He took the book up in his hands, read it, sealed it, and deposited it.

110After this, I saw shepherds overlooking for twelve hours.

111And behold three of the sheep (121) departed, arrived, went in; and began building all which was fallen down of that house.

(121) Zerubbabel, Joshua, and Nehemiah.

112But the wild boars (122) hindered them, although they prevailed not.

(122) The Samaritans.

113Again they began to build as before, and raised up that tower, which was called a lofty tower.

114And again they began to place before the tower a table, with every impure and unclean kind of bread upon it.

115Moreover also all the sheep were blind, and could not see, as were the shepherds likewise.

116Thus were they delivered up to the shepherds for a great destruction, who trod them under foot, and devoured them.

117Yet was their Lord silent, until all the sheep in the field were destroyed. The shepherds and the sheep were all mixed together; but they did not save them from the power of the beasts.

118Then he who wrote the book ascended, exhibited it, and read it at the residence of the Lord of the sheep. He petitioned him for them, and prayed, pointing out every act of the shepherds, and testifying before him against them all. Then taking the book, he deposited it with him, and departed.
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Chapter 89

1And I observed during the time, that thus thirty-seven (123) shepherds were overlooking, all of whom finished in their respective periods as the first. Others then received them into their hands, that they might overlook them in their respective periods, every shepherd in his own period.

(123) Thirty-seven. An apparent error for thirty-five (see verse 7). The kings of Judah and Israel (Laurence, p. 139).

2Afterwards I saw in the vision, that all the birds of heaven arrived; eagles, the avest, kites and ravens. The eagle instructed them all.

3They began to devour the sheep, to peck out their eyes, and to eat up their bodies.

4The sheep then cried out; for their bodies were devoured by the birds.

5I also cried out, and groaned in my sleep against the shepherd which overlooked the flock.

6And I looked, while the sheep were eaten up by the dogs, by the eagles, and by the kites. They neither left them their body, nor their skin, nor their muscles, until their bones alone remained; until their bones fell upon the ground. And the sheep became diminished.

7I observed likewise during the time, that twenty-tree shepherds (124) were overlooking; who completed in their respective periods fifty-eight periods.

(124) The kings of Babylon, etc., during and after the captivity. The numbers thirty-five and twenty-three make fifty-eight; and not thirty-seven, as erroneously put in the first verse (Laurence, p. 139).

8Then were small lambs born of those white sheep; who began to open their eyes and to see, crying out to the sheep.

9The sheep, however, cried not out to them, neither did they hear what they uttered to them; but were deaf, blind, and obdurate in the greatest degrees.

10I saw in the vision that ravens flew down upon those lambs;

11That they seized one of them; and that tearing the sheep in pieces, they devoured them.

12I saw also, that the horns grew upon those lambs; and that the ravens lighted down upon their horns.

13I saw, too, that a large horn sprouted out on an animal among the sheep, and that their eyes were opened.

14He looked at them. Their eyes were wide open; and he cried out to them.

15Then the dabela (125) saw him; all of whom ran to him.

(125) Dabela. The ibex, probably symbolizing Alexander the Great (Laurence, p. 140).

16And besides this, all the eagles, the avest, the ravens and the kites, were still carrying off the sheep, flying down upon them, and devouring them. The sheep were silent, but the dabela lamented and cried out.

17Then the ravens contended, and struggled with them.

18They wished among them to break his horn; but they prevailed not over him.

19I looked on them, until the shepherds, the eagles, the avest, and the kites came.

20Who cried out to the ravens to break the horn of the dabela; to contend with him; and to kill him. But he struggled with them, and cried out, that help might come to him.

21Then I perceived that the man came who had written down the names of the shepherds, and who ascended up before the Lord of the sheep.

22He brought assistance, and caused every one to see him descending to the help of the dabela.

23I perceived likewise that the Lord of the sheep came to them in wrath, while all those who saw him fled away; all fell down in his tabernacle before his face; while all the eagles, the avest, ravens, and kites assembled, and brought with them all the sheep of the field.

24All came together, and strove to break the horn of the dabela.

25Then I saw, that the man, who wrote the book at the word of the Lord, opened the book of destruction, of that destruction which the last twelve shepherds (126) wrought; and pointed out before the Lord of the sheep, that they destroyed more than those who preceded them.

(126) The native princes of Judah after its delivery from the Syrian yoke.

26I saw also that the Lord of the sheep came to them, and taking in his hand the sceptre of his wrath seized the earth, which became rent asunder; while all the beasts and birds of heaven fell from the sheep, and sunk into the earth, which closed over them.

27I saw, too, that a large sword was given to the sheep, who went forth against all the beasts of the field to slay them.

28But all the beasts and birds of heaven fled away from before their face.

29And I saw a throne erected in a delectable land;

30Upon this sat the Lord of the sheep, who received all the sealed books;

31Which were open before him.

32Then the Lord called the first seven white ones, and commanded them to bring before him the first of the first stars, which preceded the stars whose form partly resembled that of horses; the first star, which fell down first; and they brought them all before him.

33And he spoke to the man who wrote in his presence, who was one of the seven white ones, saying, Take those seventy shepherds, to whom I delivered up the sheep, and who receiving them killed more of them than I commanded. Behold, I saw them all bound, and standing before him. First came on the trial of the stars, which, being judged, and found guilty, went to the place of punishment. They thrust them into a place, deep, and full of flaming fire, and full of pillars of fire. Then the seventy shepherds were judged, and being found guilty, were thrust into the flaming abyss.

34At that time likewise I perceived, that one abyss was thus opened in the midst of the earth, which was full of fire.

35And to this were brought the blind sheep; which being judged, and found guilty, were all thrust into that abyss of fire on the earth, and burnt.

36The abyss was on the right of that house.

37And I saw the sheep burning, and their bones consuming.

38I stood beholding him immerge that ancient house, while they brought out its pillars, every plant in it, and the ivory infolding it. They brought it out, and deposited it in a place on the right side of the earth.

39I also saw, that the Lord of the sheep produced a new house, great, and loftier than the former, which he bound by the former circular spot. All its pillars were new, and its ivory new, as well as more abundant than the former ancient ivory, which he had brought out.

40And while all the sheep which were left were in the midst of it, all the beasts of the earth, and all the birds of heaven, fell down and worshipped them, petitioning them, and obeying them in everything.

41Then those three, who were clothed in white, and who, holding me by my hand, had before caused me to ascend, while the hand of him who spoke held me; raised me up, and placed me in the midst of the sheep, before the judgment took place.

42The sheep were all white, with wool long and pure. Then all who had perished, and had been destroyed, every beast of the field, and every bird of heaven, assembled in that house: while the Lord of the sheep rejoiced with great joy, because all were good, and had come back again to his dwelling.

43And I saw that they laid down the sword which had been given to the sheep, and returned it to his house, sealing it up in the presence of the Lord.

44All the sheep would have been inclosed in that house, had it been capable of containing them; and the eyes of all were open, gazing on the good One; nor was there one among them who did not behold him.

45I likewise perceived that the house was large, wide, and extremely full. I saw, too, that a white cow was born, whose horns were great; and that all the beasts of the field, and all the birds of heaven, were alarmed at him, and entreated him at all times.

46Then I saw that the nature of all of them was changed, and that they became white cows;

47And that the first, who was in the midst of them, spoke, when that word became (127) a large beast, upon the head of which were great and black horns;

(127) Spoke, when that word came. Or "was a wild-ox, and that wild-ox was…" (Knibb, p. 216).

48While the Lord of the sheep rejoiced over them, and over all the cows.

49I lay down in the midst of them: I awoke; and saw the whole. This is the vision which I saw, lying down and waking. Then I blessed the Lord of righteousness, and gave glory to Him.

50Afterwards I wept abundantly, nor did my tears cease, so that I became incapable of enduring it. While I was looking on, they flowed on account of what I saw; for all was come and gone by; every individual circumstance respecting the conduct of mankind was seen by me.

51In that night I remembered my former dream; and therefore wept and was troubled, because I had seen that vision.
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Chapter 90

1And now, my son Mathusala, call to me all your brethren, and assemble for me all the children of your mother; for a voice calls me, and the spirit is poured out upon me, that I may show you everything which shall happen to you for ever.

2Then Mathusala went, called to him all his brethren, and assembled his kindred.

3And conversing with all his children in truth,

4Enoch said, Hear, my children, every word of your father, and listen in uprightness to the voice of my mouth; for I would gain your attention, while I address you. My beloved, be attached to integrity, and walk in it.

5Approach not integrity with a double heart; nor be associated with double-minded men: but walk, my children, in righteousness, which will conduct you in good paths; and be truth your companion.

6For I know, that oppression will exist and prevail on earth; that on earth great punishment shall in the end take place; and that there shall be a consummation of all iniquity, which shall be cut off from its root, and every fabric raised by it shall pass away. Iniquity, however, shall again be renewed, and consummated on earth. Every act of crime, and every act of oppression and impiety, shall be a second time embraced.

7When therefore iniquity, sin, blasphemy, tyranny, and every evil work, shall increase, and when transgression, impiety, and uncleanness also shall increase, then upon them all shall great punishment be inflicted from heaven.

8The holy Lord shall go forth in wrath, and upon them all shall great punishment from heaven be inflicted.

9The holy Lord shall go forth in wrath, and with punishment, that he may execute judgment upon earth.

10In those days oppression shall be cut off from its roots, and iniquity with fraud shall be eradicated, perishing from under heaven.

11Every place of strength (128) shall be surrendered with its inhabitants; with fire shall it be burnt. They shall be brought from every part of the earth, and be cast into a judgment of fire. They shall perish in wrath, and by a judgment overpowering them for ever.

(128) Every place of strength. Or, "all the idols of the nations" (Knibb, p. 218).

12Righteousness shall be raised up from slumber; and wisdom shall be raised up, and conferred upon them.

13Then shall the roots of iniquity be cut off; sinners perish by the sword; and blasphemers be annihilated everywhere.

14Those who meditate oppression, and those who blaspheme, by the sword shall perish.

15And now, my children, I will describe and point out to you the path of righteousness and the path of oppression.

16I will again point them out to you, that you may know what is to come.

17Hear now, my children, and walk in the path of righteousness, but shun that of oppression; for all who walk in the path of iniquity shall perish for ever.
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Chapter 91

1That which was written by Enoch. He wrote all this instruction of wisdom for every man of dignity, and every judge of the earth; for all my children who shall dwell upon earth, and for subsequent generations, conducting themselves uprightly and peaceably.

2Let not your spirit be grieved on account of the times; for the holy, the Great One, has prescribed a period to all.

3Let the righteous man arise from slumber; let him arise, and proceed in the path of righteousness, in all its paths; and let him advance in goodness and eternal clemency. Mercy shall be showed to the righteous man; upon him shall be conferred integrity and power for ever. In goodness and in righteousness shall he exist, and shall walk in everlasting light; but sin shall perish in eternal darkness, nor be seen from that time forward for evermore.
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Chapter 92

1After this, Enoch began to speak from a book.

2And Enoch said, Concerning the children of righteousness, concerning the elect of the world, and concerning the plant of righteousness and integrity.

3Concerning these things will I speak, and these things will I explain to you, my children: I who am Enoch. In consequence of that which has been shown to me, from my heavenly vision and from the voice of the holy angels (129) have I acquired knowledge; and from the tablet of heaven have I acquired understanding.

(129) Holy angels. A Qumran text reads, "Watchers and Holy Ones," clearly denoting heavenly Watchers who did not fall along with the wicked ones (Milik, p. 264). See also Dan. 4:13, "a watcher and a holy one came down from heaven"; 4:17, "watchers, and…holy ones."

4Enoch then began to speak from a book, and said, I have been born the seventh in the first week, while judgment and righteousness wait with patience.

5But after me, in the second week, great wickedness shall arise, and fraud shall spring forth.

6In that week the end of the first shall take place, in which mankind shall be safe. (130)

(130) Mankind shall be safe. Or, "a man will be saved" (Knibb, p. 224).

7But when the first is completed, iniquity shall grow up; and during the second week he shall execute the decree (131) upon sinners.

(131) The Deluge after the first (in the middle of the second) Millennium (2500 B.C.).

8Afterwards, in the third week, during its completion, a man (132) of the plant of righteous judgment shall be selected; and after him the Plant (133) of righteousness shall come for ever.
(132) King David at the end of the third Millennium (1000 B.C.).
(133) The Messiah at the end of the fourth Millennium (4 B.C. to 30 A.D.).

9Subsequently, in the fourth week, during its completion, the visions of the holy and the righteous shall be seen, the order of generation after generation shall take place, and a habitation shall be made for them. Then in the fifth week, during its completion, the house of glory and of dominion (134) shall be erected for ever.

(134) The establishment (30 A.D.) and building of the Church through the fifth (and sixth) Millennium.

10After that, in the sixth week, all those who are in it shall be darkened, the hearts of all of them shall be forgetful of wisdom, and in it shall a Man (135) arise and come forth.

(135) The Messiah at the end of the sixth Millennium.

11And during its completion He shall burn the house of dominion with fire, and all the race of the elect root shall be dispersed. (136)

(136) The destruction of Jerusalem and the disbursement of those who dwell in that land at the end of the sixth (and the beginning of the seventh) Millennium.

12Afterwards, in the seventh week, a perverse generation shall arise; abundant shall be its deeds, and all its deeds perverse. During its completion, the righteous shall be selected from the everlasting plant of righteousness; and to them shall be given the sevenfold doctrine of his whole creation.

13Afterwards there shall be another week, the eighth (137) of righteousness, to which shall be given a sword to execute judgment and justice upon all oppressors.

(137) The beginning of the eighth Millennium.

14Sinners shall be delivered up into the hands of the righteous, who during its completion shall acquire habitations by their righteousness; and the house of the great King shall be established for celebrations for ever. After this, in the ninth week, shall the judgment of righteousness be revealed to the whole world.

15Every work of the ungodly shall disappear from the whole earth; the world shall be marked for destruction; and all men shall be on the watch for the path of integrity.

16And after this, on the seventh day of the tenth week, there shall be an everlasting judgment, which shall be executed upon the Watchers; and a spacious eternal heaven shall spring forth in the midst of the angels.

17The former heaven shall depart and pass away; a new heaven shall appear; and all the celestial powers shall shine with sevenfold splendour for ever. Afterwards likewise shall there be many weeks, which shall externally exist in goodness and in righteousness.

18Neither shall sin be named there for ever and for ever.

19Who is there of all the children of men, capable of hearing the voice of the Holy One without emotion?

20Who is there capable of thinking his thoughts? Who capable of contemplating all the workmanship of heaven? Who of comprehending the deeds of heaven?

21He may behold its animation, but not its spirit. He may be capable of conversing respecting it, but not of ascending to it. He may see all the boundaries of these things, and meditate upon them; but he can make nothing like them.

22Who of all men is able to understand the breadth and length of the earth?

23By whom have been seen the dimensions of all these things? Is it every man who is capable of comprehending the extent of heaven; what its elevation is, and by what it is supported?

24How many are the numbers of the stars; and where all the luminaries remain at rest?
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Chapter 93

1And now let me exhort you, my children, to love righteousness, and to walk in it; for the paths of righteousness are worthy of acceptation; but the paths of iniquity shall suddenly fail, and be diminished.

2To men of note in their generation the paths of oppression and death are revealed; but they keep far from them, and do not follow them.

3Now, too, let me exhort you who are righteous, not to walk in the paths of evil and oppression, nor in the paths of death. Approach them not, that you may not perish; but covet,

4And choose for yourselves righteousness, and a good life.

5Walk in the paths of peace, that you may live, and be found worthy. Retain my words in your inmost thoughts, and obliterate them not from your hearts; for I know that sinners counsel men to commit crime craftily. They are not found in every place, nor does every counsel possess a little of them.

6Woe to those who build iniquity and oppression, and who lay the foundation of fraud; for suddenly shall they be subverted, and never obtain peace.

7Woe to those who build up their houses with crime; for from their very foundations shall their houses be demolished, and by the sword shall they themselves fall. Those, too, who acquire gold and silver, shall justly and suddenly perish. Woe to you who are rich, for in your riches have you trusted; but from your riches you shall be removed; because you have not remembered the Most High in the days of your prosperity.

8You have committed blasphemy and iniquity; and are destined to the day of the effusion of blood, to the day of darkness, and to the day of the great judgment.

9This I will declare and point out to you, that he who created you will destroy you.

10When you fall, he will not show you mercy; but your Creator will rejoice in your destruction.

11Let those, then, who shall be righteous among you in those days, detest sinners, and the ungodly.
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Chapter 94

1O that my eyes were clouds of water, that I might weep over you, and pour forth my tears like rain, and rest from the sorrow of my heart!

2Who has permitted you to hate and to transgress? Judgment shall overtake you, ye sinners.

3The righteous shall not fear the wicked; because God will again bring them into your power, that you may avenge yourselves of them according to your pleasure.

4Woe to you who shall be so bound by execrations, that you cannot be released from them; the remedy being far removed from you on account of your sins. Woe to you who recompense your neighbour with evil; for you shall be recompensed according to your works.

5Woe to you, false witnesses, you who aggravate iniquity; for you shall suddenly perish.

6Woe to you, sinners; for you reject the righteous; for you receive or reject at pleasure those who commit iniquity; and their yoke shall prevail over you.
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Chapter 95

1Wait in hope, you righteous; for suddenly shall sinners perish from before you, and you shall exercise dominion over them, according to your will.

2In the day of the sufferings of sinners your offspring shall be elevated, and lifted up like eagles. Your nest shall be more exalted than that of the avest; you shall ascend, and enter into the cavities of the earth, and into the clefts of the rocks for ever, like conies, from the sight of the ungodly;

3Who shall groan over you, and weep like sirens.

4You shall not fear those who trouble you; for restoration shall be yours; a splendid light shall shine around you, and the voice of tranquility shall be heard from heaven. Woe to you, sinners; for your wealth makes you resemble saints, but your hearts reproach you, knowing that you are sinners. This word shall testify against you, for the remembrance of crime.

5Woe to you who feed upon the glory of the corn, and drink the strength of the deepest spring, and in the pride of your power tread down the humble.

6Woe to you who drink water at pleasure; for suddenly shall you be recompensed, consumed, and withered, because you have forsaken the foundation of life.

7Woe to you who act iniquitously, fraudulently, and blasphemously; there shall be a remembrance against you for evil.

8Woe to you, powerful, who with power strike down righteousness; for the day of your destruction shall come; while at that very time many and good days shall be the portion of the righteous, even at the period of your judgment.
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Chapter 96

1The righteous are confident that sinners will be disgraced, and perish in the day of iniquity.

2You shall yourselves be conscious of it; for the Most High will remember your destruction, and the angels shall rejoice over it. What will you do sinners? And where will you fly in the day of judgment, when you shall hear the words of the prayer of the righteous?

3You are not like them who in this respect witness against you; you are associates of sinners.

4In those days shall the prayers of the righteous come up before the Lord. When the day of your judgment shall arrive; and every circumstance of your iniquity be related before the great and the holy One;

5Your faces shall be covered with shame; while every deed, strengthened by crime, shall be rejected.

6Woe unto you, sinners, who in the midst of the sea, and on dry land, are those against whom an evil record exists. Woe to you who squander silver and gold, not obtained in righteousness, and say, We are rich, possess wealth, and have acquired everything which we can desire.

7Now then will we do whatsoever we are disposed to do; for we have amassed silver; our barns are full, and the husbandmen of our families are like overflowing water.

8Like water shall your falsehood pass away; for your wealth will not be permanent, but shall suddenly ascend from you, because you have obtained it all iniquitously; to extreme malediction shall you be delivered up.

9And now I swear to you, crafty, as well as simple ones; that you, often contemplating the earth, you who are men, clothe yourselves more elegantly that married women, and both together more so than unmarried ones, (138) everywhere arraying yourselves in majesty, in magnificence, in authority, and in silver: but gold, purple, honour, and wealth, like water, flow away.

(138) Than married women…unmarried ones. Or, "than a woman and more coloured (garments) than a girl…" (Knibb, p. 230).

10Erudition therefore and wisdom are not theirs. Thus shall they perish, together with their riches, with all their glory, and with their honours;

11While with disgrace, with slaughter, and in extreme penury, shall their spirits be thrust into a furnace of fire.

12I have sworn to you, sinners, that neither mountain nor hill has been or shall be subservient (139) to woman.

(139) Subservient. Literally, "a servant." Perhaps in furnishing them with treasures for ornaments (Laurence, p. 159).

13Neither in this way has crime been sent down to us upon earth, but men of their own heads have invented it; and greatly shall those who give it efficiency be execrated.

14Barrenness shall not be previously inflicted on woman; but on account of the work of her hands shall she die childless.

15I have sworn to you, sinners, by the holy and the Great One, that all your evil deeds are disclosed in the heavens; and that none of your oppressive acts are concealed and secret.

16Think not in your minds, neither say in your hearts, that every crime is not manifested and seen. In heaven it is daily written down before the Most High. Henceforwards shall it be manifested; for every act of oppression which you commit shall be daily recorded, until the period of your condemnation.

17Woe to you, simple ones, for you shall perish in your simplicity. To the wise you will not listen, and that which is good you shall not obtain.

18Now therefore know that you are destined to the day of destruction; nor hope that sinners shall live; but in process of time you shall die; for you are not marked for redemption;

19But are destined to the day of the great judgment, to the day of distress, and the extreme ignominy of your souls.

20Woe to you, obdurate in heart, who commit crime, and feed on blood. Whence is it that you feed on good things, drink, and are satiated? Is it not because our Lord, the Most High, has abundantly supplied every good thing upon earth? To you there shall not be peace.

21Woe to you who love the deeds of iniquity. Why do you hope for that which is good? Know that you shall be given up into the hands of the righteous; who shall cut off your necks, slay you, and show you no compassion.

22Woe to you who rejoice in the trouble of the righteous; for a grave shall not be dug for you.

23Woe to you who frustrate the word of the righteous; for to you there shall be no hope of life.

24Woe to you who write down the word of falsehood, and the word of the wicked; for their falsehood they record, that they may hear and not forget folly.

25To them there shall be no peace; but they shall surely die suddenly.
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Chapter 97

1Woe to them who act impiously, who laud and honour the word of falsehood. You have been lost in perdition; and have never led a virtuous life.

2Woe to you who change the words of integrity. They transgress against the everlasting decree; (140)

(140) They transgress…the everlasting decree. Or, "they distort the eternal law" (Knibb, p. 232).

3And cause the heads of those who are not sinners to be trodden down upon the earth.

4In those days you, O righteous, shall have been deemed worthy of having your prayers rise up in remembrance; and shall have deposited them in testimony before the angels, that they might records the sins of the sinners in the presence of the Most High.

5In those days the nations shall be overthrown; but the families of the nations shall rise again in the day of perdition.

6In those days they who become pregnant shall go forth, carry off their children, and forsake them. Their offspring shall slip from them, and while suckling them shall they forsake them; they shall never return to them, and never instruct their beloved.

7Again I swear to you, sinners, that crime has been prepared for the day of blood, which never ceases.

8They shall worship stones, and engrave golden, silver, and wooden images. They shall worship impure spirits, demons, and every idol, in temples; but no help shall be obtained for them. Their hearts shall become impious through their folly, and their eyes be blinded with mental superstition. (141) In their visionary dreams shall they be impious and superstitious, lying in all their actions, and worshipping a stone. Altogether shall they perish.

(141) Mental superstition. Literally, "with the fear of their hearts" (Laurence, p. 162).

9But in those days blessed shall they be, to whom the word of wisdom is delivered; who point out and pursue the path of the Most High; who walk in the way of righteousness, and who act not impiously with the impious.

10They shall be saved.

11Woe to you who expand the crime of your neighbour; for in hell shall you be slain.

12Woe to you who lay the foundation of sin and deceit, and who are bitter on earth; for on it shall you be consumed.

13Woe to you who build your houses by the labour of others, every part of which is constructed with brick, and with the stone of crime; I tell you, that you shall not obtain peace.

14Woe to you who despise the extent of the everlasting inheritance of your fathers, while your souls follow after idols; for to you there shall be no tranquillity.

15Woe to them who commit iniquity, and give aid to blasphemy, who slay their neighbour until the day of the great judgment; for your glory shall fall; malevolence shall He put into your hearts, and the spirit of his wrath shall stir you up, that every one of you may perish by the sword.

16Then shall all the righteous and the holy remember your crimes.
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Chapter 98

1In those days shall fathers be struck down with their children in the presence of each other; and brethren with their brethren shall fall dead: until a river shall flow from their blood.

2For a man shall not restrain his hand from his children, nor from his children's children; his mercy will be to kill them.

3Nor shall the sinner restrain his hand from his honoured brother. From the dawn of day to the setting sun shall the slaughter continue. The horse shall wade up to his breast, and the chariot shall sink to its axle, in the blood of sinners.
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Chapter 99

1In those days the angels shall descend into places of concealment, and gather together in one spot all who have assisted in crime.

2In that day shall the Most High rise up to execute the great judgment upon all sinners, and to commit the guardianship of all the righteous and holy to the holy angels, that they may protect them as the apple of an eye, until every evil and every crime be annihilated.

3Whether or not the righteous sleep securely, wise men shall then truly perceive.

4And the sons of the earth shall understand every word of that book, knowing that their riches cannot save them in the ruin of their crimes.

5Woe to you, sinners, when you shall be afflicted on account of the righteous in the day of the great trouble; shall be burnt in the fire; and be recompensed according to your deeds.

6Woe to you, perverted in heart, who are watchful to obtain an accurate knowledge of evil, and to discover terrors. No one shall assist you.

7Woe to you, sinners; for with the words of your mouths, and with the work of your hands, have you acted impiously; in the flame of a blazing fire shall you be burnt.

8And now know, that the angels shall inquire into your conduct in heaven; of the sun, the moon, and the stars, shall they inquire respecting your sins; for upon earth you exercise jurisdiction over the righteous.

9Every cloud shall bear witness against you, the snow, the dew, and the rain: for all of them shall be withholden from you, that they may not descend upon you, nor become subservient to your crimes.

10Now then bring gifts of salutation to the rain; that, not being withholden, it may descend upon you; and to the dew, if it has received from you gold and silver. But when the frost, snow, cold, every snowy wind, and every suffering belonging to them, fall upon you, in those days you will be utterly incapable of standing before them.
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Chapter 100

1Attentively consider heaven, all you progeny of heaven, and all the works of the Most High; fear him, nor conduct yourselves criminally before him.

2If He shut up the windows of heaven, restraining the rain and dew, that it may not descend upon the earth on your account, what will you do?

3And if He send his wrath upon you, and upon all your deeds, you are not they who can supplicate him; you who utter against his righteousness, language proud and powerful. To you there shall be no peace.

4Do you not see the commanders of ships, how their vessels are tossed about by the waves, torn to pieces by the winds, and exposed to the greatest peril?

5That they therefore fear, because their whole property is embarked with them on the ocean; and that they forbode evil in their hearts, because it may swallow them up, and they may perish in it?

6Is not the whole sea, all its waters, and all its commotion, the work of him, the Most High; of him who has sealed up all its exertions, and girded it on every side with sand?

7Is it not at his rebuke dried up, and alarmed; while all its fish with everything contained in it die? And will not you, sinners, who are on earth, fear him? Is not He the maker of heaven and earth, and of all things which are in them?

8And who has given erudition and wisdom to all that move progressive upon the earth, and over the sea?

9Are not the commanders of ships terrified at the ocean? And shall not sinners be terrified at the Most High?
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(No Chapter 101)
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Chapter 102

1In those days, when He shall cast the calamity of fire upon you, whither will you fly, and where will you be safe?

2And when He sends forth his word against you, are you not spared, and terrified?

3All the luminaries are agitated with great fear; and all the earth is spared, while it trembles, and suffers anxiety.

4All the angels fulfill the commands received by them, and are desirous of being concealed from the presence of the great Glory; while the children of the earth are alarmed and troubled.

5But you, sinners, are for ever accursed; to you there shall be no peace.

6Fear not, souls of the righteous; but wait with patient hope for the day of your death in righteousness. Grieve not, because your souls descend in great trouble, with groaning, lamentation, and sorrow, to the receptacle of the dead. In your lifetime your bodies have not received a recompense in proportion to your goodness, but in the period of your existence have sinners existed; in the period of execration and of punishment.

7And when you die, sinners say concerning you, As we die, the righteous die. What profit have they in their works? Behold, like us, they expire in sorrow and in darkness. What advantage have they over us? Henceforward are we equal. What will be within their grasp, and what before their eyes for ever? For behold they are dead; and never will they again perceive the light. I say unto you, sinners, You have been satisfied with meat and drink, with human plunder and rapine, with sin, with the acquisition of wealth and with the sight of good days. Have you not marked the righteous, how their end is in peace? For no oppression is found in them even to the day of their death. They perish, and are as if they were not, while their souls descend in trouble to the receptacle of the dead.
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Chapter 103

1But now I swear to you, righteous, by the greatness of his splendour and his glory; by his illustrious kingdom and by his majesty, to you I swear, that I comprehend this mystery; that I have read the tablet of heaven, have seen the writing of the holy ones, and have discovered what is written and impressed on it concerning you.

2I have seen that all goodness, joy, and glory has been prepared for you, and been written down for the spirits of them who die eminently righteous and good. To you it shall be given in return for your troubles; and your portion of happiness shall far exceed the portion of the living.

3The spirits of you who die in righteousness shall exist and rejoice. Their spirits shall exult; and their remembrance shall be before the face of the Mighty One from generation to generation. Nor shall they now fear disgrace.

4Woe to you, sinners, when you die in your sins; and they, who are like you, say respecting you, Blessed are these sinners. They have lived out their whole period; and now they die in happiness and in wealth. Distress and slaughter they knew not while alive; in honour they die; nor ever in their lifetime did judgment overtake them.

5But has it not been shown to them, that, when to the receptacle of the dead their souls shall be made to descend, their evil deeds shall become their greatest torment? Into darkness, into the snare, and into the flame, which shall burn to the great judgment, shall their spirits enter; and the great judgment shall take effect for ever and for ever.

6Woe to you; for to you there shall be no peace. Neither can you say to the righteous, and to the good who are alive, In the days of our trouble have we been afflicted; every manner of trouble have we seen, and many evil things have suffered.

7Our spirits have been consumed, lessened, and diminished.

8We have perished; nor has there been a possibility of help for us in word or in deed: we have found none, but have been tormented and destroyed.

9We have not expected to live day after day.

10We hoped indeed to have been the head;

11But we have become the tail. We have been afflicted, when we have exerted ourselves; but we have been devoured by sinners and the ungodly; their yoke has been heavy upon us.

12Those have exercised dominion over us who detest and who goad us; and to those who hate us have we humbled our neck; but they have shown no compassion towards us.

13We have been desirous of escaping from them, that we might fly away and be at rest; but we have found no place to which we could fly, and be secure from them. We have sought an asylum with princes in our distress, and have cried out to those who were devouring us; but our cry has not been regarded, nor have they been disposed to hear our voice;

14But rather to assist those who plunder and devour us; those who diminish us, and hide their oppression; who remove not their yoke from us, but devour, enervate, and slay us; who conceal our slaughter, nor remember that they have lifted up their hands against us.
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Chapter 104

1I swear to you, righteous, that in heaven the angels record your goodness before the glory of the Mighty One.

2Wait with patient hope; for formerly you have been disgraced with evil and with affliction; but now shall you shine like the luminaries of heaven. You shall be seen, and the gates of heaven shall be opened to you. Your cries have cried for judgment; and it has appeared to you; for an account of all your sufferings shall be required from the princes, and from every one who has assisted your plunderers.

3Wait with patient hope; nor relinquish your confidence; for great joy shall be yours, like that of the angels in heaven. Conduct yourselves as you may, still you shall not be concealed in the day of the great judgment. You shall not be found like sinners; and eternal condemnation shall be far from you, so long as the world exists.

4And now fear not, righteous, when you see sinners flourishing and prosperous in their ways.

5Be not associates with them; but keep yourselves at a distance from their oppression; be you associated with the host of heaven. You, sinners, say, All our transgressions shall not be taken account of, and be recorded. But all your transgressions shall be recorded daily.

6And be assured by me, that light and darkness, day and night, behold all your transgressions. Be not impious in your thoughts; lie not; surrender not the word of uprightness; lie not against the word of the holy and the mighty One; glorify not your idols; for all your lying and all your impiety is not for righteousness, but for great crime.

7Now will I point out a mystery: Many sinners shall turn and transgress against the word of uprightness.

8They shall speak evil things; they shall utter falsehood; execute great undertakings; (142) and compose books in their own words. But when they shall write all my words correctly in their own languages,

(142) Execute great undertakings. Literally, "create a great creation" (Laurence, p. 173).

9They shall neither change or diminish them; but shall write them all correctly; all which from the first I have uttered concerning them. (143)

(143) Despite Enoch's mandate, his book was most certainly "changed" and "diminished" by later editors, though these fragments of it have survived.

10Another mystery also I point out. To the righteous and the wise shall be given books of joy, of integrity, and of great wisdom. To them shall books be given, in which they shall believe;

11And in which they shall rejoice. And all the righteous shall be rewarded, who from these shall acquire the knowledge of every upright path.
Chapter 104A

1In those days, saith the Lord, they shall call to the children of the earth, and make them listen to their wisdom. Show them that you are their leaders;

2And that remuneration shall take place over the whole earth; for I and my Son will for ever hold communion with them in the paths of uprightness, while they are still alive. Peace shall be yours. Rejoice, children of integrity, in the truth.
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Chapter 105

1After a time, my son Mathusala took a wife for his son Lamech.

2She became pregnant by him, and brought forth a child, the flesh of which was as white as snow, and red as a rose; the hair of whose head was white like wool, and long; and whose eyes were beautiful. When he opened them, he illuminated all the house, like the sun; the whole house abounded with light.

3And when he was taken from the hand of the midwife, Lamech his father became afraid of him; and flying away came to his own father Mathusala, and said, I have begotten a son, unlike to other children. He is not human; but, resembling the offspring of the angels of heaven, is of a different nature from ours, being altogether unlike to us.

4His eyes are bright as the rays of the sun; his countenance glorious, and he looks not as if he belonged to me, but to the angels.

5I am afraid, lest something miraculous should take place on earth in his days.

6And now, my father, let me entreat and request you to go to our progenitor Enoch, and learn from him the truth; for his residence is with the angels.

7When Mathusala heard the words of his son, he came to me at the extremities of the earth; for he had been informed that I was there: and he cried out.

8I heard his voice, and went to him saying, Behold, I am here, my son; since you have come to me.

9He answered and said, On account of a great event have I come to you; and on account of a sight difficult to be comprehended have I approached you.

10And now, my father, hear me; for to my son Lamech a child has been born, who resembles not him; and whose nature is not like the nature of man. His colour is whiter than snow; he is redder than the rose; the hair of his head is whiter than white wool; his eyes are like the rays of the sun; and when he opened them he illuminated the whole house.

11When also he was taken from the hand of the midwife,

12His father Lamech feared, and fled to me, believing not that the child belonged to him, but that he resembled the angels of heaven. And behold I am come to you, that you might point out to me the truth.

13Then I, Enoch, answered and said, The Lord will effect a new thing upon the earth. This have I explained, and seen in a vision. I have shown you that in the generations of Jared my father, those who were from heaven disregarded the word of the Lord. Behold they committed crimes; laid aside their class, and intermingled with women. With them also they transgressed; married with them, and begot children. (144)

(144) After this verse, one Greek papyrus adds, "who are not like spiritual beings, but creatures of flesh" (Milik, p. 210).

14A great destruction therefore shall come upon all the earth; a deluge, a great destruction, shall take place in one year.

15This child which is born to your son shall survive on the earth, and his three sons shall be saved with him. When all mankind who are on the earth shall die, he shall be safe.

16And his posterity shall beget on the earth giants, not spiritual, but carnal. Upon the earth shall a great punishment be inflicted, and it shall be washed from all corruption. Now therefore inform your son Lamech, that he who is born is his child in truth; and he shall call his name Noah, for he shall be to you a survivor. He and his children shall be saved from the corruption which shall take place in the world; from all the sin and from all the iniquity which shall be consummated on earth in his days. Afterwards shall greater impiety take place than that which had been before consummated on the earth; for I am acquainted with holy mysteries, which the Lord himself has discovered and explained to me; and which I have read in the tablets of heaven.

17In them I saw it written, that the generation after generation shall transgress, until a righteous race shall arise; until transgression and crime perish from off the earth; until all goodness come upon it.

18And now, my son, go tell your son Lamech,

19That the child which is born is his child in truth; and that there is no deception.

20When Mathusala heard the word of his father Enoch, who had shown him every secret thing, he returned with understanding, and called the name of that child Noah; because he was to console the earth on account of all its destruction.

21Another book, which Enoch wrote for his son Mathusala, and for those who should come after him, and preserve their purity of conduct in the latter days. You, who have laboured, shall wait in those days, until the evil doers be consumed, and the power of the guilty be annihilated. Wait, until sin pass away; for their names shall be blotted out of the holy books; their seed shall be destroyed, and their spirits slain. They shall cry out and lament in the invisible waste, and in the bottomless fire shall they burn. (145) There I perceived, as it were, a cloud which could not be seen through; for from the depth of it I was unable to look upwards. I beheld also a flame of fire blazing brightly, and, as it were, glittering mountains whirled around, and agitated from side to side.

(145) In the bottomless fire shall they burn. Literally, "in the fire shall they burn, where there is no earth" (Laurence, p. 178).

22Then I inquired of one of the holy angels who was with me, and said, What is this splendid object? For it is not heaven, but a flame of fire alone which blazes; and in it there is the clamour of exclamation, of woe, and of great suffering.

23He said, There, into that place which you behold, shall be thrust the spirits of sinners and blasphemers; of those who shall do evil, and who shall pervert all which God has spoken by the mouth of the prophets; all which they ought to do. For respecting these things there shall be writings and impressions above in heaven, that the angels may read them and know what shall happen both to sinners and to the spirits of the humble; to those who have suffered in their bodies, but have been rewarded by God; who have been injuriously treated by wicked men; who have loved God; who have been attached neither to gold nor silver, nor to any good thing in the world, but have given their bodies to torment;

24To those who from the period of their birth have not been covetous of earthly riches; but have regarded themselves as a breath passing away.

25Such has been their conduct; and much has the Lord tried them; and their spirits have been found pure, that they might bless his name. All their blessings have I related in a book; and He has rewarded them; for they have been found to love heaven with an everlasting aspiration. God has said, While they have been trodden down by wicked men, they have heard from them revilings and blasphemies; and have been ignominiously treated, while they were blessing me. And now will I call the spirits of the good from the generation of light, and will change those who have been born in darkness; who have not in their bodies been recompensed with glory, as their faith may have merited.

26I will bring them into the splendid light of those who love my holy name: and I will place each of them on a throne of glory, of glory peculiarly his own, and they shall be at rest during unnumbered periods. Righteous is the judgment of God;

27For to the faithful shall he give faith in the habitations of uprightness. They shall see those, who have been born in darkness unto darkness shall be cast; while the righteous shall be at rest. Sinners shall cry out, beholding them, while they exist in splendour and proceed forwards to the days and periods prescribed to them.
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http://www.johnpratt.com/items/docs/enoch.html
http://www.sacred-texts.com/bib/boe/index.htm
埃塞俄比亞東正教才會用的Meqabyan維基
I, II, and III Meqabyan (Ge'ez: መቃብያን, sometimes spelled Makabian) are three books in the Ethiopian Orthodox Old Testament Biblical canon.

Although these books are totally different in content from the books of Maccabees in Catholic and Eastern Orthodox Bibles, they are sometimes referred to as Ethiopic Maccabees or Pseudo-Maccabees.

These three books long existed only in Ethiopic, but have recently been translated by Ras Feqade Selassie and published by Lulu (2008). He previously published online an edition in Iyaric, the liturgical English of the Rastafari Movement.

    * The Book of First Meqabyan has 36 chapters. It begins: "In the days of the Moabites and Medes". It says that there was an idol-worshipping king of Media and Midian, named '"Tsirutsaydan". A Benjamite called Meqabis taught that men should worship the true God, and his 5 sons and others were burnt by the king.

    * The Book of Second Meqabyan has 21 chapters. It begins: "After he found the Jews in Syrian Mesopotamia". It says that a king of Moab named Meqabis made war against Israel as a punishment on them. Later he repented of his sins and taught the Israelites God's law. After his death, Tsirutsaydan introduced idolatry and burnt the sons of Makabis.

    * The Book of Third Meqabyan has 10 chapters. It begins: "And the islands of Egypt shall rejoice". It is a diffuse account of salvation and punishment, illustrated from the lives of Adam, Job, David and others.
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Meqabyan
Meqabyan
Ethiopian I-ble Index

TRANSLATOR NOTE:  It does not seem to be widely known that the 3 Books of Meqabyan in the Ethiopic canon bear absolutely no resemblance whatsoever to the 4 Western Apocryphal Books of Maccabees... It is my belief that this Iyaric version of mine is the first ever published translation of this part of the Ethiopian Bible into any form of English...!!! I say this because my web search has only found one site with high quality information, that even alludes to the cantents of these Ethiopian Books of Meqabyan, here:

The Biblical Canon Of The Ethiopian Orthodox Church Today  (see esp. footnote #9)

The only references it gives for further information are two scholarly journals:

J. Horovitz, "Das äthiopische Maccabäerbuch", Zeitschrift für Assyriologie, Leipzig, XIX, pp. 194--233 (this will be written in German)

and

R. Cowley, "Old Testament Introduction in the Andemta Commentary Tradition", Journal of Ethiopian Studies, Addis Ababa, vol. XII no.1, pp. 133-175,

[If anyone can find either of these articles, especially the English one, I would love to see it!  Also, if anyone with knowledge of Gi'iz can help me with translatin the underlined words of uncertain meaning in verses 8:1 & 19:1, I'll be iternally grateful! - RFI]

Book of Meqabyan I.

This are the thing Meqabyan spoke pon the Mo`abans an Miedonans kingdoms.

Chapter 1.

1;   There were one man whose name are called Tseerutsaydan an who love sin ~ him would boast ina him horses abundance an him troops firmness beneath him authority.

2; Him had many priests who serve him idols whom him worship an fe whom him bow an sacrifice sacrifice by night an by daylight.

3; But ina him heart dullness it would seem fe him that them give him firmness an Power.

4; An ina him heart it would seem fe him that them give him authority ina all him Rule.

5; An again ina formation time it would seem fe him that them give him all the desired authority also.

6; An him would sacrifice sacrifice fe them day an night.

7; Him appointed priests who serve him idols.

8; While them ate from that defouled sacrifice - them would tell him pretendin that the idols eat night an day.

9; Again them would mek other persons diligent like unto them - that them might sacrifice sacrifice an eat. An again them would mek other persons diligent that them might sacrifice sacrifice - an sacrifice sacrifice like unto them.

10; But him would trust ina him idols that don't profit nor benefit.

11; By him timeframe bein small - an ina him heart dullness - it would seem fe him that them Irated him - that them feed him an that them crown him ~ it would seem fe him that them Irated him - fe Seythan have deafened him reasonin lest him know him Irator Who Irated him bringin from not livin toward livin - or lest him with him kindreds know him Irator Who Irated him bringin from not livin toward livin - that them might go toward Gehannem of Fiyah foriva - it bein judged pon them with him who call them gods without them bein gods.

12; As them aren't never well whenever - it are due that him might call them dead ones.

13; As Seythan authority that mislead them will lodge ina that idol image - an as him will tell them them reasonin accord - an as him will reveal fe them like unto them loved - him will judge pon the idols wherein them believed an wherein 'Adam childran trust - whose reasonin were like unto ashes.

14; An them will marvel pon the time them sight up that him fulfilled what them thought fe them - an them will do him accord fe him reachin up til them sacrifice them dawta childran an them male childran birthed from them nature - up til them spill them dawta childran an male childran blood that were clean.

15; Them didn't sadden them - fe Seythan have savoured him sacrifice fe them fe fulfill them evil accord - that him might lower them toward Gehannem like unto him - where there are no exits up til Iternity - where him will raceive tribulation.

16; But that Tseerutsaydan were arrogant ~ him had fifty idols worked ina males pattern an twenty worked ina dawtaz pattern.

17; An him would boast ina those idols that have no benefit ~ him would totally glorify them while him sacrificed sacrifice mornin an evenin.

18; An him would command persons that them might sacrifice sacrifice fe the idols - an him would eat from that defouled sacrifice - an him would command other persons that them might eat from the sacrifice ~ him would especially provoke fe evil.

19; Him had five houses worked fe him beaten worked idols that were iron an brass an lead.

20; An him ornamanted them ina silver an gold ~ him veiled curtains around the houses fe them an planted a tent fe them.

21; Him appointed keepers fe them there ~ him would Itinually sacrifice forty fe him idols - ten fattened oxen - ten sterile cows - ten fattened sheep ewes - ten barren goats - with birds that have wings.

22; But it would seem fe him that him idols ate ~ him would present fe them fifty feeqen of grapes an fifty dishes of wheat kneaded with oil.

23; An him told him priests: - "Tek an give them ~ mek mi irators eat what mi slaughtered fe them - an mek them drink the grape mi presented fe them ~ as fe if it aren't enough fe them - mi will add fe them."

24; An him would command all that them might eat an drink from that defouled sacrifice.

25; But ina him evil malice him would send him troops who visit ina all the kingdom - that as it were there were one who neither sacrifice nor bow - them might separate an know an bring him - an might punish him by fiyah an by sword before him - that them might plunder him money an might burn him house ina fiyah - that them might downstroy all him money him had pon him.

26; "Fe them are kind an great ones - an fe them have Irated wi ina them charity - an mi will show punishmant an tribulation fe him unless him worshipped mi irators an sacrificed sacrifice fe mi irators.

27; An mi will show him punishmant an tribulation - fe them have Irated Earth an Heaven an the sea that were wide an moon an Sun an stars an rains an winds an all that live ina this world fe be food an fe be satiety fe wi."

28; But persons who worship them shall be punished ina firm tribulation - an them won't be nice fe them.

Chapter 2.

1;   There were one man birthed from the tribe of Binyam whose name are called Meqabees;

2; him had three childran who were handsome an totally warriors ~ them had bein iloved alongside all persons ina that Midyam an Miedon country that are Tseerutsaydan Rule.

3; An like unto the king commanded them pon the time him found them: - "Don't unu bow fe Tseerutsaydan irators? How about don't unu sacrifice sacrifice?

4; But if unu refuse - wi will seize an tek unu toward the king - an wi will downstroy all your money like unto the king commanded."

5; These youts who were handsome replied fe him sayin - "As fe Him fe Whom InI bow - there are InI Faada Irator Who Irated Earth an Heaven an what are within she - an the sea - moon an Sun an clouds an stars ~ Him are the True Irator Whom InI worship an ina Whom InI believe."

6; An these the king youts are four - an them servants who carry shield an spear are a hundred.

7; An pon the time them loved that them might seize these hola ones - them escaped from them hands and there are none who touched them ~ as those youts are totally warriors ina Power - them went seizin shields an them spears.

8; An there were from them one who strangle an kill panther - an at that time him would strangle it like unto a chicken.

9; An there were one from them who kill a lion with one rock or strikin at one time with a stick.

10; An there were one from them who kill a hundred persons - strikin ina formation time with one sword - an them name an them hunt were thus ~ it were called ina all Babilon an Mo`ab countries.

11; An them were warriors ina Power - an them had a thing bein iloved an comeliness.

12; An again them features comeliness were wondrous - however becau them worshipped JAH an becau them didn't fear death - it are them reasonin comeliness that surpass all.

13; An pon the time them frightened the troops - there are none who could able fe seize them - but them who were warriors escaped proceedin toward a lofty mountain.

14; An those troops returned toward the city an shut the fortress gate ~ them terrorized the people sayin - "Unless unu brought those warriors the Meqabyans - wi will burn your city ina fiyah - an wi will send toward the king an downstroy your country."

15; An at that time the country persons - rich an poor ones an dawtaz an males - a child whose faada an mother dead pon him an old dawtaz - everyone proceeded an shouted together - an them straightened them necks toward the mountain an shouted toward them sayin - "Don't downstroy InI - an don't downstroy InI country pon InI."

16; At that time them wept together - an them feared - arisin from JAH.

17; Returnin them faces Eastward an streachin forth them hands them begged toward JAH together - "Lord - should InI refuse these men who demolished Thy Command an Thy LAW?

18; Yet him believed ina silver an gold an ina the stone an wood that a person hands worked - but InI don't love that InI might hear that criminal word - who didn't believe Thy LAW" them said.

19; "When Thou are the Irator Who save an Who kill - him mek him ras self like unto them Irated him also ~ as fe him - him are who spill a person blood an who eat a person flesh.

20; But InI don't love that InI might sight up that criminal face nor hear him word" them said.

21; "However if Thou commanded InI - InI will go toward him ~ becau InI believe ina Thee-I - InI will pass an give InI bodies fe death - an pon the time him said 'Sacrifice sacrifice fe mi irators' - InI won't hear that criminal word.

22; But InI believed Thee-I - Lord Who examine kidneys an reasonins - InI Faadas Irator - 'Abriham an Yis'haq an Ya`iqob who did Thy Accord an lived firmed up ina Thy LAW.

23; Thou examine a person reasonin an help the sinner an the righteous one - an there be none hidden from Thee-I - an him who took refuge are revealed alongside Thee-I.

24; But InI have no other Irator apart from Thee-I.

25; That InI might give InI bodies fe death becau Thy glorified Name - however be Power an Firmness an a Shelter fe InI ina this Work that InI are ruled fe Thee-I.

26; An pon the time 'Isra'iel entered toward Gibts country Thou heard Ya`iqob plea - an now glorified God - InI beg Thee-I."

27; An pon the time the two men whose features were quite handsome were sight up fe them standin before them - pon the time fiyah swords that frighten like unto lightnin alit an cut them necks an killed them - at that time them arose bein well like unto formerly.

28; Them features comeliness became totally handsome an them shone more than Sun - an them became more handsome than formerly.

Chapter 3.

1;   Like unto unu sight up before unu these the Most I JAH slaves - 'Abya - Seela - Fentos who dead an arose - unu have that unu might arise likewise after unu dead - an your faces shall shine like unto the Sun ina the Kingdom of Heaven.

2; An them went with those men an raceived martyrdom there.

3; At that time them begged - them praised - an them bowed fe JAH ~ death didn't frighten them an the king punishmant didn't frighten them.

4; An them went toward those youts an became like unto a sheep that have no evil - yet them didn't frighten them - an pon the time them arrived toward them - them seized an beat them an bound an whipped them - an them delivered them toward the king an stood them before him.

5; An the king answered fe them sayin - "How won't unu stubborn ones sacrifice sacrifice an bow fe mi irators?"

6; Those bredren who were cleansed from sin - who were honoured an chosen an Irie - an who shine like unto a jewel whose value were wondrous - Seela an 'Abya an Fentos answered fe him ina one word.

7; Them told that king who were a plague - "As fe InI - InI won't bow nor sacrifice fe defouled idols that have no knowledge nor reasonin."

8; An again them told him - "InI won't bow fe idols that were silver an gold that a person hand worked - that were stone an wood - that have no reasonin nor soul nor knowledge - that don't benefit them friends nor harm them enemies."

9; An the king answered fe them sayin - "Why do unu do thus - an as them know who insult them an who wrong them - why do unu insult the glorified irators?"

10; Them answered fe him sayin - "As them are like unto a trifle alongside InI - as fe InI - InI will insult them an won't glorify them."

11; An the king answered fe them sayin - "Mi will punish unu like unto your Work evil measure ~ mi will downstroy your features comeliness with whippin an firm tribulation an fiyah.

12; An now tell mi whether unu will give or won't give sacrifice fe mi irators - as fe if this didn't happen - mi will punish unu by sword an by whippin."

13; Them answered fe him sayin - "As fe InI - InI won't sacrifice sacrifice nor bow fe defouled idols" - an the king commanded them that them might beat them with a fat stick - an again that them might whip them with a whip - an after it - that them might splinter them up til them inner organs were sight up.

14; An after this them bound an made them while ina jail house up til him counsel by money that punish an kill them.

15; Without niceness them took an bound them a firm imprisonmant ina prison house - an them sat ina prison house three nights an three daylights.

16; An after this third day the king commanded that a Proclamation speaker might turn an that counselors an nobles - country elders an officials - might be gathered.

17; An pon the time the king Tseerutsaydan sat ina square - him commanded that them might bring those honoured ones - Seela an 'Abya an Fentos ~ them stood before him bein wounded an bound.

18; An the king told them - "When unu sat these three days - are there really the returnin that unu returned - or are unu ina your former evil?"

19; An those honoured JAH Souljahs answered fe him sayin - "As fe that InI were cruel - InI won't agree that InI might worship the idols filled of sin an evil that thou check up."

20; An that criminal vexed an commanded that them might stand them up ina lofty place an might renew them wounds ~ them blood flowed pon Earth.

21; An again him commanded that them might burn them with a torch lamp an might char them flesh - an him servants did like unto him commanded them - an those honoured men told him - "Thou who forgot JAH LAW - speak ~ InI reward shall abound ina the measure whereby thou multiply InI punishmant."

22; An again him commanded that them might bring an send pon them bears an tigers an lions that were evil beasts before them eat them food that them might totally eat them flesh with them bones.

23; An him commanded persons who keep the beasts that them might send the beasts pon them - an them did like unto him commanded them - an them bound those honoured martyrs feet - an again them maliciously beat an bound them with tent-stakes.

24; An those beasts were flung over them while them roared - an pon the time them arrived toward the martyrs them hailed an bowed fe them.

25; Them returned toward them keepers while them roared - an them frightened them keepers ~ them took them toward the square up til them delivered them toward before the king.

26; An them killed seventy five men from the criminals army there.

27; Many persons panicked - the one anguishin pon the one ina fear - up til the king quit him throne an fled - an them seized the beasts with difficulty an took them toward them lodgin.

28; Seela an 'Abya an Fentos two bredren came an released them from the imprisonmant them bound them an told them - "Come mek InI flee lest these skeptics an criminals find InI.

29; An those martyrs answered them bredren sayin - "It aren't procedure that InI might flee after InI set up fe testimony ~ as it were unu had feared - go fleein."

30; An those them likkle bredren said - "InI will stand with unu before the king - an if unu dead InI will dead with unu."

31; An after this the king were pon him lordship hall balcany an sight up that these honoured men were released an that all the five bredren stood together ~ those chiefs who work an punish troops questioned that them were bredren an told the king - an the king vexed an shouted like unto a wilderness boar.

32; An up til the king counseled by money that punish all the five bredren - him commanded that them might seize an add them ina prison house ~ them placed them ina prison house bindin ina firm imprisonmant without niceness with a hollow stalk.

33; An the king Tseerutsaydan said - "These youts who erred wearied mi ~ what should these men reasonin firm up? an them Work evil are like unto them Power firmness ~ if mi say - "Them will return" - them will mek them reasonin evil.

34; An mi will bring the hardship pon them like unto them Work evil measure - an mi will burn them flesh ina fiyah that it might be charred ash - an pon that mi will scattar them flesh ash like unto dust pon mountains."

35; An after him spoke this him waited three days an commanded that them might bring those honoured men - an pon the time those honoured men approached him commanded that them might burn a fiyah within the great pit oven - an that them might add within it a malice Work that flame the fiyah an whereby them boil a yat - the fat an soapberries - sea foam an resin an the sulfur.

36; An pon the time fiyah flamed ina the pit the messengers went toward the king when them said - "Wi did what thou commanded wi - send the men who will be added."

37; An him commanded that them might receive an cast them ina the fiyah pit - an the youts did like unto the king commanded them - an pon the time those honoured men entered toward the fiyah them gave them souls fe JAH.

38; An when the persons who cast them sight up - Angels raceived an took them souls toward the Garden where Yis'haq an 'Abriham an Ya`iqob are - where Irie Ites are found.

Chapter 4.

1;   An pon the time that criminal sight up that them dead - him commanded that them might burn them flesh ina fiyah up til it are ash an that them might scattar them ina wind - but the fiyah couldn't able fe burn the corpse hair from them corpses side - an them sent them forth from the pit.

2; An again them flamed fiyah over them iginnin from mornin up til evenin ~ it didn't burn them ~ them said - "An now come mek wi cast them corpses seaward."

3; An them did like unto the king commanded them ~ them cast them pon the sea ~ even if them cast them seaward addin great stones an iron hearthstones an a millstone whereby a donkey grind by turnin - there are no sinkin that the sea sank them ~ as JAH Spirit of Support have lodged ina them - them floated pon the sea yet them didn't sink ~ it failed him fe downstroy them by all the malice that were provoked pon them.

4; "As this them death have made weary more than them Life - mek mi cast them corpses fe beasts that them might eat them - yet what will mi do?" him said.

5; An the youts did like unto him commanded them ~ vultures an beasts didn't touch them corpses ~ birds an vultures veiled them with them wings from burnin ina Sun an the five martyrs corpses sat fourteen days.

6; An pon the time them sight them up - them bodies shone up like unto Sun - an Angels incircled them corpses like unto light incircle the Tent.

7; Him counseled counsel ~ him lacked what him do - an after this him dug a grave an buried the five martyrs corpses.

8; An when that king who forgot JAH LAW had reclined pon a bed at night the five martyrs were sight up fe him standin before him at night vexin an seizin swords.

9; As it have seemed fe him that them entered toward him house at night ina crime - pon the time him awoke from him slumber him feared an loved that him might flee from the bedchamber toward the hall - an as it have seemed fe him that them kill him seemin that them committed crime pon him - him feared an him knees trembled.

10; Becaudis thing him said - "Mi lords - what do unu love? as fe mi - what should mi do fe unu?"

11; Them answered fe him sayin - "Aren't InI whom thou killed burnin ina fiyah an InI whom thou commanded that them might cast pon the sea? As JAH have kept InI bodies becau InI believed ina Him - it failed thee fe downstroy InI ~ as a person who believed ina Him won't perish - mek glory an praise due fe JAH - an InI also who believed ina Him didn't shame ina the tribulation.

12; "As mi didn't know that a punishmant like unto this will find mi - what reward should mi give unu becau the stead wherefore mi did a evil thing pon unu?

13; An now separate fe mi the reward mi give unu - lest unu tek mi body ina death an lest unu lower mi body toward See'ol when mi are ina Life.

14; As mi have wronged unu - forgive mi mi sin - becau it were your Faada JAH LAW Niceness" him told them.

15; An those honoured martyrs answered fe him sayin - "Becau the stead wherefore thou did a evil thing pon InI - as fe InI - InI won't pay thee a evil thing ~ as JAH are Who bring hardship pon a soul - as fe Him Who will pay thee hardship - there are JAH.

16; However InI were sight up fe thee bein revealed that InI were well fe thy timeframe bein small an becau thy reasonin deafness ~ as fe it seemin fe thee that thou killed InI - thou prepared welfare fe InI.

17; But thy idols priests an thou will downscend toward Gehannem where are no exits foriva.

18; Woe fe thy idols fe whom thou bow havin quit bowin fe JAH Who Irated unu when unu were scorned like unto spit - an fe unu who worship them - an unu don't know JAH Who Irated unu bringin from not livin toward livin ~ aren't unu who are sight up today like unto smoke an tomorrow who perish?"

19; An the king answered fe them sayin - "What will unu command mi that mi might do fe unu all that unu loved?"

20; "It are fe save thy ras self lest thou enter toward the Gehannem of Fiyah - yet it aren't fe save InI ras selves who teach thee.

21; Fe your idols are silver an gold - stone an wood - that have no reasonin nor soul knowledge - that a person hand worked.

22; But them don't kill ~ them don't save ~ them don't benefit them friend ~ them don't harm them enemy ~ them don't downbase ~ them don't honour ~ them don't mek wealthy ~ them don't impoverish ~ them mislead unu by demons authority - who don't love that the one from persons might be saved - yet them don't uproot nor plant.

23; Them especially don't love that the persons like unto unu might be saved from death - unu dull-hearted ones fe whom them seem that them irated unu - when unu are who worked them.

24; As Seythans an demons authority have lodged ina them - them shall return a thing fe unu like unto unu loved - that it might drown unu within the sea of Gehannem.

25; But thou - quit this thy error an mek this also be InI reward becau InI dead stead - that InI might benefit InI souls worshippin InI Irator JAH" them told him.

26; But him were alarmed an would totally astony - an as all five have been sight up fe him drawin them swords - him feared - an becaudis thing him bowed fe them.

27; "Hence mi knew that after dead ones who were dust dead them will really arise ~ as fe mi - only a likkle had remained fe mi fe dead."

28; After this them were hidden from before that king face ~ from that day onward that Tseerutsaydan who are totally arrogant quit burnin them corpses.

29; As them have misled them many eras - him would be Irie ina him idols an him reasonin error - an him misled many persons like unto him up til them quit followin ina Worship JAH Who Irated them - yet it aren't only him who erred.

30; An them would sacrifice them dawta childran an them male childran fe demons - yet them work a seducin an downsturbance that are them reasonin accord - that them faada Seythan taught them that him might mek the seducin an downsturbance that JAH don't love.

31; Them marry them mothers - an them abuse them aunts an them sistren ~ them abuse them bodies while them worked all that resemble this filthy Work ~ as Seythan have firmed up those crooked persons reasonin - them said - "Wi won't return."

32; But that Tseerutsaydan - who don't know him Irator - were totally arrogant - an him would boast ina him idols.

33; If them say - "How will JAH give the Kingdom fe the persons who don't know Him ina LAW an ina Worship?" - them will totally return toward Him ina repentance ~ as Him test them thus - it are becaudis.

34; But if them totally return ina repentance Him would love them - an Him would keep them Kingdom - but if them refuse a fiyah will punish them ina Fiyah of Gehannem foriva.

35; But it would be due a king fe fear him Irator JAH like unto him lordship fame - an it would be due a judge fe be ruled fe him Irator while him judged goodly judgemant like unto him Rule fame.

36; An it would be due elders an chiefs an envoys an petty kings fe be commanded fe them Irator like unto them lordship abundance measure.

37; As Him are Heaven an Earth Lord Who Irated all the Iration - becau there are no other Irator ina Heavan nor Earth who impoverish an mek rich - Him are Who honour an downbase.

Chapter 5.

1;   "The one warrior from the sixty warriors were proud ~ JAH made him body Iginnin from him foot up til him head fe swell with one spoon of sulphur ~ him dead ina one plague.

2; An again Keeram who built a iron bed were proud arisin from him powerfulness abundance - an JAH hid him ina death.

3; An again Nabukedenetsor were proud sayin - 'There are no other king without mi - an mi are Irator who mek the Sun rise ina this world' - an him said thus arisin from him arrogance abundance.

4; An JAH separated from persons an sent him toward a wilderness seven years - an him made him fortune with Heaven birds an wilderness beasts up til him knew that JAH were Who Irated him.

5; An pon the time him knew Him ina worship - Him again returned him toward him kingdom ~ who are it who weren't of Earth - bein boldly proud pon JAH Who Irated him?

6; How about who are it demolished HIM LAW an Him Order an whom Earth didn't swallow?

7; An thou Tseerutsaydan love that thou might be proud pon thy Irator - an again thou have that Him might downstroy thee like unto them - an might lower thee toward a grave arisin from thy arrogance.

8; An again after them entered toward See'ol where are tooth grindin an mournin - that were darkness fulfillmant - thou have that Him might lower thee toward the deep pit Gehannem where are no exits foriva.

9; As fe thou - thou are a man who will dead and be demolished tomorrow like unto arrogant kings who were like unto thee - who quit this world livin.

10; As fe InI - InI say - 'Thou are demolished ruins - but thou aren't JAH - fe JAH are Who Irated Earth an Heaven an thee.'

11; Him downbase arrogant ones ~ Him honour them who were downbased ~ Him give firmness fe persons who wearied.

12; Him kill well ones ~ Him raise up the persons who were Earth - who dead buried ina grave.

13; An Him send slaves forth free ina Life from sin rulership.

14; O king Tseerutsaydan - why do thou boast ina thy defouled idols who have no benefit?

15; But JAH Irated Earth an Heaven an great seas ~ Him Irated moon an Sun - an Him prepared eras.

16; Man graze toward him field - an him while when him plough up til it dusk - an Heaven stars live firmed up by Him Word.

17; An Him call all ina Heaven ~ there are nothing done without JAH knowin it.

18; Him commanded Heaven Angels that them might serve Him an might praise Him glorified Name - an Angels are sent toward all persons who inherit Life.

19; Rufa'iel who were a servant were sent toward Thobeet - an him saved Thobya from death ina Ragu'iel country.

20; Hola Meeka'iel were sent toward Giediewon that him might draw him attention by money that him downstroy 'Iloflee persons; an him were sent toward the prophet Mussie pon the time him made 'Isra'iel cross 'Eritra sea.

21; As only JAH have said him led them - there were no different idol with them.

22; An Him sent them forth toward crops pon Earth.

23; An Him fed them Him plantation grain ~ as Him have totally loved them - Him cherished them feedin the honey that firmed up like unto a rock.

24; An that thou might totally keep Him kindreds by what are due - an that thou might do JAH Accord Who Irated thee - Him crowned thee givin Itority pon the four kingdoms.

25; Fe Him have crowned thee makin loftier than all - an thy Irator totally crowned thee that thou might love JAH.

26; An it are procedure that thou might love thy Irator JAH like unto Him loved thee - like unto Him trusted thee pon all the people - an thou - do JAH Accord that thy era might abound ina this world an that Him might live with thee ina Support.

27; An do JAH Accord that Him might stand fe thee bein a Guardian pon thy enemies - an that Him might seat thee pon thy throne - an that Him might hide thee ina him Wing of Support.

28; As fe if thou don't know - JAH chose an crowned thee pon 'Isra'iel like unto Him chose Sa'ol fron 'Isra'iel childran when him kept him faada donkeys - an Him crowned him pon him kindreds 'Isra'iel - an him sat with 'Isra'iel pon him throne.

29; An Him gave him a lofty fortune separatin from him kindreds ~ JAH crowned thee pon Him kindreds ~ as fe henceforth onward - check - keep Him kindreds.

30; As JAH have Ipointed thee over them that thou might kill an might save - keep them ina evil thing - them who work a goodly thing an them who work a evil thing pon a goodly thing" him told him.

31; "An as JAH have Ipointed thee pon all that thou might do Him Accord be it while thou whipped or while thou saved - pay them evil Work - them who work goodly Work an them who work goodly Work an evil Work.

32; Fe thou are a slave of JAH Who rule all ina Heaven - an thou - do JAH Accord that Him might do thy accord fe thee ina all thou thought an ina all thou begged while thou wheedled before Him.

33; There are none who rule Him - but Him rule all.

34; There are none who Ipoint Him - but Him Ipoint all.

35; There are none who dismiss Him - but Him dismiss all.

36; There are none who reproach Him - but Him reproach all.

37; There are none who mek Him diligent - but Him mek all diligent ~ as Heaven an Earth rulership are fe Him - there are none who escape from Him Itority; all are revealed alongside Him - yet there are none hidden from Him Face.

38; Him sight up all - but there are none who sight Him up ~ Him hear the person priah who pray toward Him sayin 'Save I' - fe Him have Irated man ina Him Pattern - an Him accept him plea.

39. As Him are a King Who live up til the Iternity - Him feed all from Him unchangin Nature.

Chapter 6.

1;   As Him crown fe true the kings who do Him Accord - the kings wrote a straight thing becau Him.

2; As them have done JAH Accord - Him shall shine up ina Light that aren't examined Yis'haq an 'Abriham an Ya`iqob - Selomon an Daweet an Hiziqyas lodgins ina the Garden where are all beautiful kings whose lodgin were Light.

3; Heaven Hall are what totally shone - yet Earth halls aren't like unto Heaven Hall ~ it floor - whose features are silver an gold an jewel features - are clean.

4; An it features that totally shine are unexamined by a person reasonin ~ Heaven Hall are what shine like unto jewels.

5; Like unto JAH knew - Who were a Nature Knower - the Heaven Hall that Him Irated are what a person reasonin don't examine an what shine ina total Light ~ it floor - that were worked ina silver an gold - ina jewels - ina white silk an ina blue silk - are clean.

6; It are quite totally beautiful like unto this.

7; Righteous ones who firmed up ina religion an virtue are who shall inherit it ina JAH Charity an fe Pardon.

8; An there are welfare Water that flow from it - an it totally shine like unto Sun - an there are a Light tent within it - an it are incircled by grace perfume.

9; A Garden fruit that were beautiful an Iloved - whose features an taste were different - are around the house - an there are a oil an grape place there - an it are totally beautiful - an it fruit fragrance are sweet.

10; When a fleshly bloodly person enter toward it - him soul would have separated from him flesh from the Irie Ites abundance that are ina it arisin from it fragrance flavour.

11; Beautiful kings who did JAH Accord shall be Irie there ~ them honour an them place are known ina the Kingdom of Heaven that live firmed up foriva - where welfare are found.

12; Him showed that them lordship pon Earth were famed an honoured - an that them lordship ina Heaven were famed an honoured; them shall be honoured an lofty ina Heaven like unto them honour them an bow fe them ina this world ~ if them work goodly Work ina this world them shall be Irie.

13; But kings who were evil ina them Rule an them kingdoms that JAH gave them - them don't judge fe true by what are due ~ as them have ignored the destitute an poor ones cries - them don't judge Truth an save the refugee an the wronged child whose faada an mother dead pon him.

14; Them don't save destitute an poor ones from the wealthy hand that rob them ~ them don't divide an give from them food an satta them who hungered - an them don't divide an give from them drink an give fe drink the persons who thirsted - an them didn't return them ears toward the poor one cry.

15; An Him shall tek them toward Gehannem that were a dark endin ~ pon the time that lofty Day arrived pon them when JAH shall come - an pon the time Him wrath were done pon them like unto Daweet spoke ina him Praises 'Lord - don't chastise I ina Thy Judgemant an don't admonish I ina Thy chastisemant' - them problems an them downbasemant shall abound like unto them fame abundance measure.

16; When nobles an kings are who rule this world ina this world - there are persons who didn't keep thy law.

17; But JAH Who rule all are there ina Heaven ~ all persons souls an all persons welfare have been seized by Him Itority ~ Him are Who give honour fe persons who glorify Him - fe Him totally rule all - an Him love the persons who love Him.

18; As Him are Earth an Heaven Lord - Him examine an know what kidneys transported an what a reasonin thought - an fe a person who begged toward Him with a pure reasonin - Him shall give him him plea reward.

19; Him shall downstroy powerful ones arrogance - who work evil Work pon the child whose mother an faada dead pon him - an pon old dawtaz.

20; It aren't by thy Power that thou seized this kingdom ~ it aren't by thy bein able that thou sat pon this throne ~ Him loved fe test thee thus that it be possible fe thee fe rule like unto Sa'ol who ruled him kindreds ina that season - an Him seated thee pon a kingdom throne - yet it aren't by thy Power that thou seized this kingdom ~ it are when Him test thee like unto Sa'ol who ignored the prophet Samu'iel word an JAH Word an didn't serve him army nor 'Amalieq king - yet it aren't by thy bein able that thou seized this kingdom.

21; An JAH told the prophet Samu'iel - Go - an as them have saddened I by demolishin LAW an worshippin the idols an bowin fe the idol an by them mosques an by all them hated Works without benefit - tell Sa'ol - 'Go toward 'Amalieq country an downstroy them hosts an all the kings Iginnin from persons up til livestock.'

22; Pon them who saddened JAH - becaudis thing Him sent Sa'ol that him might downstroy them.

23; But him saved them king from death - an him saved many livestock an beauties an dawtaz an handsome youts from death ~ As him have scorned I thing an as him didn't hear I Command - becaudis thing - JAH told the prophet Samu'iel - Go an divide him kingdom.

24; Becau him stead - Inoint `Issiey child Daweet that him might reign pon 'Isra'iel.

25; But pon him adjourn a demon who will strangle an cast him.

26; As him have refused if I-man gave him a kingdom that him might do I Accord - pon the time him refused I fe do I Accord I-man dismissed him from him kingdom that are due him - but thou - go an tell him sayin - 'Will thou thus ignore JAH Who crowned thee pon Him kindreds 'Isra'iel - Who seated thee pon Him Lordship Throne?'

27; But thou - tell him - 'Thou didn't know JAH Who gave around this much honour an famousness' Him told him.

28; An the prophet Samu'iel went toward the king Sa'ol an entered toward him sittin at a dinnertable - an when 'Amalieq king 'Agag had sat pon him left.

29; 'Why did thou totally ignore JAH Who commanded thee that thou might downstroy the livestock an persons?' him told him.

30; An at that time the king feared an arose from him throne an tellin Samu'iel 'Return fe wi' him seized him clothes - an Samu'iel refused fe return ~ Samu'iel clothes were torn.

31; An Samu'iel told Sa'ol - 'JAH divided thy kingdom.'

32; An again Sa'ol told Samu'iel before the people - 'Honour mi an atone mi sin fe mi before JAH that Him might forgive mi' ~ an as him have feared JAH Word Who Irated him - but as him didn't fear the king who dead - Samu'iel refused fe return ina him word.

33; Becaudis thing him pierced 'Amalieq king 'Agag before him swallowed what him chewed.

34; An a demon seized that Sa'ol who demolished the LAW of JAH - an becau Him were the King of Kings Who rule all - JAH struck pon him head a king who worked sin - fe it don't shame him.

35; Fe Him are all the Iration Lord Who dismiss all the nobles an kings Itority who don't fear Him - but there are none who rule Him.

36; Like unto Him spoke sayin - Daweet kindred shall go while it were famed an honoured - but Sa'ol kindred shall go while it were downbased - Him downstroyed kingdom from him child an from Sa'ol.

37; Becau it saddened Him - an becau Him downstroyed the criminals who saddened Him by them evil Work - JAH revenged an downstroyed Sa'ol kindred childran - fe a person who don't revenge JAH enemy - him are JAH enemy.

38; When it are possible fe him fe revenge an downstroy - an when him have Itority - a person who don't revenge an downstroy the sinner an don't revenge an downstroy a person who don't keep JAH LAW - as him are JAH enemy - Him downstroyed Sa'ol kindred childran.

Chapter 7.

1;   An whether thou be a king or a ruler - what important thing are thou?

2; Aren't it JAH Who Irated thee bringin from not livin toward livin - that thou might do Him Accord an might live firmed up by Him Command an might fear Him Judgemant? Like unto thou vex pon thy slaves an governed over them - all likewise there are also JAH Who vex pon thee an govern over thee.

3; Like unto thou beat without niceness persons who worked sin - all likewise there are also JAH Who will strike thee an lower thee toward Gehannem where are no exits up til Iternity.

4; Like unto thou whip him who weren't ruled fe thee an didn't bring a tribute fe thee - fe what are it that thou don't introduce a tribute fe JAH?

5; As Him are Who Irated thee in order that thou love that them might fear thee - an Who crowned thee pon all the Iration that thou might keep Him kindreds fe true - fe what are it that thou don't fear thy Irator JAH?

6; Judge by what are due an fe true like unto JAH Ipointed thee - yet don't sight up a face an favour fe small nor great ~ whom will thou fear without Him? keep Him Worship an the Nine Commands.

7; Like unto Mussie commanded 'Isra'iel childran sayin - 'I-man presented Water an fiyah fe thee-I ~ add thy hand toward what thou loved' - don't go neither rightward nor leftward.

8; Hear Him Word that I-man tell thee - that thou might hear Him Word an might do Him Command - lest thou say - 'She are beyond the sea or beyond the deep or beyond the river ~ who will bring fe mi that mi might sight she up an might hear Him Word an might do Him Command?'

9; Lest thou say - 'Who will proceed toward Heaven again an lower that JAH Word fe mi that mi might hear an do she?' - JAH Word are what approached - check - fe thou fe teach she with thy mouth an give alms by she with thy hand.

10; An thou didn't hear thy Irator JAH unless thou heard Him Book - an thou didn't love Him nor keep Him Command unless thou kept Him LAW.

11; An thou have that thou might enter toward Gehannem foriva - an unless thou loved Him Command - an unless thou did JAH Accord - Who honoured an famed thee separatin from all thy kindreds that thou might keep them fe true - thou have that thou might enter toward Gehannem foriva.

12; Him made thee above all - an Him crowned thee pon all Him kindreds that thou might rule Him kindreds fe true by what are due while thou thought of thy Irator Name Who Irated thee an gave thee a kingdom.

13; There are them whom thou whip from persons who wronged thee - an there are him whom thou pardon while thou thought of JAH Work - an there are him fe whom thou judge by what are due straightenin up thy reasonin.

14; An don't favour havin sight up a face pon the time them argued before thee ~ as Earth physique are thy money - don't accept a bribe that thou might pardon the sinner person an wrong the clean person.

15; If thou did Him Accord - JAH shall multiply thy era ina this world fe thee - but if thou sadden Him - Him will diminish thy era.

16; Think that thou will rise after thou dead - an that thou will be examined standin before Him pon all the Work thou worked whether it be goodly or evil.

17; If thou work goodly Work - thou will live ina Garden ina the Kingdom of Heaven - ina houses where kind kings live an where Light filled. Fe JAH don't shame thy lordship authority - but if thou work evil Work - thou will live ina See'ol Gehannem where evil kings live.

18; But pon the time thou sight up thy bein feared famousness - thy warriors award - thy hangin shield an spear - an pon the time thou sight up thy horses an thy troops beneath thy authority an them who beat drum an persons who play pon a harp before thee...

19; But pon the time thou sight up all this - thou mek thy reasonin lofty - an thou firm up thy collar of reasonin - an thou don't think of JAH Who gave thee all this honour - however pon the time Him told thee - Quit all this - thou aren't who quit it.

20; Fe thou have totally neglected the Ipointmant Him Ipointed thee - an Him shall give thy lordship fe another.

21; As death shall suddenly come pon thee - an as Judgemant shall be done ina Resurrection time - an as all man Work shall be examined - Him shall totally investigate an judge pon thee.

22; There are none who will honour this world kings - fe becau Him were Truth Judge - ina Judgemant time poor an wealthy will stand together. This world nobles crowns wherein them boast shall fall.

23; Judgemant are prepared - an a soul shall quake ~ at that time sinners an righteous ones Work shall be examined.

24; An there are none who shall be hidden. Pon the time a dawta arrived fe birthin - an pon the time the fetus ina she belly arrived fe bein birthed - like unto she cyaan prevent she womb - Earth also cyaan prevent she lodgers that are pon she ~ she will return.

25; An like unto clouds cyaan prevent rain lest them tek an rain toward the place JAH commanded them - fe JAH Word have Irated all bringin from not livin toward livin - an fe JAH Word again have introduced all toward a grave; an all likewise - after Resurrection time arrived - it aren't possible fe be that dead persons won't rise.

26; Like unto Mussie spoke sayin - 'It are by Words that proceed from JAH Tongue - yet it aren't only by grain that a person are saved'; an JAH Word again shall arouse all persons from graves.

27; Check - it were known that dead persons shall arise by JAH Word.

28; An again JAH said thus ina Repeatin Law becau persons who were nobles an kings who do Him Accord - As the day have arrived when them are counted fe downstruction - I-man shall revenge an downstroy them pon the day when Judgemant are judged an at the time when them feet stumble Him said.

29; An again JAH told persons who know Him Judgemant - Know know that I-man were your Irator JAH - an that I-man kill an I-man save.

30; I-man chastise ina the tribulation an I-man pardon ~ I-man lower toward See'ol an again I-man send forth toward the Garden - an there are none who shall escape from I Itority Him told them.

31; JAH said thus becau nobles an kings who didn't keep Him LAW - As Earthly kingdoms are a passin - an as them pass from mornin up til evenin - keep I Order an I LAW that unu might enter toward the Kingdom of Heaven that live firmed up foriva Him said.

32; Fe JAH callin Righteous ones are fe glory - an sinners fe tribulation ~ Him will mek the sinner wretched but will honour righteous ones.

33; Him will dismiss the person who didn't do Him Accord - but Him will Ipoint the person who did Him Accord.

Chapter 8.

1;   Hear I - mek I tell thee the thing whereby dead persons shall arise ~ them shall plant a plant an be fertile an grapes shall send forth vines ~ as JAH shall bring the fruit 'imhibe 'albo ~ them shall cast wine from it.

2; Overstand that that plant thou planted were small - but that she sent forth tips fruit an leaves today.

3; JAH give she root fe drink from Earth an Water - from both.

4; But Him feed she wood from fiyah an wind ~ roots give leaves Water fe drink - an Earth give firmness fe woods.

5; But the soul that JAH Irated mek them bear fruit amidst them - an dead persons arisin are likewise.

6; Pon the time soul were separated from flesh - as each of them ras selves have gone - Him said - Gather souls from the four natures - from Earth an Water - wind an fiyah.

7; But Earth nature lived firmed up ina she nature an became Earth - an Water nature lived firmed up ina she nature an became Water.

8; An wind nature lived firmed up ina she nature an became wind - an fiyah nature lived firmed up ina she nature an became a hot fiyah.

9; But a soul that JAH separated from flesh returned toward she Irator ~ up til Him raise she up inited with flesh pon the time Him loved - Him place she ina Garden ina the place Him loved.

10; Him place righteous souls ina Light house ina Garden - but that Him might send way sinners souls - Him also place them ina darkness house ina See'ol up til the time when Him loved.

11; JAH told the prophet Hiziq'iel - Call souls from the four corners - that them might be gathered an be one limb.

12; Pon the time Him spoke ina one Word sayin thus - the souls were gathered from the four corners.

13; An Water nature brought verdure - an again fiyah nature brought fiyah.

14; An again Earth nature brought Earth - an wind nature brought wind.

15; An JAH brought a soul from the Garden place where Him placed it ~ them were gathered by one Word - an a Resurrection were made.

16; An again I-man shall show thee the example that are alongside thee ~ the day dusk ~ thou sleep ~ the night dawn - an thou rise from thy beddin - but pon the time thou slept it are thy death example.

17; An pon the time thou awoke it are thy arisin example - but the night when all persons sleep whose physiques were dark - fe darkness have covered them - are this world example.

18; But the mornin light - when darkness are eliminated an when light are ina all the world an when persons arise an graze toward the field - are dead persons example.

19; An this Kingdom of Heaven where man are renewed are like unto this ~ dead persons Resurrection are like unto this ~ as this world are passin - it are the night example.

20; An like unto Daweet spoke sayin - 'Him placed Him example ina Sun' - as Sun shine pon the time it rose - it are a Kingdom of Heaven example.

21; An like unto Sun shine ina this world today - pon the time Kristos come Him shall shine like unto Sun ina Kingdom of Heaven that are new ~ as Him have said - I-man am a Sun that don't set an a Torch that aren't extinguished - Him JAH are she Light.

22; An Him shall quickly arouse the dead persons again ~ I-man shall bring one example fe thee again from thy food that thou sow an whereby thou are saved - an whether it be a wheat kernel or a barley kernel or a lentil kernel or all man seeds sown pon Earth - there are none that grow unless it were demolished an rotten.

23; An like unto the person flesh thou sight up - pon the time it were demolished an rotten - Earth eat stoutness with the hide.

24; An pon the time Earth ate it stoutness it grow bein around a kernel seventh ~ JAH give a cloud that seized rain like unto Him loved - an roots grow pon Earth an send forth leaves.

25; An if she were demolished an rotten she cyaan grow - but after she grew she send forth many buds.

26; An by JAH Accord fruit are given fe those buds that grew - an Him clothe it stoutness ina straw.

27; Sight up like unto the measure that the seed kernel thou sowed abounded - yet the silver an the leaf - the ear an the straw aren't counted fe thee.

28; Don't be a dull one who don't know - an sight up thy seed that it abounded - an all likewise - think that dead persons shall raceive the arisin that them will arise - an them hardship like unto them Work.

29; Hear I - that if thou sow wheat - it won't grow bein barley - nor bein wheat if thou sow barley - an mek I tell thee again that it won't grow ~ if thou sow wheat will thou gather barley? If thou sow watercress will thou gather linseed?

30; How about from plants kind - if thou plant figs will it really grow fe thee bein nuts? How about if thou plant almonds - will it grow fe thee bein grapes?

31; If thou plant the sweet fruit will it grow fe thee bein bitter? How about if thou plant the bitter fruit - are it possible fe it fe be sweet?

32; How about all likewise - if a sinner dead are it possible fe arise bein righteous ina Resurrection time? How about if a righteous person dead - are it possible fe arise bein a sinner ina Resurrection time? Every one shall raceive him hardship like unto him Work - yet him will raceive him hardship like unto him sin an him hand Work - yet there are none who will be canvicted by him companion sin.

33; A highland tree are planted an it send forth long branches ~ it will totally dry up ~ yet unless Heaven rained rain it leaves won't be verdant.

34; An the cedar will be uprooted from it roots unless summer rain alit pon it.

35; An all likewise - dead persons won't arise unless welfare dew alit fe them bein commanded from JAH.

Chapter 9.

1;   Unless highland mountains an Gielabuhie regions rained a pardon rain fe them bein commanded from JAH - them won't grow grass fe beasts an animals.

2; An 'Elam mountains an Gele`ad mountains won't give verdant leaves fe sheeps an goats - nor fe oribi an animals ina wilderness - nor fe ibexes an hartebeest.

3; An likewise - pardon an dew bein commanded from JAH didn't alight fe doubters an criminals who made error an crime a money beforehand ~ dead persons won't arise ~ an Deemas an Qophros who worship idols an dig roots an work an instigate a thing...

4; An them who dig roots an practice sorcery an mek persons battle...

5; An them who lust havin departed from LAW - an Miedon an 'Atiena persons who believe ina them idols - an them who play an sing fe them while them beat violins an drums an strummed harps - them won't arise unless pardon dew alit fe them bein commanded from JAH.

6; These are who will be canvicted pon the day when dead persons arise an when Definite Judgemant are done - yet persons who save them ras selves an who lust ina them hands Work - them err by them idols.

7; Thou wasteful of heart dull one - do it seem fe thee that dead persons won't arise?

8; Pon the time a trumpet were blown by the Angels Chief Hola Meeka'iel tongue - that dead ones arise then - as thou won't remain ina grave without arisin - don't think a thing that are thus.

9; Hills an mountains shall be level an shall be a cleared path.

10; An Resurrection shall be done fe all fleshly ones.

Chapter 10.

1;   However if it weren't thus - it are that former persons might be buried ina them faadas grave Iginnin from 'Adam - Iginnin from Siet an 'Abiel - Siem an Noh - Yis'haq an 'Abriham - Yosief an Ya`iqob - an 'Aron an Mussie - yet fe what are it that them didn't love that them might be buried ina another place?

2; Aren't it fe them fe arise together with them cousins ina Resurrection time? How about aren't it lest them bones be counted with evil ones an pagans bones - them who worship idols? Fe what are it that them didn't love that them might be buried ina another place?

3; But thou - don't mislead thy reasonin while thou said - 'How will dead persons arise after them dead - them who were buried ina one grave bein tens of thousands an whose bodies were demolished an rotten?'

4; An pon the time thou sight up toward a grave - thou speak this ina thy reasonin dullness while thou said - 'A whole fistful of Earth won't be found ~ how will dead persons arise?'

5; Will thou say the seed thou sowed won't grow? Even the seed thou sowed shall grow.

6; An all likewise - the souls JAH sowed shall quickly arise - as Him have Irated man ina Him Truth bringin from not livin toward livin - Him shall arouse them quickly by Him Word that save ~ Him won't delay Him arousin.

7; An as Him have again returned him from livin - toward a grave ina death - what about aren't it possible fe Him again fe return from death toward Life?

8; Savin an liftin up are possible fe JAH.

Chapter 11.

1;   'Armon perished an she fortress were demolished ~ as JAH have brought the hardship pon them like unto them evil an the Work them worked by them hands - persons who worship the idols ina 'Edomyas an Zablon shall be downbased at that time ~ as JAH have approached - Who shall canvict them who worked ina them infancy an didn't quit up til them aged - becau them idols an them evil - Seedona an Theeros shall weep..

2; Becau them worked sin an seducin fornication an worshipped idols - becaudis thing JAH shall revenge an downstroy them ~ fe them didn't live firmed up ina them Irator JAH Command - an Yihuda dawta childran shall be wretched.

3; She lived firmed up ina killin prophets an ina Irie Ites - yet as she didn't live firmed up ina the Nine Laws an the Worship - pon the time when dead ones arise - 'Iyerusaliem sin shall be revealed.

4; At that time JAH shall examine she ina Him Nature Wisdom ~ Him will revenge an downstroy she pon all she sin that she worked ina she infancy era ~ she didn't quit workin she sin Iginnin from she beauty era up til she age.

5; She entered toward a grave an became dust like unto she former faadas who lived firmed up ina them sin - an ina Resurrection time Him shall revenge an downstroy persons who demolished JAH LAW.

6; It shall be judged pon them - fe Mussie have spoken becau them sayin - 'Them LAW lodgin - them reasonins - became Sedom law lodgin.'

7; An them kindred are Gemorra kindred - an them law are what downstroy - an them Work are evil.

8; An them law are snake poison that downstroy - an viper poison that downstroy from alongside that.

Chapter 12.

1;   'Iyerusaliem child - as this thy sin are like unto Gemorra an Sedom sin - 'Iyerusaliem child - this are thy tribulation that were spoken by a prophet.

2; An thy tribulation are like unto Gemorra an Sedom tribulation - an them law lodgin reasonin firmed up ina adultery an arrogance.

3; Aside from adultery an arrogance rain - pardon an humility rain didn't rain from them reasonins by money that them Law reasonin lodgin are fertile - apart from spillin man blood an robbin an forgettin them Irator JAH.

4; An them didn't know them Irator JAH - apart from them evil Work an them idols - an them are Irie ina them hands Work - an them lust pon males an pon livestock.

5; As them eye of reasonin have been blinded lest them sight up secrets - an as them ears have deafened lest them hear or do JAH Accord that Him love - them didn't know JAH ina them Work - an them reasonins are like unto Sedom law lodgin. An them kindred - Gemorra grapes kindred that bear sweet fruit.

6; An if them examine them Work - it are poison that kill - fe it have firmed up ina curse Iginnin from the day when it were worked - an fe it grounation have been ina downstruction era.

7; As them Law lodgin - them reasonins - have firmed up ina sin Work - as them bodies have firmed up ina Seythan burnin Work fe build sin - them Law lodgin - them reasonins - have no goodly Work everytime.

8; An pon the time him shame an were baptise (by one who is led) it were fe chastisemant an downstruction - an him will firm up the persons who drank an them reasonins - an him will mek them who downstroy I - disgustin persons who distanced from JAH.

9; Fe them have lived firmed up ina them Work that were evil - an him will mek them Deeyablos lodgin - an eatin what were sacrificed fe the idols have been begun ina the House of 'Isra'iel - an she proceed toward the mountains an the trees.

10; An she worship the idols that peoples ina she area worship - an she dawta childran an she male childran fe demons who don't know goodly Work separatin from evil.

11; An them spill clean blood ~ them gush an spill grapes from Sedom fe the idols foriva.

12; An she glorify an worship the Dagwon that the 'Iloflans worship - an she sacrifice fe him from she flocks an she fattened cows - that she might be Irie ina demons laziness that them taught she fe sacrifice fe them - an ina them gushin an spillin the grapes - an that she might do them accord.

13; She sacrifice fe him that she might be Irie in demons laziness that them taught she lest she know she Irator JAH Who feed she at each time an Who cherished an raised she Iginnin from she infancy up til she beauty - an again up til she age - an again up til she age day when she dead.

14; An again I-man shall revenge an canvict him ina Resurrection time - an as she didn't return toward I LAW - an as she didn't live firmed up ina I Command - she time when she live ina Gehannem shall be up til Iternity.

15; If them were Irators fe true - mek she idols arise with she an downscend toward Gehannem an save she pon the time I-man vexed an downstroyed she - an pon the time I-man distanced all the priests of the idols who lust with she.

16; Like unto she made sin an insult pon the Hola Items an pon I Lodgin the Temple - I-man made she wretched by all this.

17; When them told she - 'Check - this are JAH kindred - an she are 'Isra'iel Irator JAH Lodgin - an the famous King country 'Iyerusaliem who were separate from them who were separate - she are the Most I JAH Name Lodgin' - I-man made she wretched like unto she saddened I Name that were called ina she.

18; She boast ina I that she were I slave an that I-man were she Lord ~ she wink pon I like unto a criminal - yet she aren't who fear I an do I Accord like unto I bein she Lord.

19; Them became a obstacle pon she fe mislead that them might distance she from I - yet she are ruled fe other idols who don't feed she nor clothe she.

20; She sacrifice sacrifice fe them - an she eat the sacrifice - an she spill blood fe them - an she gush an drink from the grapes fe them ~ she smoke up ishence fe them - an she mek the ishence fragrance smell fe them ~ she idols command she - an she are commanded fe them.

21; An again she sacrifice she dawta childran an she male childran fe them - an as she present praises fe them becau them Love - she are Irie ina the thing she spoke by she tongue an ina she hands Work.

22; Woe fe she pon the day when Definite Judgemant are done - an woe fe she idols whom she love an inite; an she shall downscend with them toward Gehannem beneath See'ol - where the worm don't slumber an the fiyah aren't extinguished.

23; Woe fe thee wretched 'Iyerusaliem child - fe thou have quit I Who Irated thee an have worshipped different idols.

24; An I-man shall bring the hardship pon thee like unto thy Work ~ as thou have saddened I - an as thou have ignored I Word - an as thou didn't work goodly Work - I-man shall canvict thee toward thy pretensions.

25; Fe thou have saddened I Word - an fe thou didn't live firmed up ina I LAW whereby thou swore with I - that thou might keep I LAW an that I-man might live with thee ina Support an might save thee from all who fight thee - an also that thou might keep I Order that I-man commanded thee - an I-man shall ignore thee an won't quickly save thee from the tribulation.

26; Thou didn't keep all this - an I-man ignored thee ~ as I-man have created thee - an as thou didn't keep I Command nor I Word - I-man shall canvict thee ina Judgemant time - an I-man honoured thee that thou might be I kin.

27; An like unto Gemorra an Sedom were separated from I - thou were separated from I.

28; An I-man judged an downstroyed them - an like unto Sedom an Gemorra were separated from I - thou separated from I - an now like unto I-man vexed an downstroyed them - I-man vexed an downstroyed thee ~ as thou are from Sedom an Gemorra kindred whom I-man downstroyed - I-man downstroyed thee ~ as them whom I-man Irated have saddened I by goin toward a youtmon wife an by lustin without LAW - with animals an males like unto arrivin with dawtaz - I-man downstroyed them name invocation from this world lest them live ina them Irie Ites.

29; There are no fearin JAH ina them faces Iginnin from a infant up til a elder ~ them help him ina all them evil Work - yet Him don't vex pon each one that them might quit workin she ~ as them Work are evil - them are sated of sin an iniquity.

30; All evil Work - robbery an arrogance an greed - are prepared ina them reasonins.

31; An becaudis thing JAH ignored them an downstroyed them countries - an them are there that Him might burn them with fiyah up til them root grounation perish ~ them totally perished up til the Iternity - yet Him didn't mek even one from them remain.

32; As them have firmed up ina sin - them shall wait ina downstruction foriva up til the Day of Advent when Definite Judgemant are done - fe them have saddened I with them evil Work - an I-man won't pardon them nor forgive them.

33; An I-man ignored them ~ fe thou won't find a reason pon the time I-man vexed an seized thee becau all thy Work were robbery an sin - adultery an greed an speakin lies - all error Work an the obstacle that I-man don't love - an thou 'Iyerusaliem child who were wretched - pon the day when Judgemant are done thou will be seized ina Judgemant like unto them.

34; I-man had made thee fe honour - but thou downbased thy ras self ~ I-man had called thee I money - but thou became fe another.

35; I-man had betrothed thee fe honour - but thou became fe Deeyablos - an I-man shall revenge an downstroy thee like unto thy evil Work.

36; Becau thou didn't hear all I Word - an becau thou didn't keep the Command I-man commanded thee pon the time I-man loved thee - I-man shall multiply an bring firm vengeance pon thee - fe I-man am JAH Who Irated thee - an I-man shall judge pon all sinners like unto thee - an pon the day when Judgemant are done I-man shall bring the hardship pon them like unto them evil Work.

37; As thou didn't keep I Word - an as thou have ignored I Judgemant - I-man shall canvict thee with them.

38; Woe fe unu - Gemorra an Sedom - who have no fearin JAH ina your reasonin.

39; All likewise - woe fe thy sista 'Iyerusaliem child pon whom it shall be judged together with thee ina Fiyah of Gehannem - fe unu will downscend together toward Gehannem that were prepared fe unu - where are no exits foriva - an woe fe all sinners who worked thy sin.

40; As unu didn't keep I Command nor I Word - thou an she who didn't keep I Command nor I Word shall downscend toward See'ol together pon the day when Judgemant are judged.

41; But kind persons who kept I Command an I Word shall eat the money that sinner persons accumulated - an like unto JAH commanded - kind persons shall share the loot that evil persons captured - an kind persons shall be totally Irie.

42; But wrongdoers an sinner persons shall weep - an them shall be sad becau all them sin that them wronged havin departed from I Command.

43; Him who keep I Word an live firmed up ina I Command - him are who find I blessin an are honoured alongside I.

44; All person who keep I Word an live firmed up ina I Command shall eat the fatness found from Earth - an shall live havin entered toward the Garden where enter kind kings who have straight reasonins.

Chapter 13.

1;   As them shall be wretched an perish by I wrath pon the time I-man seized them - woe fe Theeros an Seedona an all Yihuda country regions who mek them ras selves arrogant today.

2; Conquerin JAH said thus ~ Him have said - Deeyablos child who are totally arrogant shall be birthed from them - the False Messeeh who fe a Truth thing are she enemy - who firm up him collar of reasonin - who boast an don't know him Irator - an Him said - Woe fe them - an JAH Who rule all said - I-man made him fe I anger pattern that I-man might be revealed ina him Power.

3; An this Qifirnahom Semarya an Geleela an Demasqo an Sorya an 'Akeya an Qophros an all Yordanos region are kindreds who firmed up them collars of reasonin - who live firmed up ina them sin - an whom death shadow an darkness covered - fe Deeyablos have covered them reasonins ina sin - an fe them are commanded fe that arrogant Deeyablos - an them didn't return toward fearin JAH.

4; At that time woe fe persons who are commanded fe demons an who sacrifice sacrifice ina them name fe them ~ as them have denied JAH Who Irated them - them resemble animals without minds - fe the False Messeeh who forgot JAH LAW an are Deeyablos child shall set up him image ina all the places (fe him have said 'Mi are a god') - an him shall be Irie ina him reasonin accord - ina him hand Work an ina robbery an all the sins an perfidy an iniquity - ina robbery an all the adulteries that a person work.

5; Fe becau it were counted alongside JAH that him work this - the era are known that them work sin.

6; Sun shall darken an moon shall be blood - an stars shall be shaken from Heaven - all the Work shall pass by the miracles that JAH shall bring ina Fulfillmant Era that Him might mek Earth pass - an that Him might mek all pass who live ina sin of persons who live within she.

7; As JAH have been proud pon the Iration Him Irated - an as Him have quickly made all Him loved ina one iwa - the Lord death shall downstroy a small enemy Deeyablos.

8; Fe JAH Who rule all have said - I-man shall judge an downstroy - but after Advent - Deeyablos have no authority.

9; An pon the day when him were seized by I anger - him shall downscend toward Gehannem - fe which him mek application an where firm tribulation are ~ as him will tek all who are with him toward chastisemant an downstruction an perfidy - becau I-man were Who send forth from Gehannem an Who introduce toward Gehannem - him will downscend toward Gehannem.

10; As Him give firmness an Power fe weak persons - an again as Him give weakness fe powerful an firm persons - mek a powerful one not boast ina him Power.

11; As Him are a Ruler - an as Him judge an save the wronged persons from the persons hands who wrong them - Him will return the grudge of the widows an the child whose faada an mother dead pon him.

12; Woe fe thee who boast an firm up thy collar of reasonin - fe whom it seem that I-man won't rule thee nor judge an downstroy thee - fe ina him boastin an him arrogance him have said - 'Mi will streach mi throne ina stars an Heaven - an mi will be like unto JAH Who are lofty.'

13; An like unto Him spoke sayin - How Deeyablos fell from Heaven - him who shine like unto a mornin star that were Irated precedin all - woe fe thee.

14; An thou dared an spoke this ina thy arrogance - an thou didn't think of JAH Who totally Irated thee by Him Itority ~ why did thou boast thy ras self that thou downscend toward Gehannem ina thy reasonin firmness?

15; Thou were downbased separate from all Angels like unto thee - fe them praise them Irator with a humbled reasonin becau them knew that Him were Who Irated them from fiyah an wind - an fe them don't depart from Him Command - an fe them keep them reasonins from perfidy lest them totally depart from Him Command.

16; But thou did a firm perfidy ina thy reasonin arrogance ~ thou became a wretched man separate from thy companions - fe thou have cherished all the sin an iniquity - robbery an perfidy whereby persons who forgot JAH LAW an sinners like unto thee live firmed up - them who are from thy kindred an commit crime like unto thee - an who live firmed up by thy command an thy accord whereby thou teach sin.

17; Woe fe thee - fe the demons thou misled ina thy malice an thou will downscend toward Gehannem together.

18; O unu JAH childran who erred by that misleadin criminal Deeyablos - woe fe unu ~ as unu have erred like unto him by the money that him taught unu an that him hosts taught unu - unu will downscend toward Gehannem together - where are no exits foriva.

19; An formerly when JAH slave Mussie were there - unu saddened JAH by the Water where argumant were made an pon Korieb - an by 'Amalieq an pon Mount Seena.

20; An moreover pon the time unu sent scouts toward Kene`an - pon the time them told unu this sayin 'The path are far - an them ramparts an them fortresses that reach up til Heaven are firm - an warriors live there' - unu vexed that unu might return towad Gibts country where unu work worrisome Work - an unu saddened JAH Word.

21; Unu didn't think of JAH Who firmed unu up from the tribulation - an Who did great miracles ina Gibts - an Who led unu by Him Angel Itority. Him would veil unu ina cloud by day lest the Sun burn unu an Him would shine a column of fiyah fe unu by night lest your feet stumble ina darkness.

22; An pon the time the army an Fer`on frightened unu - unu totally cried toward Mussie - an Mussie totally cried toward JAH - an Him lodged ina Him Angel an kept unu lest unu meet with Fer`on.

23; But Him introduced them toward 'Eritra ina tribulation ~ JAH led only 'Isra'iel - fe Him have said - An there were no different idol with them - but Him buried them enemies ina sea at one time - an Him didn't preserve none who flee from them.

24; An Him made 'Isra'iel cross amidst the sea by foot ~ there are no tribulation that found them arisin from the Gibtsans ~ Him delivered them toward Mount Seena - an there Him fed them menna forty eras.

25; As 'Isra'iel childran sadden JAH everytime - Him did all this goodly thing fe them an them neglected fe worship JAH.

26; Them placed evil ina them reasonins Iginnin from them childhood up til them age - fe JAH Mouth have spoken thus ina 'Oreet where the faadas birth were written ~ as Him have spoken sayin - 'Adam childran reasonin are ash - an all them Work are toward robbery an them run toward evil ~ there are none from them who love straight Work - apart from gatherin a person money ina violence an swearin ina lie an wrongin companions an robbin an stealin - them placed evil ina them reasonins.

27; An all go toward evil Work ina the era when them live ina Life ~ 'Isra'iel childran who demolished JAH LAW totally saddened JAH Iginnin from Antiquity up til fufillmant era.

Chapter 14.

1;   An pon the time JAH downstroyed Qayen childran - kindreds who preceded - ina downstruction Water becau them sin - Him baptised Earth ina Water of Downstruction - an Him cleansed she from all Qayel childran sin.

2; As Him have said - I-man were sad becau I-man Irated man - Him downstroyed all wrongdoers ~ Him didn't preserve apart from eight persons ~ Him downstroyed all ~ after this Him multiplied them an them filled Earth ~ them shared them faada 'Adam inheritance.

3; But Noh swore with JAH a oath ~ them swore a oath with JAH lest JAH again downstroy Earth ina Downstruction Water - an lest Noh childran eat what deceased nor what lodged dead - lest them worship different idols apart from JAH Who Irated them - an that Him might be a Love Faada fe them - an lest Him downstroy them at one time ina them vain sin - an lest Him prevent them the first an the spring rain - an that Him might give fe livestock an persons them food at each time - that Him might give them the grass an the grain fruit an plants - an that them might work goodly Work ina all that JAH love.

4; An after Him gave them this Order - 'Isra'iel childran saddened JAH by them sin ~ them didn't live firmed up ina Him LAW like unto them faadas Yis'haq an 'Abriham an Ya`iqob who didn't demolish them Irator JAH LAW.

5. An Iginnin from the small up til the great - those 'Isra'iel childran who didn't keep JAH LAW are crooked ina them Work.

6; An whether them be them priests or them chiefs or them scribes - everyone demolish JAH LAW.

7; Them don't live firmed up ina JAH Order an Him LAW that Mussie commanded them ina Repeatin Law sayin - 'Love thy Irator JAH ina thy complete body an thy complete reasonin.'

8; Them don't firm up ina JAH Order an Him LAW that Mussie commanded them ina book where LAW were written sayin - 'Love thy companion like unto thy body - an don't worship him idols that were different - an don't go toward a youtmon wife ~ don't kill a soul ~ don't steal.

9; An don't witness ina lie - an be it him donkey or be it him ox - don't love thy companion money nor all that thy bredda bought.'

10; However after him commanded them all this - 'Isra'iel childran who were evil return toward treachery an sin - robbery an iniquity - toward a youtmon wife an toward lies an stealin an worshippin idols.

11; 'Isra'iel childran saddened JAH pon Korieb by workin a cow that graze toward grass ~ them bowed sayin - 'Check - these are wi irators who sent wi forth from Gibts.'

12; An them were Irie ina them hand Work ~ if them ate an drank an satta - them arose fe sing.

13; As JAH have told him sayin - Thy kindreds whom thou sent forth from Gibts country where rulership are - them have proceeded from LAW an wronged - an them worked a cow image an bowed fe the idol - becaudis thing Mussie vexed an alit from Seena mountain.

14; While Mussie vexed pon him kindreds - him alit with him canfidante 'Iyasu - an pon the time 'Iyasu heard - him said - 'Check - I-man hear warriors voice ina 'Isra'iel camp.'

15; An Mussie told 'Iyasu - 'It are when 'Isra'iel play havin drunk the unboiled wine - yet as fe a warrior voice - it aren't' - an him alit an broke them image an totally crushed it up til it were like unto dust ~ him mixed it within the Water that 'Isra'iel childran drink beside the mountain.

16; An after this him commanded the priests that them might slay one another becau the sin them worked before JAH.

17; Them knew that defyin JAH surpass killin them an killin them faadas - an them did like unto him commanded them.

18; An Mussie told them - 'Becau unu saddened JAH Who fed unu an cherished unu an Who sent unu forth from a rulership house an Who bequeathed fe unu the inheritance that Him swore fe your faadas that Him might give fe them an fe them childran after them - becaudis thing unu made JAH Irie.'

19; Fe them go toward sin an a evil thing - an them didn't quit saddenin JAH there.

20; Them aren't like unto them faadas Yis'haq an 'Abriham an Ya`iqob who made JAH Irie with them goodly Work that Him might give them what are pon Earth an what Him prepared fe persons who love Him ina Heaven Iginnin from them infancy up til them youthood an up til them age ~ them aren't like unto 'Abriham an Yis'haq an Ya`iqob who made Him Irie with them Work that Him might give them a Earth of inheritance where Irie Ites are found ina this world - an a garden that mek Irie - prepared fe kind persons ina hereafter world - what Him prepared fe 'Abriham an Yis'haq an Ya`iqob who made JAH Irie when them were ina Life an who love Him - Whom a eye didn't sight up nor a ear hear an Who aren't thought of ina reasonin.

21; An them childran who denied JAH an were evil an who live firmed up ina them reasonin accord - them didn't hear JAH Command - Him Who fed them an cherished them an kept them Iginnin from them infancy.

22; Them didn't think of JAH - Who sent them forth from Gibts land an saved them from brick Work an a firm rulership.

23; But them totally saddened Him - an Him would arouse peoples ina them area pon them - an them would arise pon them ina enmity an also tax them like unto them loved.

Chapter 15.

1;   An at that time Midyam persons arose pon them ina enmity - an them aroused them armies pon 'Isra'iel that them might fight them - an them king name are called 'Akrandis ~ him quickly gathered many armies ina Keeliqyas an Sorya an Demasqo.

2; An campin beyond Yordanos him sent messengers sayin - 'An that mi might capture your money - pay tax toward 'Isra'iel fe mi' ~ him told them - 'But if unu don't pay tax - mi came that mi might punish unu an might capture your livestocks an tek your mares an capture your childran.'

3; 'Mi will capture an tek unu toward the country unu don't know - an there mi will mek unu Water pourers an wood pickers' him told them.

4; 'Don't boast while unu said - "InI are JAH kindreds an there are nothing able fe InI" - aren't JAH Who sent mi that mi might downstroy unu an plunder your money? an aren't mi whom JAH sent that mi might gather all your kindreds?

5; Are there really a savin that them different idols saved the other kins that mi downstroyed? Mi captured them mares an them horses an mi killed them an captured them childran.

6; An unless unu introduced the tax that mi commanded unu - mi will downstroy unu like unto them' him said - an him crossed Yordanos that him might plunder them livestocks an them money an capture them wives.

7; An after this 'Isra'iel childran wept a firm mournin toward JAH - an them totally cried - however them lacked one who help them.

8; An becaudis thing JAH gave firmness fe the three bredren - an them names are like unto this: - an them are Yihuda an Mebikyas an Meqabees - whose features were handsome an who were warriors ina them Power.

9; An 'Isra'iel childran totally wept there ~ pon the time them heard - it saddened them ina them heart arisin from all 'Isra'iel childran shout ~ the child whose mother an faada dead pon him - an widows - an them officials an them priests - all 'Isra'iel kindred - both dawtaz an males - an all childran - would weep sprinklin ash pon them heads - an them nobles had worn sackcloth.

10; But those bredren - who were attractive an comely - went an agreed that them might save them ~ them counseled sayin - 'Mek InI go an give InI bodies fe death becau these persons.'

11; Tellin one another - 'Tek heart - tek heart' - them went girdin them swords pon them waists an seizin them spears ina them hands - an them went prepared that them might incriminate the warrior.

12. An them arrived toward them camp ~ Mebikyus attacked the warrior (the king) when him had sat at a dinnertable ~ him cut him neck ina one blow when food were ina him mouth; an Meqabyus an Yihuda struck him armies pon the king left an right by sword an killed them.

13; An pon the time them king were defeated - them entered toward them spears ina them companions hearts - an them all totally fled an them bows were broken an them were defeated.

14; But those bredren who are attractive an comely were saved from death ~ there are no evil thing that found them - but as JAH have returned chastisemant toward them - them sliced up one another an were depleted.

15; Them were defeated an dead an them crossed Yordanos - an up til them crossed them cast way all them money - an all them money remained - an pom the time 'Isra'iel childran sight up that them enemies fled - them went toward them camp an took both what them plundered an them money fe them ras selves.

16; JAH saved 'Isra'iel doin thus by the bredren an Mebikyu hand.

17; 'Isra'iel sat a few days while them made JAH Irie.

18; But after that them again returned toward them sin ~ 'Isra'iel childran neglected worshippin JAH by what are due.

19; An Him shall again sadden them by kins who don't know them an who will gather them field crops an downstroy them grape places an plunder them flocks an slaughter an feed them them livestocks before them...

20; an who will capture them wives an them dawta childran an them male childran ~ becau it were that them sadden JAH everytime; as themare kindreds who demolished the LAW - them will hammer them childran before them pon each of them heads ~ them won't save them.

Chapter 16.

1;   Them who do this are Theeros an Seedona an them who live beyond Yordanos river an pon the sea edge - Keran an Gele`ad - 'Iyabuseewon an Kenaniewon - 'Edom an Giegiesiewon an 'Amalieq persons.

2; All peoples do thus - who live firmed up ina each of them tribes an countries an regions an ina each of them Works an country languages - an all live firmed up like unto JAH worked them.

3; An there are persons from them who know JAH - an whose Work were beautiful.

4; An there are persons from them whose Work were evil an who don't know JAH Who Irated them - an like unto them worked sin - Him ruled them ina Sorya king Silminasor hand.

5; As him plunder an tek Demasqo money - an as him share Semarya loot that are before Gibts king - Him ruled them ina Silminasor hand.

6; Gielabuhie region an also persons ina Fars an Miedon - Qephedoqya an Sewseegya - who live ina the West mountains - ina Gele`ad fortress an Phasthos that are part of Yihuda land...

7; an these are who live in them region - an them are kindreds who don't know JAH nor keep Him Command - an whose collar of reasonin were firm.

8; An Him shall pay them them hardship like unto them Work evil an them hands Work.

9; Fe Gele`ad kindreds an Qeesarya region an 'Amalieq have become one there - that them might downstroy JAH country that were filled of a Truth thing - an within which 'Isra'iel Irator are praised - Him Who are Most Glorified an Conquerin - an Whom Angels who are many many ina Keerubiel chariots - them who stand before Him - serve fearin an tremblin - an Him shall pay them them hardship like unto them Work evil an them hands Work.

Chapter 17.

1;   'Amalieq an 'Edomyas persons don't worship JAH by Whose Itority Earth an Heaven rulership were seized ~ as them are criminals who don't live firmed up ina Truth Work - them don't fear fe demolish Him Lodgin - the Temple.

2; An there are no fearin JAH before them - apart from sheddin blood an adultery an eatin what were beaten an sacrificed fe a idol an all that resemble what lodged dead - an these are scorned sinners.

3; Them have no virtue nor religion ~ as them are who hated goodly Work - an as them don't know JAH - an as them don't know Love Work - apart from robbin a person money an from sin - an apart from downsturbin a person an all hated Work - apart from games an song like unto them faada Deeyablos taught them - them have no virtue nor religion.

4; As him have ruled them with him host - demons - him teach them all evil Work that were fe each of them ras selves - all robbery an sin - theft an falsehood - robbin money an eatin what were beaten an what lodged dead - an adultery Work.

5; An him teach them all that resemble this - an goin toward a youtmon wife - an sheddin blood - eatin what were sacrificed fe idol an what lodged dead - an killin a person soul ina violence - an envy an winkin an greed an all evil Work that JAH don't love ~ Deeyablos who were them enemy teach them this teachin that him might distance them from JAH LAW Who rule all the world.

6; But JAH Work are innocence an humility - not annoyin a bredren an lovin a companion - harmonisin an lovin with all persons.

7; Don't be hypocrites fe favour fe a person face - an don't be wrongdoers nor totally robbers nor persons who go toward a youtmon wife - nor persons who work iniquity an evil Work pon them companion - nor who cajole that them might wrong them companion ina violence.

8; Them wink an shake them heads an provoke fe evil ~ them discourage fe mislead that them might lower them toward Iternity Definite Judgemant.

Chapter 18.

1;   Think that thou will go ina death toward JAH ina Whose Hand all are - an thou will stand before Him that Him might canvict thee before Him pon all the sin thou Worked.

2; As them who are arrogant an evil - an powerful ones childran who aren't strengthenin more than them - were likewise formerly - becau them sight up them stature an them Power an them firm authority - them didn't mek JAH before them - an them didn't know that Him were them Irator Who Irated them bringin from not livin toward livin.

3; An when them faadas bein like unto "Angels" praised pon Mount Hola with Angels - pon the time them accord misled them - them alit toward this world where Definite Judgemant shall be done foriva.

4; As JAH ina the Antiquity have Irated human flesh fe them - that it might mislead them becau them reasonin arrogance an might test them as it were them kept Him LAW an Him Command - them married wives from Qayel childran.

5; But them didn't keep Him LAW ~ Him lowered them toward Gehannem fiyah with them faada Deeyablos; fe JAH have vexed pon the offspring of Siet who wronged like unto persons - an persons era diminished becau them sin.

6; An them took 'Adam childran toward sin with them ~ Him lowered them toward See'ol where them shall raceive a verdict.

7; As persons era have been divided becau Siet childran erred by Qayel childran - when a person eras were nine hundred ina the Antiquity - them returned toward livin a hundred twenty eras.

8; An as them are flesh an blood - JAH said - I Spirit of Support won't live firmed up pon them.

9; An becaudis thing InI era were divided - fe becau InI sin an InI iniquity - InI era have been divided from InI faadas who preceded - an when them are ina them infancy again - them are dyin.

10; But InI faadas era had abounded - becau them kept Him LAW an becau them didn't sadden JAH.

11; But InI faadas era had abounded - becau them vexed pon them dawta childran that them might teach them - an becau them vexed pon them male childran lest them demolish JAH LAW.

12; Becau them didn't demolish JAH LAW with them dawta childran an them male childran - becaudis thing them era had abounded fe true.

Chapter 19.

1;   Pon the time Qayen childran abounded them worked drums an harps - santee an violins - an them made songs an all the games.

2; Childran who are attractive an comely were birthed fe Qayen from the wife of the kind man 'Abiel - whom him killed becau she - fe she were attractive - an after him killed him bredda him took that an she who were him money.

3; An separatin from him faada - him seized them an went toward Qiefaz region that are toward the West - an that attractive one childran were attractive like unto them mother.

4; An becaudis thing Siet childran downscended toward Qayen childran - an after them sight them up them didn't wait one iwa - an them made the dawtaz whom them chose wives fe them ras selves.

5; As them have taken InI toward error together with them becau them error - becaudis thing JAH vexed pon InI an vexed pon them.

6; An Deeyablos havin cajoled sayin - 'Unu will become irators like unto your Irator JAH' - him took InI mother Hiewan an InI faada 'Adam toward him error.

7; But it seemin Truth fe them ina them dullness - them demolished JAH LAW - Him Who Irated them bringin from not-livin toward livin that them might bow an praise Him glorified Name.

8; But Him - them Irator - downbased those 'Adam an Hiewan who made godhood fe them ras selves - an Him downbased him who are arrogant.

9; Like unto Daweet spoke sayin - ' 'Adam perish by the sinner Deeyablos arrogance' - Him abused them - fe InI faada 'Adam have been canvicted pon Deeyablos arrogance by Him true Judgemant.

10; An Siet childran who erred by Qayel childran took InI toward them sin thus ~ becaudis thing InI era that JAH gave InI were less than InI faadas eras.

11; But them had worked goodly Work - fe them had firmed up them reasonins ina JAH - fe them had taught them dawta childran an them male childran lest them depart from JAH LAW that them taught them - an there were no evil enemy who approach them.

12; But if them worked goodly Work - there are nothing that benefit them if them didn't tell nor teach fe them childran.

13; Like unto Daweet spoke sayin - 'Them didn't hide from them childran fe another child - an teach JAH praise - the wondrous miracles Him did - an Him Power' - there are nothing that benefit them if them didn't teach fe them childran that them might teach fe them childran fe mek heart like unto them knew - an that them might know an do Him Accord - an that them might tell them JAH LAW Trust - an that them might keep Him LAW like unto them faadas who made JAH Irie with them beautiful Work.

14; An them who told them Trust from them faadas ina them infancy didn't demolish Him Command - like unto them faadas learned JAH Worship an the Nine Laws from them faadas.

15; Them childran learned from them faadas that them might work goodly Work an might present praise fe them Irator - fe them have kept Him LAW - an fe them have loved Him.

16; An Him shall hear them ina them priah - an Him won't ignore them plea - but Him are a Forgiver.

17; Havin multiplied Him wrath - Him shall return it fe them - an Him wouldn't downstroy all ina Him chastisemant.

Chapter 20.

1;   InI bredren - think - don't forget what them told unu formerly - that JAH keep the true Work of persons who work goodly Work.

2; An Him multiply them childran ina this world - an them name invocation shall live firmed up fe a goodly thing up til the Iternity - an them childran won't be troubled fe grain ina this world.

3; As Him shall dispute fe them becau them - an as Him won't cast them ina them enemy hand - Him shall save them from them enemies hand who hate them.

4; An fe persons who love Him Name - Him shall be them Helper ina them tribulation time ~ Him shall guard them an pardon them all them sin.

Chapter 21.

1;   Daweet believed ina JAH - fe Him have believed ina him - an Him saved him bein a Refuge from the king Sa'ol hand.

2; An as him have believed ina Him an kept Him LAW pon the time when him child 'Abiesielom arose - an pon the time when the 'Iloflans arose - an pon the time when the 'Edomyans an the 'Amalieqans arose - pon the time when the one from the four Rafayn arose - JAH saved Daweet from all this tribulation that enemies who disputed him brought pon him.

3; As prevailin are by JAH Accord - them were defeated by them enemies hand - yet but JAH didn't save the evil kings who didn't believe ina Him.

4; An Hiziqyas believed ina JAH ~ Him saved him from Senakriem hand who were arrogant.

5; But him child Minassie were defeated by him enemy hand - fe him didn't mek him trustin ina JAH ~ as him didn't mek him trustin ina JAH an as him didn't fear JAH Who totally honoured an famed him - them bound an took him toward them country - yet but those enemies who defeated Minassie weren't like unto him.

6; At that time Him denied him the kingdom Him gave him - fe him didn't work goodly Work before him Irator JAH - that him era might abound an that Him might dispute him enemy fe him an that him might have Power an firmness behind an in front.

7; Fe it are better fe believe ina JAH than ina many armies - than believin ina horses an bows an shields.

8; Believin ina JAH surpass ~ a person who believed ina Him shall firm up an be honoured an totally lofty.

9; Fe JAH don't favour fe a face - but persons who didn't believe ina JAH - who believed ina them money abundance - became them who departed from the grace an honour that Him gave them.

10; Him shall guard the persons who believe ina Him - but Him shall mek the persons ignorant who call Him ignorant - an as them didn't discipline them reasonins fe follow JAH nor keep Him LAW - Him won't quickly help them ina them tribulation time nor ina the time them enemies disputed with them.

11; But fe a person who were disciplined ina worshippin JAH an fe keep Him LAW - Him shall be a Refuge ina him tribulation time.

12; By downstroyin him enemy - an by plunderin him enemy livestock - an by capturin him enemy country persons - an by rainin eras rain - an by growin sprouts - an by introducin the grain pile - ina the plant fruit...

13; An by rainin the first an the spring rains - an by makin the grass verdant - an by givin the rain that rain at each time that thy kindreds beneath thy Itority might be Irie - Him shall mek him Irie.

14; Him shall mek him Irie - that them might eat the other one money - that them might satta havin eaten the money them plundered from them enemy - that them might plunder animals an sheeps an cows - an that them might eat the other one dinnertable - an that them might tek them enemies childran captive.

15; JAH shall do all this fe the person whom Him love - but Him will mek the person who hate Him fe him enemy ransackery.

16; An Him shall bind him feet an him hands an shall cast him ina him enemy hand - an Him shall mek him fe him enemies derision - an as him have become a blood shedder who demolished JAH LAW - Him won't mek him Irie ina him house seed.

17; An him won't firm up ina Judgemant time - an that Him might bring the hardship fe persons who work sin - Him will also give persons who work evil Work them sin hardship.

18; But it were commanded from alongside JAH fe give persons who work goodly Work them reward - that Him might keep them ina Him Itority.

19; Fe Him are empowered pon all the Iration Him Irated that Him might do goodly Work an might give them Iternal welfare an that them might praise JAH Who Irated them - an Him commanded that him might keep Him LAW ~ apart from only man there are none from all the Irations Him Irated that departed from Him Command.

20; Like unto JAH commanded all who live firmed up ina each of them Works - them all know an are kept ina Him LAW.

21; But man are emboldened pon JAH Who crowned all pon each of them inventions - pon animal an beasts an pon Heaven birds.

22; Be it what are ina sea or all pon land - JAH gave all the Iration Him Irated fe them faada 'Adam ~ JAH gave them that him might do what him loved - an that them might eat them like unto grain that grew pon Earth - an that them might rule an tax them - an that be them beasts or animals them might be commanded fe man - an Him Ipointed them pon all Him Irated that persons who reigned might be commanded fe JAH Who gave them honour an that them might favour Him.

23; But if them depart from Him LAW Him will separate them from the lordship Him gave them ~ as Him are Who rule Earth an Heaven - Him will give it fe him who do Him Accord.

24; Him Ipoint whom Him loved fe Ipoint - but Him dismiss whom Him loved fe dismiss ~ Him kill ~ Him save ~ Him whip ina tribulation ~ Him forgive.

25; There are no other Irator like unto Him ~ as Him are Ruler fe all the Iration Him Irated - as there are no other without Him - the Irator - ina Heaven above Earth nor pon Earth beneath Heaven - there are none who shall criticise Him.

26; Him Ipoint ~ Him dismiss ~ Him kill ~ Him save ~ Him whip ina tribulation ~ Him forgive ~ Him impoverish ~ Him honour.

27; Him hear persons who beg Him ina them plea ~ Him accept a person plea who do Him Accord with a clean reasonin; an Him hear them ina them priah - an Him do them accord fe them ina all that them begged Him.

28; An Him mek the great an the small fe be commanded fe them ~ all this are them money pon hills an mountains an at trees roots an ina caves an Earth wells an all them kindreds pon both dry an sea.

29; An fe persons who do them Irator Accord all this are them money - an Him won't trouble them from them plenty - an Him shall give them them praise reward.

30; An Him shall give them the honour Him prepared ina Heaven fe them faadas Yis'haq an 'Abriham an Ya`iqob ~ Him shall give them what Him prepared fe Hiziqyas an Daweet an Samu'iel who didn't depart from Him LAW an Him Command.

31; That them might be Irie ina Him Lordship - Him shall give them who served Him Iginnin from Antiquity the honour Him prepared fe them faadas Yis'haq an 'Abriham an Ya`iqob - fe whom Him swore fe give them a inheritance.

Chapter 22.

1;   Please - think of persons name who work goodly Work - an don't forget them Work.

2; Straighten up that thy name be called like unto them name - that thou might be Irie with them ina the Kingdom of Heaven - that were Light Lodgin that Him prepared fe nobles an kings who did JAH Accord an were kind persons.

3; An again - know an be canvinced of evil nobles an kings names - that Him shall canvict them an revile them alongside man after them dead.

4; Fe them didn't line up them Work while them sight up an heard - an know an be canvinced that unless them did JAH Accord - Him shall judge pon them ina the Kingdom of Heaven more than criminals an persons who forgot JAH LAW.

5; Be kindly - innocent - honest - yet don't thou also go pon persons path who forgot JAH LAW - pon whom JAH vexed becau them evil Work.

6; Judge Truth an save the child whose mother an faada dead pon him - an the widow from sinner persons hand who rob them.

7; Be a guardian like unto him faada fe the child whose mother an faada dead pon him - that thou might save him from the wealthy one hand who rob him - an stand fe him - an be alarmed pon the time the child - whose mother an faada dead pon him - tears flowed before thee-I - lest thou be alarmed ina fiyah sea where sinner persons who didn't enter repentance are punished.

8; An straighten up thy feet toward Love an Inity path ~ as JAH Eyes check up Him friends - an as Him Ears hear them plea - seek Love an follow she.

9; But JAH Face of Him Wrath are toward persons who work evil Work - that Him might downstroy them name invocation from this world - an Him won't preserve a person who near pon ramparts nor mountains.

10; As I-man am JAH Who am jealous pon I Godhood - as I-man am a Irator who revenge an downstroy persons who hate I an don't keep I Word - I-man won't return I Face of Support reachin up til I-man downstroy the person who don't keep I Word.

11; An I-man shall honour persons who honour I an keep I Word.

Chapter 23.

1;   Don't live firmed up ina Qayel order - who killed him bredda who followed him ina innocence - it seemin fe him that him bredda love him.

2; An him killed him bredda envyin pon a dawta ~ persons who mek envy an iniquity an betrayal pon them companion are like unto him.

3; But as 'Abiel are innocent like unto a sheep - an as him blood are like unto the clean sheep blood that them sacrificed fe JAH by a clean reasonin - them went pon Qayel path that aren't pon 'Abiel path.

4; Fe becau all the persons who live ina innocence were persons whom JAH love - like unto a kind man 'Abiel - them have been innocent ones like unto 'Abiel - but those persons who live firmed up ina 'Abiel Work love JAH.

5; But JAH neglect evil ones - an them Definite Judgemant mek application fe them pon them bodies - an it are written pon the record of them reasonins - an pon the time when Judgemant are judged - them shall read she before man an Angels an before all the Iration.

6; At that time them shall shame ~ wrongdoers an refusers who didn't do JAH Accord shall shame.

7; An a alarmin Word shall be given them that say - Place them ina Gehannem where are no exit up til Iternity.

Chapter 24.

1;   But pon the time Giediewon trusted JAH - him defeated uncircumcise peoples armies who were many many ina army of a few tens of thousands an without number like unto locusts.

2; As there are no Irator without I - o nobles an kings - don't believe ina the different idols.

3; As I-man am your Irator JAH Who sent unu forth from your mothers wombs an raised unu an fed unu an clothed unu - why do unu pretext? How about why do unu worship other idols without I?

4; I-man did all this fe unu ~ what did unu give I? It are that unu might live firmed up ina I LAW an I Order an I Command an that I-man might give unu your bodies welfare - yet what will I-man want from unu?

5; JAH Who rule all said thus ~ Him said - Save your ras selves from worshippin idols an practisin sorcery an discouragin pessimism.

6; As JAH chastisemant shall come pon these who do this - an pon them who hear them an do them accord an are them friends an who live firmed up ina them command - save your ras selves from worshippin idols.

7; As peoples - who don't know unu an aren't nice fe unu - shall arise pon unu - unless unu who feared did JAH Accord - them will eat the money wherefor unu wearied ~ like unto Him servants the prophets spoke an like unto Hienok spoke an like unto 'Asaf spoke - unless unu did JAH Accord - them will eat the money wherefor unu wearied.

8; Evil persons will come havin changed them clothes Him said ~ there are no other law alongside them apart from eatin an drinkin an adornin ina silver an gold - an livin havin firmed up ina sin all the Work JAH don't love.

9; But them are prepared fe go toward drink an food ~ after them were aroused from them slumber Iginnin from mornin up til evenin them go toward evil Work; there are misery an tribulation ina them path - yet them feet have no Love path.

10; An them don't know Love an Inity Work - an there are no fearin JAH ina them faces ~ them are crooked evil ones without religion nor virtue ~ them are greedy ones who eat an drink alone ~ them are drunkards - an them sin are without LAW an without measure ~ them are who go toward seducin - sheddin blood - theft an perfidy an violently robbin him money who don't have it.

11; An them are who criticise without Love an without LAW - fe them don't fear JAH Who Irated them - an there are no fear ina them faces.

12; Them don't shame ina the person face that them sight up - an them don't shame a grey-hair nor a elder face ~ pon the time them heard when them said - 'An there are money ina this world' - them mek it them ras self money before them sight it up with them eyes - fe there are no fearin JAH ina them faces - an pon the time them sight it up with them eyes it seem fe them that them ate it.

13; An them nobles eat trust money ~ them are who eat ~ as them are negativists an as there are no straight thing ina them tongues - them don't repeat ina evenin what them spoke ina mornin.

14; Fe them ignore sufferahs an poor ones cries - an them kings hasten fe evil - them who downsturb a person - him havin saved refugees from wealthy ones hands who rob them.

15; Mek them save him who were wronged an the refugee - yet mek the kings not be them who begrudge justice becaudis thing.

16; But them are who exact tribute ~ them are who rob a person money - an them are criminals - an as them Work are evil - them aren't nice when them eat the newborn calf with she mother an a bird with she egg ~ them mek all them sight up an heard them ras self money.

17; Them love that them might gather fe them ras selves - yet them aren't nice fe sick an poor ones - an them violently rob the money of a person who don't have it - an them gather all them found that them might be fattened an be Irie ina it.

18; Fe them shall perish quickly like unto a scarab that proceeded from it pit an whose track aren't found an that don't return toward it house - an becau them didn't work goodly Work when them are ina them Life - woe fe them bodies pon the time JAH vexed an seized them.

19; Pon the time JAH neglected them - them will perish at one time like unto them are ina one chastisemant - fe Him indure them meanin as it were them returned toward repentance - yet Him don't quickly downstroy them - an them shall perish pon the time when them shall perish.

20; But if them don't return toward repentance - Him will quickly downstroy them like unto former persons who were precedin them - who didn't keep JAH LAW by what are due.

21; Them are who eat a person flesh an drink a person blood ~ as them gird an work violence fe go toward sin - there are no fearin JAH ina them faces everytime - an after them arose from them beddin them don't rest fe work sin.

22; An them Work are drink an food - goin toward downstruction an sin - that them might downstroy many persons bodies ina this world.

Chapter 25.

1;   As them Work are crooked - an as all are who live firmed up ina Seythan Work that mislead - JAH Who rule all said - Woe fe your body pon the time I-man vexed an seized she.

2; But fe them don't know JAH Work - fe them have returned it toward them rear - an fe them have neglected I LAW.

3; An later ina fulfillmant era I-man shall bring the hardship pon them like unto them evil measure ~ like unto them sin were written alongside I - I-man shall revenge an downstroy them pon the day when Judgemant are judged.

4; As I-man JAH am full from horizon up til horizon - an as all the Iration have been seized ina I Itority - there are none who escape from I Itority ina Heaven nor Earth nor depth nor sea.

5; I-man command a snake that are beneath Earth - an I-man command a fish that are within sea - an I-man command birds ina Heaven - an I-man command the desert donkey ina wilderness - fe it are I money Iginnin from horizon up til horizon.

6; As I-man am Who work wondrous Work an do miracles before I - there are none who escape from I Itority pon Earth nor ina Heaven ~ there are none who tell I - 'Where do Thou go? How about what do thou Work?'

7; An I-man command pon Angels chiefs an hosts ~ all Irations whose name are called are I money - an beasts ina wilderness an all birds ina Heaven an livestocks are I moneys.

8; It arise from 'Azieb wind an firm up ina drought ina Mesi` ~ later ina fulfillmant era 'Eritra sea shall perish bein heard - arisin from JAH - Who shall come toward she - bein feared an famousness.

9; Fe Him rule them who dead an persons who are there - an she shall perish bein heard with Saba an Noba an Hindekie an 'Ityopphya limits an all them regions.

10; An Him watch all ina lofty Itority an innocence - fe Him Itority surpass all the itority - an Him keep cangregations ina Him Itority.

11; An fe Him Itority firm up more than all the itority - an fe Him Kingdom surpass all the kingdoms - an fe Him Itority are what rule all the world - fe Him able fe all - an fe there are nothing that fail Him.

12; Him rule all clouds ina Heaven ~ Him grow grass fe livestocks pon Earth - an Him give fruit pon the buds.

13; Him feed fe all ina each of the kinds like unto Him loved ~ Him feed all that Him Irated by each of the fruits an each of the foods - an Him feed ants an locusts beneath Earth an livestocks pon Earth an beasts - an fe a person who prayed Him give him him priah - an Him don't ignore the plea of the child whose mother an faada dead pon him - nor widows.

14; As evil persons rebellion are like unto a swirlin wind an wrongdoers council like unto misty urine - Him shall rather accept the plea of them who beg toward Him at each time an clean ones.

15; An as them body are like unto a flyin bird - an as them features comeliness that are silver an gold are perishable ina this world - examination will benefit persons who forgot JAH LAW yet not them gold - an moths shall eat them clothes.

16; An weevils shall totally eat the wheat an the barley fatness - an all shall pass like unto the day that passed yesterday - an like unto a word that proceeded from a mouth don't return - sinner persons money also are like unto it - an them 'beautiful lifestyle' are like unto a passin shadow ~ sinner persons money before JAH are like unto a lie clothes.

17; But if kind persons are honoured JAH won't ignore them - fe them have been honoured while them were nice fe poor ones - an them hear justice of sufferahs an a child whose mother an faada dead pon him ~ JAH won't ignore them - fe without neglectin them house childran - them honour Him while them clothe the naked from the clothes JAH gave them that them might give fe the refugee sufferah.

18; Them don't favour loyal persons judgemant - an them don't mek a hireling salary lodge ~ as JAH thing are Truth an honoured like unto a sword whose mouths were two - them won't do iniquity ina them seasons number an ina them balance measuremant.

Chapter 26.

1;   But poor ones will think again pon them beddin - but if wealthy ones don't accept them - them will be like unto dry wood that have no verdure - an a root won't be fertile from alongside where no moisture are - an the leaf won't be fertile if there are no root.

2; As a leaf serve a flower fe be a ornamant fe fruit - unless the leaf were fertile it won't bear fruit ~ as man fulfillmant are religion - a person without religion have no virtue.

3; If him firmed up religion him worked virtue - an JAH are Irie by a person who work Truth an straight Work.

4; An fe the person who begged Him - Him shall give him him plea an him tongue reward - an Him won't wrong the true person becau him true Work that him worked.

5; As JAH are true - an as Him have loved a Truth thing - Him won't justify the sinner person without repentance becau the Work evil him worked - an as all persons souls have been seized ina Him Itority becau Him were Who ruled Earth an Heaven - as Him won't favour for the wealthy more than the poor ina Judgemant time - Him won't justify him without repentance.

Chapter 27.

1;   Him Irated havin brought all the world from not livin toward livin - an Him totally prepared hills an mountains - an Him firmed up Earth pon Water - an lest sea be shaken Him delineated she by sand - fe ina Him first Word JAH have said Mek Light be Irated.

2; Light were Irated when this world had been covered ina darkness ~ JAH Irated all the Iration - an Him prepared this world - an Him firmed up this world by what are due an by money that are straight ~ Him said - Mek evenin be dark.

3; An again JAH said Mek Light be Irated ~ it dawned an there were Light - an Him Ilivated the upper Water toward Heaven.

4; An Him streached it forth like unto a tent - an Him firmed it up by a wind - an Him placed the lower Water within a pit.

5; An Him shut the sea lock ina sand - an Him firmed them up ina Him Itority lest them drown ina Water - an Him placed animals an beasts within she - an Him placed within she Liewatan an Biehiemot who were great beasts - an Him placed within she the beasts without number - sight up an not sight up.

6; Pon the third day JAH Irated pon Earth plants - all the roots an woods an fruits that bear forth ina each of them kinds - an a welfare wood beautiful fe them fe sight it up..

7; An Him Irated a welfare wood that were both beautiful fe them fe sight it up an sweet fe them fe eat it - an Him Irated grass - an all plants whose seeds are found from within them - fe be food fe birds an livestocks an beasts.

8; It dusked ~ it dawned - an pon the fourth day Him said - Mek Light be Irated ina Heaven called cosmos ~ JAH havin Irated moon an Sun an stars - Him placed them ina Heaven called cosmos that them might shine ina this world an that them might feed them daylight an night.

9; An after this moon an Sun an stars alternated ina night an daylight.

10; An pon the fifth day JAH Irated all animals an beasts that live within Water an all birds that fly pon Heaven - all that are sight up an not sight up - all this.

11; An pon the sixth day Him Irated livestocks an beasts an others - an havin Irated an prepared all - Him Irated 'Adam ina Him Example an Him Appearance.

12; Him gave him all animals an beasts Him Irated that him might reign pon them - an again - all animals an beasts an all fishes - an Liewatan an Biehiemot that are ina sea.

13; An Him gave him all cows that live ina this world an sheeps - the animals not sight up an them that are sight up.

14; An Him placed ina Garden 'Adam whom Him Irated ina Him Example an Him Appearance - that him might eat an might cultivate plants an might praise JAH there.

15; An fe lest him demolish Him Command - Him have said - Pon the time when unu ate from this Herb of Fig unu will dead death.

16; An Him commanded him lest him eat from the Herb of Fig that bring death - that draw attention fe evil an good - that bring death.

17; InI mother Hiewan were cajoled by a snake misleadin an she ate from that Herb of Fig an gave it fe InI faada 'Adam.

18; An 'Adam havin eaten from that Herb of Fig brought death pon him childran an pon him ras self.

19; As him have demolished Him Command - an as him have eaten from that Herb of Fig that JAH commanded sayin - Don't eat from she - JAH vexed pon InI faada 'Adam an expelled an sent him way from the Garden - an Him gave him that Earth that grow thistle an thorn - that Him cursed becau him pon the time him demolished Him Command - that him might eat him weariness reward havin toiled an laboured that him might plow she.

20; An pon the time JAH sent him forth toward this land - 'Adam returned toward complete sadness - an havin toiled an laboured that him might plow Earth - him began fe eat ina weariness an also ina struggles.

Chapter 28.

1;   An after him childran lived havin abounded - there were from them ones who praise an honour JAH an don't demolish Him Command.

2; There were prophets who spoke what were done an what will be done henceforth - an from him childran there were sinners who speak lies an who wrong persons ~ 'Adam firstborn child Qayel became evil an killed him bredda 'Abiel.

3; JAH judged Judgemant pon Qayel becau him killed him bredda 'Abiel - an JAH vexed pon Earth becau she drank him blood.

4; An JAH told Qayel - Where are thy bredda 'Abiel? - an Qayel ina him heart arrogance said - 'Are mi mi bredda 'Abiel keeper?'

5; 'Abiel became a clean man - but Qayel became a sinner man by killin a kind man - him bredda 'Abiel.

6; Again a kind child Siet were birthed ~ 'Adam birthed sixty childran ~ there are kind persons an evil persons from them.

7; An there are kind persons from them ~ an there are persons who were prophets an them who were traitors an sinners.

8; There are blessed persons who were kind persons - who fulfill them faada 'Adam accord an all him told fe him child Siet - Iginnin from 'Adam up til Noh who are a kind man who kept JAH LAW.

9; An him sanctioned JAH LAW fe him childran ~ him told them - 'Guard' - lest them demolish JAH LAW - an that them might tell fe them childran like unto them faada Noh told them - an that them might keep JAH LAW.

10; An them lived while them taught them childran - persons birthed after them.

11; But Seythan lived when him spoke fe them faadas - havin lodged ina idols that reached fe a grave an that have vows pon them - an havin defeated the persons who told him alright - an when them did all that Seythan - who are sin teacher - commanded them.

12; An them lived when them worshipped the idols like unto them order - up til a kind man 'Abriham who fulfill JAH Accord.

13; Fe him have lived firmed up ina the LAW beforehand separate from him cousins - an JAH swore a oath with him - havin lodged ina wind an fiyah.

14; JAH swore fe him that Him might give him a land of inheritance an that Him might give fe him childran up til the Iternity.

15; An Him swore fe Yis'haq like unto him that Him might give him him faada 'Abriham inheritance - an Him swore fe Ya`iqob that Him might give him him faada Yis'haq inheritance ~ Him swore fe him like into Yis'haq.

16; An Him separated them childran - who were birthed after them from Ya`iqob - from the twelve tribes of 'Isra'iel - an made them priests an kings ~ Him blessed them sayin - Abound an totally be many many.

17; An Him gave them them faada inheritance - however while Him fed them an loved them - them didn't quit saddenin JAH ina all.

18; An pon the time Him downstroyed them - at that time them will seek Him ina worship - an them will return from sin an go toward JAH - fe Him love them - an JAH shall pardon them.

19; Fe bein nice fe all Him Irated - Him shall pardon them - an it are becau them faadas Work that Him love them - yet it aren't becau them ras selves Work.

20; An Him streach forth Him Right Hand ina plenty that Him might satta a hungry body - an Him reveal Him Eye fe pardonin that Him might multiply grain fe food.

21; Him give food fe crows chicks an fe beasts that beg Him ~ pon the time them cried toward Him - Him will save 'Isra'iel childran from them enemies hands who delayed from the time.

22; An them will return toward sin again that them might sadden Him - an Him will arouse them enemies peoples ina them area pon them ~ them will downstroy them an kill them an capture them.

23; An again them will shout toward JAH ina mournin an sadness - an there are the time when Him sent help an saved them by prophets hands.

24; An there are the time when Him saved them by princes hands - an pon the time them saddened JAH them enemies taxed them an captured them.

25; An Daweet arose an saved them from the 'Iloflans hands; an again them saddened JAH - an JAH aroused pon them peoples who worry them.

26; An there are the time when Him saved them by Yoftahie hand - an again them forgot JAH Who saved them ina them tribulation time. As JAH have brought the hardship pon them - Him will arouse pon them enemies who were evil who will firm up tribulation pon them an totally capture them.

27; An pon the time them were worried by tribulation them were seized an again cried toward Him - an Him saved them by Giediewon hand - an again them saddened JAH by them hands Work.

28; An again Him aroused pon them peoples who firm up tribulation pon them - an them returned an wept an cried toward JAH.

29; An again Him saved them from peoples by Somson hand - an them rested a likkle from the tribulation. An them arose that them might sadden JAH by them former sin.

30; An again Him aroused pon them other peoples who worry them - an again them cried an wept toward JAH that Him might send help fe them - an Him saved them from peoples by Bariq an Deebora hands.

31; Again them lived a likkle season while them worshipped JAH - an again them forgot JAH ina them former sin an saddened Him.

32; An Him aroused pon them other peoples who worry them - an again Him saved them by Yodeet hand; an havin sat again a likkle season them arose that them might sadden JAH by them sin like unto formerly.

33; An Him aroused pon them peoples who rule them - an them cried an wept toward JAH; fe Him have struck pon him head 'Abiemieliek who were a warrior who came that him might fight Yihuda country.

34; An Him saved them by the childran ina the area an by Matatyu hand - an pon the time that warrior dead him army fled an were scattared - an 'Isra'iel childran followed an fought them up til 'Iyabboq - an them didn't preserve even one person from them.

35; After this them waited a likkle an arose that them might sadden JAH - an Him aroused pon them peoples who rule them - an again them totally cried toward JAH; an JAH ignored them cryin an them mournin - fe them have saddened JAH everytime - an fe them have demolished Him LAW.

36; An them captured an took them with them priests toward Babilon persons country.

37; An then 'Isra'iel childran who were traitors didn't quit saddenin JAH while them worked sin an worshipped idols.

38; JAH vexed that Him might downstroy them one time ina them sin ~ Hama havin introduced ten thousand gold ina the king box - pon the day when it were known - him lodged anger ina the king 'Arthieksis reasonin - lest him preserve them childran ina Fars country Iginnin from Hindekie an up til 'Ityopphya pon the time him told him that him might downstroy them.

39; Him did thus - an him wrote a letter where a message were written by the king authority - an him gave him a seal ina him hand that him might deliver toward Fars country.

40; Him gave him a seal that him might downstroy them pon one day when him loved them fe downstroy them like unto the king commanded - but him commanded that him might introduce them money - the gold an the silver - toward the king box.

41; An pon the time 'Isra'iel childran heard this thing them totally cried an wept toward JAH - an them told it fe Merdokyos - an Merdokyos told fe 'Astier.

42; An 'Astier said - 'Fast - beg - an all 'Isra'iel childran kindreds - cry toward JAH ina the place where unu are.'

43; An Merdokyos wore sackcloth an sprinkled dust pon him ras self - an 'Isra'iel childran fasted - begged - an entered repentance ina the country where them were.

44; An 'Astier were totally sad - an bein a queen she wore sackcloth ~ she sprinkled dust an shaved she head - an she didn't anoint perfume like unto Fars queens anoint perfume - an ina she deep reasonin she cried an wept toward she faadas Irator JAH.

45; An becaudis thing Him gave she bein loved alongside Fars king 'Arthieksis - an she made a kind lunch fe she faadas Irator.

46; An Hama an the king entered toward the lunch that 'Astier prepared - an like unto him loved that him might do pon Merdokyos - JAH paid the hardship pon that Hama - an them hanged him pon a tall wood.

47; The king letter were commanded that them might quit 'Isra'iel like unto them were ina all them accord - an lest them tax them nor rob them nor wrong them nor tek them money pon them.

48; As JAH shall pardon 'Isra'iel doin thus pon the time them cried enterin repentance - it are that them might love them an honour them ina Fars country where them lived - yet a king letter were commanded lest them downstroy them country nor plunder them livestocks.

49; An pon them time them saddened Him - Him will arouse pon them peoples who worry them ~ at that time them will totally weep an cry that Him might send them help fe them an that Him might save them from peoples hand who firm up tribulation pon them.

Chapter 29.

1;   An pon the time Gibts persons also made 'Isra'iel childran work by makin them work bricks ina difficulty - an pon the time them worried them all the Work by kickin mud without straw an heatin bricks...

2; An pon the time them made them work havin appointed chiefs pon them who rush workers - them cried toward JAH that Him might save them from workin all Gibts bricks.

3; At that time Him sent fe them 'Aron an Mussie who help them - fe JAH have sent them that them might send forth Him kindreds from Fer`on rulership house - an Him saved them from brick Work ~ becau ina him arrogance him refused fe adjourn 'Isra'iel lest them be ruled an sacrifice sacrifice fe JAH ina wilderness - JAH have sent them that them might send forth Him kindreds 'Isra'iel from Gibts king Fer`on rulership house - an them saved them.

4; Fe JAH neglect arrogant ones - an Him drowned Fer`on ina 'Eritra sea with him army becau him arrogance.

5; An like unto him - Him shall downstroy them who didn't work goodly Work ina all the kingdoms that Him I-pointed an crowned them - that them who ignore JAH Word when them are nobles an kings might fulfill Him Accord fe Him - an that them might give persons who serve ina goodly thing them wage - an that them might honour Him famous Name.

6; JAH Who rule all said - But if them will straighten up I Kingdom - I-man will straighten up them kingdom fe them.

7; Work goodly Work fe I - an I-man shall work goodly Work fe unu ~ keep I LAW - an I-man shall keep unu your bodies ~ live firmed up ina I LAW - an I-man shall live lodgin honesty ina unu like unto your reasonin.

8; Love I - an I-man shall love your welfare ~ near toward I - an I-man shall heal unu.

9; JAH Who rule all said - Believe ina I - an I-man shall save unu from the tribulation.

10; Don't live side by side ~ as JAH Who rule all love straight Work - Him said - Unu - approach toward I - an I-man shall approach toward unu ~ unu persons who are sinners an traitors - cleanse your hands from sin - an distance your reasonins from evil.

11; An I-man shall distance I anger from unu - an I-man shall return fe unu ina Charity an Forgiveness.

12; I-man shall distance criminals an enemies who work iniquity from unu - like unto I-man saved I slave Daweet from him enemies who met him - from them much malice - an from Gwolyad hand who were a warrior - an also from Sa'ol hand who sought that him might kill him - an from him child 'Abiesielom hand who loved that him might tek him kingdom.

13; I-man shall save persons who keep I LAW an fulfill I Accord like unto him ~ I-man shall bequeath them honour - an them shall be Irie ina the present world an yonder ina the world that shall come ~ I-man shall crown them pon all that them might be Irie.

14; Them shall be one with kings who served JAH an were honoured ina them beautiful way of Life - like unto the prophet Samu'iel served Him ina him beautiful way of Life Iginnin from him infancy - whom JAH - Him bein LAW - chose.

15; Him told him that him might tell 'Elee who were a servant elder - an when him served ina JAH Lodgin the Temple - Samu'iel Work also were merciful an I-loved.

16; An pon the time him grew when him served ina JAH Lodgin the Temple - Him made him fe be Ipointed an Inointed - that him might Ipoint him people an that kings might be Inointed by JAH Accord. As JAH have loved him that the kindred him chose from 'Isra'iel childran might be Ipointed - pon the time him fulfilled JAH Accord Who Irated him - Him gave him the Inointin of the Kingdom ina him hand.

17; An when Sa'ol were ina him kingdom JAH told Him prophet Samu'iel - Go - an as I-man have loved `Issiey child Daweet who were birthed from Yihuda kin - Inoint him.

Chapter 30.

1;   I-man have hated Sa'ol kin - fe him have saddened I becau him violated I Word.

2; An I-man neglected him - fe him didn't keep I LAW - an I-man won't crown from him kin again.

3; An persons who didn't keep I LAW an I Word an I Order like unto him - I-man shall downstroy I Kingdom an I gift from them childran up til the Iternity.

4; An as them didn't mek I famous pon the time I-man made them famous - I-man shall downstroy them - yet I-man won't again return fe lift them up ~ though I-man honour them - as them didn't honour I - I-man won't mek them famous.

5; Fe them didn't do a goodly thing fe I pon the time I-man did a goodly thing fe them - an fe them didn't forgive I pon the time I-man forgave them.

6; An as them didn't mek I a Ruler pon the time I-man made them rulers pon all - as them didn't honour I pon the time I-man honoured them more than all - I-man won't mek them famous again nor honour them - an fe them didn't keep I LAW.

7; An I-man withheld the gift I-man gave them - an I-man won't return the money I-man withheld from them like unto the measure I-man vexed an swore ~ JAH Who rule all said thus ~ Him said - I-man shall honour them who honoured I - an love them who loved I.

8; I-man shall separate them who didn't honour I nor keep I LAW from the gift I-man gave them.

9; JAH Who rule all said; I-man love them who loved I - an mek famous him who made I famous - Him said..

10; As I-man JAH am Who rule all - there are none who escape I Itority ina Earth nor Heaven - fe I-man am JAH Who kill an Who save an Who sadden an Who forgive.

11; As famousness an honour are I money - I-man honour him whom I-man loved - fe I-man am Who judge an Who revenge an downstroy - an I-man mek wretched him whom I-man hated.

12; Fe I-man am Who forgive them who love I an call I Name everytime - fe I-man am Who feed food fe the wealthy an fe the poor.

13; An I-man feed birds an animals - fishes ina sea an beasts an flowers - yet I-man aren't Who feed only man.

14; I-man feed crocodiles an whales - gophers an hippos - an badgers...

15; an all that live within Water - all that fly pon wind - yet I-man aren't Who feed only man ~ all this are I money.

16; I-man am Who feed all that seek I by all that are due an I-loved.

Chapter 31.

1;   An the kings don't reign without I Accord - an sufferahs are by I Command - yet them aren't poor without I Command - an powerful ones are by I Accord - yet them aren't strong without I Accord.

2; I-man gave bein I-loved fe Daweet an Wisdom fe Selomon - an I-man added eras fe Hiziqyas.

3; I-man diminished Gwolyad era - an I-man gave Power fe Somson - an again I-man weakened him Power.

4; An I-man saved I slave Daweet from Gwolyad hand who were a warrior.

5; An again I-man saved him from the king Sa'ol hand an from the secand warrior who disputed him - an fe him have kept I Command - an I-man saved him from the persons hand who dispute him an fight him.

6; An I-man loved him - an I-man love all the nobles an the kings who keep I LAW ~ as them have made I Irie - I-man shall give them prevailin an Power pon them enemies.

7; An again that them might inherit them faadas land - I-man shall give them the cleansed an shinin land of inheritance that I-man swore fe them faadas.

Chapter 32.

1;   JAH Who rule all said - An unu the nobles an also the kings - hear I ina I Word - an keep I Command ~ lest unu sadden I an worship like unto 'Isra'iel childran saddened I an worshipped different idols - them whom I-man kept an saved when I-man JAH am them Irator - JAH Who rule all said - Hear I ina I Word; an all whom I-man raised an loved an fed Iginnin that them were birthed from them mother an faada.

2; An whom I-man sent forth toward Earth crops - an whom I-man fed the fatness found from Earth makin like unto are due - an whom I-man gave the grape vine an the oil-tree fruit that them didn't plant an the clear Water well that them didn't dig.

3; Hear I ina I Word lest unu sadden I like unto 'Isra'iel childran saddened I worshippin other idols when I-man JAH am them Irator - Him told them - Who fed them the sheep milk an the honey comb with the hulled wheat - an Who clothed them clothes where ornamant are - an Who gave them all them love.

4; An without it livin that I-man deprived them all them begged I.

Chapter 33.

1;   Like unto Daweet spoke sayin - ''Isra'iel childran were fed the menna that Angels lowered' - an again hear I ina I Word lest unu sadden I like unto 'Isra'iel childran saddened I worshippin the idols when I-man am them Irator JAH Who fed them sweet menna ina wilderness - Him said ~ I-man did all this fe them that them might worship I by what are due an fe true.

2; JAH Who rule all said - But them didn't worship I - an I-man neglected them ~ them saddened I an lived firmed up ina law of idols that weren't I LAW.

3; An I-man shall bring the hardship pon them like unto them sin ~ as them have neglected I Worship an as them didn't firm up ina I counsel an I Order - I-man neglected them ina the sin measure that them worked by them hands - an I-man shall lower them toward Gehannem ina Definite Judgemant that are done ina Heaven.

4; Fe them didn't keep I LAW - an fe I-man vex pon them - an I-man shall diminish them era ina this world.

5; If thou be a king - aren't thou a man who shall dead an be demolished an tomorrow who shall be worms an dust?

6; But today thou boast an are proud like unto a man who won't dead foriva.

7; JAH Who rule all said - But thou who are sight up bein well today are a man who will dead tomorrow.

8; But if unu keep I Command an I Word - I-man shall bequeath thee-I a honoured country with honoured kings who did I Accord - whose lodgin were Light an whose crowns were beautiful - an whose thrones were silver an gold an whom persons who sit pon them adorned - Him said.

9; An them shall be Irie within Him country that are a place that approached fe persons who worked goodly Work.

10; But fe persons who work sin - as them didn't keep I LAW - said JAH Who rule all...

11; it aren't due them that them might enter toward that country where honoured kings shall enter.

Chapter 34.

1;   Miedon kingdom shall perish - but Rom kingdom shall totally firm up pon Meqiedonya kingdom - an Nenewie kingdom shall firm up pon Fars kingdom.

2; An 'Ityopphya kingdom shall firm up pon 'Iskindriya kingdom ~ as peoples shall arise - Mo`ab kingdom shall firm up pon 'Amalieq kingdom.

3; An bredda shall arise pon him bredda - an JAH shall revenge an downstroy like unto Him spoke that it might perish.

4; Kingdom shall arise pon kingdom - an the people pon the people an country pon country - Him said.

5; An argumants shall be done an there shall be formations - famine - plague - earthquake - drought ~ as Love have perished from this world - JAH chastisemant downscended pon she.

6; Fe the day have arrived suddenly when JAH shall come - Who frighten like unto lightnin that are sight up from East up til West.

7; Pon the day when HIM JAH judge Judgemant - at that time everyone shall raceive him hardship like unto him hand weakness an him sin firmness - fe Him have said I-man shall revenge them pon the day when HIM JAH judge Judgemant an pon the day when them feet are hindered - fe the day when them are counted fe downstruction have arrived.

8; At that time JAH shall downstroy ina Gehannem foriva persons who won't live firmed up ina Him LAW - who work sin.

9; An them who live ina the West ilands an Noba an Hindekie - Saba an 'Ityopphya an Gibts persons - all persons who live ina them...

10; at that time shall know I that I-man were JAH Who rule Earth an Heaven - an Who give bein I-loved an honour - an Who save an Who kill.

11; I-man am Who send forth Sun - Who send it toward it settin - Who bring the evil an the good.

12; I-man am Who bring peoples whom unu don't know - who slaughter an eat the money whereby unu wearied - your sheeps an your cows flocks.

13; An them shall capture your childran while them hammer them before unu - an unu cyaan save them. Becau JAH Spirit of Support didn't lodge ina unu - as unu didn't fear JAH Command that unu heard - Him shall downstroy your lavishmants an your assignmants.

14; But a person ina whom JAH Spirit of Support lodged will know all - like unto Nabukedenetsor told Dan'iel sayin - 'Mi sight up JAH Spirit of Support that lodged ina thee-I.'

15; An a person ina whom JAH Spirit of Support lodged will know all - an what were hidden will be revealed fe him - an him will know all that were revealed an that were hidden - yet there are nothing hidden from a person ina whom JAH Spirit of Support lodged.

16; But as InI are persons who will dead tomorrow - InI sins that InI hid an worked shall be revealed.

17; An like unto them test silver an gold ina fiyah - like unto there are sinners - later pon the Day of Advent them shall be examined - fe them didn't keep JAH Command.

18; At that time all peoples an all 'Isra'iel childran Works shall be examined.

Chapter 35.

1;   As JAH vex pon unu becau unu didn't judge a Truth Judgemant fe the child whose mother an faada dead pon him - woe fe unu 'Isra'iel nobles.

2; Woe fe unu persons who go toward a drinkin house mornin an evenin an get drunk - who are partial ina judgemant - an who don't hear the widow justice nor the child whose mother an faada dead pon him - who live ina sin an seducin.

3; JAH told 'Isra'iel nobles sayin thus: - Unless unu lived firmed up ina I Command an kept I LAW an loved what I-man love - woe fe unu - Him told them.

4; An I-man shall bring downstruction an chastisemant an tribulation pon unu - an unu will perish like unto what weevils an moths ate - an your tracks an your region won't be found - Him told them.

5; An your country will be a wilderness - an all persons who sight she up formerly shall clap them hands ~ them shall marvel pon she while them said - 'Weren't this country filled of she plenty an all who love it?; JAH made she thus by persons sin who live ina she.'

6; Them shall say - 'As she have made she heart proud - an as she have ilivated she ras self - an as she have firmed up she collar of reasonin up til JAH mek she wretched pon Earth - an as she shall be a desert by persons arrogance who live ina she - an as thorns have grown pon she with thistles - woe fe she.'

7; An she grow weeds an nettles - an she became a wilderness an a desert - an beasts shall live within she.

8; Fe JAH Judgemant have firmed up pon she - an fe she shall raceive JAH Judgemant Chalice becau she reasonin arrogance by persons sin who live ina she - an she became frightenin fe persons who go toward she.

Chapter 36.

1;   Meqiedon persons - don't boast ~ as JAH are there Who shall downstroy unu - 'Amalieqans - don't firm up your collar of reasonin.

2; Fe unu will be lofty up til Heaven an unu will downscend up til Gehannem.

3; Pon the time 'Isra'iel formerly entered toward Gibts country ina Mo`ab an Miedon kingdom Him said - Don't boast - fe it aren't due fe pretend pon JAH that unu might pretend pon Him.

4; Thou Yisma'iel kindred - slave child - why do thou firm up thy collar of reasonin by what weren't thy money? How about don't thou think that JAH shall judge pon thee pon the time Him arose that it might be judged pon Earth - pon the day when it are judged pon thee?

5; JAH Who rule all said - At that time thou will raceive thy hardship like unto thy hand Work - how about why do thou ilivate thy reasonin? How about why do thou firm up thy collar of reasonin?

6; An I-man shall pretend pon thee like unto thou pretended pon persons who weren't thy kindreds - fe thou do what thou love that thou might work sin - an I-man shall neglect thee ina the place where them sent thee.

7; JAH Who rule all said - An I-man shall do thus pon thee ~ Him said - But if thou worked goodly Work an if thou love what I-man loved - I-man also shall hear thee-I ina all that thou begged.

8; An if thou fulfill I Accord fe I - I-man shall fulfill thy accord fe thee-I - an I-man shall dispute thy enemies fe thee-I - an I-man shall bless thy childran an thy seed fe thee-I.

9; An I-man shall multiply thy sheeps an thy cows flocks fe thee-I - an if thou lived firmed up ina I Command an also if thou did what I-man love - JAH Who rule all said - I-man shall bless fe thee-I all thou seized ina thy hand.

10; But if thou don't do I Accord - if thou don't live firmed up ina I LAW an I Command - all this tribulation that were told formerly shall find thee - fe thou didn't indure tribulation firmed up ina I Command - an fe thou didn't live firmed up ina I LAW - an thou cyaan escape from I anger that will come pon thee everytime.

11; An as thou didn't love what I-man loved - when I-man am Who Irated thee bringin from not livin toward livin...

12; all this were thy money - that thou might kill an heal fe do all that thou loved - that thou might work an demolish - that thou might honour an abuse - that thou might ilivate an downbase - an as thou have neglected I Worship an I praise when I-man am Who gave thee lordship an also honour alongside persons who are beneath thy authority - thou cyaan escape from I anger that will come pon thee.

13; An if thou did JAH Accord an if thou lived frmed up ina Him Command - Him will love thee-I that thou might be Irie with Him ina Him Lordship - an that thou might be a partaker with persons who inherited a honoured country.

14; Fe Him have said - If them indure I - I-man will bequeath them bein I-loved an honour - fe I-man shall mek them Irie ina the Temple where priah are prayed - fe JAH Who rule all have said - An them shall be I-loved an chosen like unto a sacrifice.

15; Don't neglect fe do Work whereby welfare are done an a goodly thing that unu might cross from death toward Life.

16; But persons who work goodly Work - JAH shall keep them ina all Him goodly Work - that them might be Him slaves like unto 'Iyob whom JAH kept from all the tribulation

17; JAH shall keep them ina all goodly Work - that them might be Him slaves fe Him like unto 'Abriham whom Him saved pon the time him killed the kings - an like unto Mussie whom Him saved from Kenaniewon hand an Fer`on hand - ina whom 'Abriham lived - an who were also downsturbin him body evenin an mornin night an day that them might mek him worship idols.

18; But when them took him toward the idols that were them money - him would indure the tribulation while him refused.

19; Fe 'Abriham who believed Him Iginnin from him childhood were fe JAH Him trusted friend - an while him refused him would worship JAH Who Irated him.

20; As him totally love JAH - him didn't quit worshippin JAH up til him dead - an him didn't depart from Him LAW up til when him dead - an him taught him childran that them might keep JAH LAW.

21; An like unto them faada 'Abriham kept Him LAW - them didn't depart from JAH LAW ~ like unto Him told fe Angels sayin - I-man have a friend ina this world called 'Abriham - 'Abriham childran Ya`iqob an Yis'haq - who are Him slaves becau whom JAH spoke - didn't depart from JAH LAW.

22; JAH Who were praised alongside them an Who rule all said - 'Abriham are I friend ~ Yis'haq are I canfidante - an Ya`iqob are I friend whom I Reasonin loved.

23; But when Him totally loved 'Isra'iel childran - them lived when them Itinually saddened Him - an Him lived when Him indured them an when Him fed them menna ina wilderness.

24; Them clothes didn't age - fe them have been fed menna that are knowledge 'injera - an them feet didn't awaken.

25; But them reasonins would distance from JAH everytime ~ as them were who work sin Iginnin from Antiquity - them had no hope fe be saved.

26; Them became like unto a crooked bow - yet them didn't become like unto them faadas Yis'haq an 'Abriham an Ya`iqob who served JAH ina them beautiful way of Life ~ them would sadden Him everytime by them idols pon the mountains an the hills ~ them would eat pon the mountain an at the caves an the trees roots.

27; Them would slaughter a steer ~ them would sacrifice a sacrifice - an them would be Irie ina them hands Work ~ them would eat the rest of the sacrifice ~ them would drink of them sacrifice - an them would play with demons while them sang.

28; An demons would admire all them games an them songs fe them - an them would work them drunkenness an adultery without measure - an them would do the robbery an greed that JAH don't love.

29; Fe Kene`an idols - an fe Midyam idols an fe Be`al - an fe 'Aphlon an Dagon an Seraphyon an 'Arthiemadies who are 'Eloflee idols...

30; an fe all peoples idols ina them area - them would sacrifice sacrifice; an all 'Isra'iel would worship idols like unto peoples worship idols by money that them sight up an heard ~ them would mek them games an them songs an them bluster that peoples mek.

31; All 'Isra'iel kindreds do likewise - who say 'Wi will worship JAH' - without keepin Him Command an Him LAW that Mussie told them ina 'Oreet that them might keep JAH LAW an might distance from worshippin idols.

32; Lest them worship separated idols - apart from them faadas Irator Who fed them the honey found from Maga who fed them the plantation grain an sent them forth toward the Earth crops - an Who fed them the menna...

33; Mussie commanded them sayin 'Don't worship' - fe Him are them Irator - an fe Him feed them who loved Him - an Him won't deprive them who loved Him an desired Him.

34; But them didn't quit saddenin JAH - an them would sadden JAH pon the time Him made them Irie.

35; An pon the time Him saddened them - them would cry toward Him - an Him would save them from the tribulation that found them - an them would again be totally Irie an would live many eras.

36; An at that time them would totally return them heart toward sin that them might sadden JAH like unto formerly - an Him would arouse pon them peoples ina them area that them might downstroy them - an them would worry an tax them.

37; An again them would totally return an cry toward them Irator JAH.

38; An Him would forgive them ~ it are becau them faadas - Noh - Yis'haq an 'Abriham an Ya`iqob - who served JAH ina them beautiful way of Life Iginnnin from Antiquity - fe whom Him firmed up Him Oath - yet it aren't becau them ras selves Work that Him forgive them.

39; An Him loved persons who kept Him LAW lovin that them might multiply them childran like unto Heaven stars an sea sand.

40; But pon the time dead ones arose that them have like unto sea sand - them are sinner persons souls that will separate from 'Isra'iel childran an enter toward Gehannem.

41; As JAH have told 'Abriham - Sight up toward Heaven at night an count Heaven stars as it were thou could count - likewise as Him have told him - Thy childran an righteous ones shall shine ina Heaven like unto Heaven stars - them are like unto stars that shine ina Heaven - but what them have are kind persons souls birthed from 'Isra'iel.

42; An again as Him have told him - Overstand toward the river edge an the sea - an sight up what are amidst the sand ~ count as it were thou could count - an thy sinner childran are likewise - who will downscend toward Gehannem pon the time dead ones arose - them are sinner persons souls.

43; An 'Abriham believed ina JAH ~ becaudis thing it were counted fe him bein Truth ~ him found him morale ina this world - an after him wife Sora aged she birthed a child called Yis'haq.

44; Fe him have believed that persons who worked goodly Work shall arise an go toward the Kingdom of Heaven that live firmed up foriva - an again him shall find a Kingdom ina Heaven.

45; But fe him have believed that persons who worked sin shall go toward Gehannem that live firmed up foriva pon the time dead ones arose - but that righteous ones who worked goodly Work shall reign with Him foriva.

46; But fe him have believed that it shall be judged foriva fe true without falsehood pon persons who worked sin - fe him shall find Life Kingdom ina Heaven."

  Mek glory an praise enter fe JAH fe true without falsehood - an the first book that speak the Meqabyans thing were filled an fulfilled.

SELAH.

http://web.archive.org/web/20070914145336/http://members.aol.com/abaselama/meqabi.html
瑪加伯3和4簡介
3 Maccabees
The book of the 3 Maccabees is found in most Orthodox Bibles as a part of the Anagignoskomena, while Protestants and Catholics consider it non-canonical[1], except the Moravian Brethren who included it in the Apocrypha of the Czech Kralicka Bible.

The book actually has nothing to do with the Maccabees or their revolt against the Seleucid Empire, as described in 1 Maccabees and 2 Maccabees. Instead it tells the story of persecution of the Jews under Ptolemy IV Philopator (222-205 BC). The name of the book apparently comes from the similarities between this book and the stories of the martyrdom of Eleazar and the Maccabeean youths in 2 Maccabees; the High Priest Shimon is also mentioned.

Synopsis

The contents of the book have a legendary character, which scholars have not been able to tie to proven historical events, and it has all the appearances of a romance. According to the book, after Ptolemy's defeat of Antiochus III in 217 BC at the battle of Raphia, he visited Jerusalem and the Second Temple. However, he was miraculously prevented from entering the building. This led him to hate the Jews and upon his return to Alexandria, he rounded up the Jewish community there to put them to death in his hippodrome. However, Egyptian law required that the names of all those put to death be written down, and all the paper in Egypt was exhausted in attempting to do this, so that the Jews were able to escape. Ptolemy then attempted to have the Jews killed by crushing by elephant; however, due to various interventions by God, the Jews escaped this fate, despite the fact that the 500 elephants had been specially intoxicated to enrage them. Finally, the king was converted and bestowed favor upon the Jews, with this date being set as a festival of deliverance.

Authorship and historicity

Critics agree that the author of this book was an Alexandrian Jew who wrote in Greek. In style, the author is prone to rhetorical constructs and a somewhat bombastic style, and the themes of the book are very similar to those of the Epistle of Aristeas. The work begins somewhat abruptly, leading many to think that it is actually a fragment of a (now-lost) longer work.

Although some parts of the story, such as the names of the Jews taking up all the paper in Egypt, are clearly fictional, parts of the story cannot be definitively proven or disproven and many scholars are only willing to accept the first section (which tells of the actions of Ptolemy Philopator) as possibly having a historical basis. Josephus notes that many (but certainly not all) Jews were put to death in Alexandria under the reign of Ptolemy VIII Physcon (146-117 BC) due to their support for Cleopatra II, and this execution was indeed carried out by intoxicated elephants. This may be the historical center of the relation in 3 Maccabees and the author has transferred it to an earlier time period and added an ahistorical connection to Jerusalem if this theory is correct.

Another theory about the historical basis of the book was advanced by Adolf Büchler in 1899. He held that the book describes the persecution of the Jews in the Fayum region of Egypt. It is certain that the Jews abruptly changed allegiance from Egypt to Syria in 200 BC. This author presumes that the change must have been due to persecution in Egypt.

The book was written at some point after 2 Maccabees, since that book is cited in the text. This sets the date of composition to the end of the first century BC and its use in the Orthodox Church also speaks for its composition before the first century AD. One theory, advanced by Ewald and Willrich, holds that the relation is a polemic against Caligula, thus dating from around AD 40, but this theory has been rejected by more recent authors, because Ptolemy in the book does not claim divine honors as Caligula did.

References
^ Harris, Stephen L., Understanding the Bible. Palo Alto: Mayfield. 1985.

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/3_Maccabees



4 Maccabees
The book of 4 Maccabees is a homily or philosophic discourse praising the supremacy of pious reason over passion. It is not in the Bible for most churches, but is an appendix to the Greek Bible, and in the canon of the Georgian Bible. It was in the 1688 Romanian Bible where it was called "Iosip" but is not printed in the Orthodox Bible today. It is included as an appendix in the recently published Eastern Orthodox Bible.[1]

Synopsis

The work consists of a prologue and two main sections; the first advances the philosophical thesis while the second illustrates the points made using examples drawn from 2 Maccabees (principally, the martyrdom of Eleazer and the Maccabeean youths) under Antiochus IV Epiphanes. The last chapters concern the author's impressions drawn from these martyrdoms. The work thus appears to be an independent composition to 1 Maccabees and 2 Maccabees, merely drawing on their descriptions to support its thesis. It was composed originally in the Greek language, in what Stephen Westerholm of the Eastern / Greek Orthodox Bible calls "very fluently... and in a highly rhetorical and affected Greek style."

Authorship and criticism

According to some scholars, the last chapter shows signs of later addition to the work, though this was disputed by the 19th century authors of the Jewish Encyclopedia. The dispute is based on the weak ending the book would have without the "added" chapter, as well as arguments based on style. The change of direction with chapter 27 supports the view of the work as a homily held before a Greek-speaking audience on the feast of Hanukkah, as advanced by Ewald and Freudenthal, where this would be a rhetorical element to draw the listeners into the discourse. Others hold that a homily would have to be based on scriptural texts, which this work is only loosely.

In style, the book is oratorical, but not so much as 3 Maccabees. A good amount of Stoic philosophy is cited by the author, though there is little original philosophical insight in the text. The writer appears to be an Alexandrian Jew who used the philosophical ideas of the time to clothe his religious ideas. This characterization is practically without parallel in Jewish literature, and it is cited as the best example of syncretism between Jewish and Hellenistic thought. Perhaps the closest match in the New Testament is the (anonymous) Epistle to the Hebrews.

The book is ascribed to Josephus by Eusebius and Jerome, and this opinion was accepted for many years, leading to its inclusion in many editions of Josephus' works. More modern critical scholarship points to great differences of language and style, so that this identification is largely abandoned today. The book is generally dated between the first century BCE and the first century CE, due to its reliance on 2 Maccabees and use by Christians. It was probably written before the persecution of the Jews under Caligula, and certainly before the fall of Jerusalem in 70 CE.

Doctrinal content

The writer believes in the immortality of the soul, but denies the Pharisaic belief in the resurrection of the body. Good souls are said to live forever in happiness with the patriarchs and God, but even the evil souls are held to be immortal. The suffering and martyrdom of the Maccabees is seen by the author to be vicarious for the Jewish nation, and the author portrays martyrdom in general as bringing atonement for the past sins of the Jews.[2]

References
^ http://www.osbpress.com/content/section/4/33/
^ History of opinions on the scriptural doctrine of retribution, Edward Beecher, D. Appleton & Company, 1878 (original), Tentmaker publications, 2000, ISBN 0548231117.

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/4_Maccabees
Maccabees III 瑪加伯3
Chapter 1

1:1 Now Philopater, on learning from those who came back that Antiochus had made himself master of the places which belonged to himself, sent orders to all his footmen and horsemen, took with him his sister Arsinoe, and marched out as far as the parts of Raphia, where Antiochus and his forces encamped.

2 And one Theodotus, intending to carry out his design, took with him the bravest of the armed men who had been before committed to his trust by Ptolemy, and got through at night to the tent of Ptolemy, to kill him on his own responsibility, and so to end the war. 3 But Dositheus, called the son of Drimulus, by birth a Jew, afterward a renegade from the laws and observances of his country, conveyed Ptolemy away, and made an obscure person lie down in his stead in the tent. It befell this man to receive the fate which was meant for the other.

4 A fierce battle then took place; and the men of Antiochus prevailing, Arsinoe continually went up and down the ranks, and with dishevelled hair, with tears and entreaties, begged the soldiers to fight manfully for themselves, their children, and wives; and promised that if they proved conquerors, she would give them two minae of gold apiece. 5 It thus fell out that their enemies were defeated in hand-to-hand encounter, and that many of them were taken prisoners.

6 Having vanquished this attempt, the king then decided to proceed to the neighbouring cities, and encourage them. 7 By doing this, and by making donations to their temples, he inspired his subjects with confidence. 8 The Jews sent some of their council and of their elders to him. The greetings, guest- gifts, and congratulations of the past, bestowed by them, filled him with the greater eagerness to visit their city.

9 Having arrived at Jerusalem, sacrificed, and offered thank-offerings to the Greatest God, and done whatever else was suitable to the sanctity of the place, and entered the inner court, 10 he was so struck with the magnificence of the place, and so wondered at the orderly arrangements of the temple, that he considered entering the sanctuary itself.

11 And when they told him that this was not permissible, none of the nation, no, nor even the priests in general, but only the supreme high priest of all, and he only once in a year, being allowed to go in, he would by no means give way. 12 Then they read the law to him; but he persisted in obtruding himself, exclaiming, that he ought to be allowed: and saying Be it that they were deprived of this honour, I ought not to be. 13 And he put the question, Why, when he entered all the temples, none of the priests who were present forbad him?

14 He was thoroughly answered by some one, That he did wrong to boast of this. 15 Well; since I have done this, said he, be the cause what it may, shall I not enter with or without your consent? 16 And when the priests fell down in their sacred vestments imploring the Greatest God to come and help in time of need, and to avert the violence of the fierce aggressor, and when they filled the temple with lamentations and tears, 17 then those who had been left behind in the city were scared, and rushed forth, uncertain of the event.

18 Virgins, who had been shut up within their chambers, came out with their mothers, scattering dust and ashes on their heads, and filling the streets with outcries. 19 Women, but recently separated off, left their bridal chambers, left the reserve that befitted them, and ran about the city in a disorderly manner.  20 New-born babes were deserted by the mothers or nurses who waited upon them; some here, some there, in houses, or in fields; these now, with an ardour which could not be checked, swarmed into the Most High temple. 21 Various were the prayers offered up by those who assembled in this place, on account of the unholy attempt of the king.

22 Along with these there were some of the citizens who took courage, and would not submit to his obstinacy, and his intention of carrying out his purpose. 23 Calling out to arms, and to die bravely in defence of the law of their fathers, they created a great uproar in the place, and were with difficulty brought back by the aged and the elders to the station of prayer which they had occupied before.

24 During this time the multitude kept on praying. 25 The elders who surrounded the king strove in many ways to divert his haughty mind from the design which he had formed. 26 He, in his hardened mood, insensible to all persuasion, was going onwards with the view of carrying out this design.

27 Yet even his own officers, when they saw this, joined the Jews in an appeal to Him who has all power, to aid in the present crisis, and not wink at such overweening lawlessness. 28 Such was the frequency and the vehemence of the cry of the assembled crowd, that an indescribable noise ensued. 29 Not the men only, but the very walls and floor seemed to sound forth; all things preferring dissolution rather than to see the place defiled.

Chapter 2

2:1 Now was it that the high priest Simon bowed his knees over against the holy place, and spread out his hands in reverent form, and uttered the following supplication:

2 O Lord, Lord, King of the heavens, and Ruler of the whole creation, Holy among the holy, sole Governor, Almighty, give ear to us who are oppressed by a wicked and profane one, who exulteth in his confidence and strength. 3 It is thou, the Creator of all, the Lord of the universe, who art a righteous Governor, and judgest all who act with pride and insolence.

4 It was thou who didst destroy the former workers of unrighteousness, among whom were the giants, who trusted in their strength and hardihood, by covering them with a measureless flood. 5 It was thou who didst make the Sodomites, those workers of exceeding iniquity, men notorious for their vices, an example to after generations, when thou didst cover them with fire and brimstone.

6 Thou didst make known thy power when thou causedst the bold Pharaoh, the enslaver of thy people, to pass through the ordeal of many and diverse inflictions. 7 And thou rolledst the depths of the sea over him, when he made pursuit with chariots, and with a multitude of followers, and gavest a safe passage to those who put their trust in thee, the Lord of the whole creation. 8 These saw and felt the works of thine hands, and praised thee the Almighty.

9 Thou, O King, when thou createdst the illimitable and measureless earth, didst choose out this city: thou didst make this place sacred to thy name, albeit thou needest nothing: thou didst glorify it with thine illustrious presence, after constructing it to the glory of thy great and honourable name.

10 And thou didst promise, out of love to the people of Israel, that should we fall away from thee, and become afflicted, and then come to this house and pray, thou wouldest hear our prayer. 11 Verily thou art faithful and true.

12 And when thou didst often aid our fathers when hard pressed, and in low estate, and deliveredst them out of gret dangers, 13 see now, holy King, how through our many and great sins we are borne down, and made subject to our enemies, and are become weak and powerless. 14 We being in this low condition, this bold and profane man seeks to dishonour this thine holy place, consecrated out of the earth to the name of thy Majesty.

15 Thy dwelling place, the heaven of heavens, is indeed unapproachable to men. 16 But since it seemed good to thee to exhibit thy glory among thy people Israel, thou didst sanctify this place. 17 Punish us not by means of the uncleanness of their men, nor chastise us by means of their profanity; lest the lawless ones should boast in their rage, and exult in exuberant pride of speech, and say, 18 We have trampled upon the holy house, as idolatrous houses are trampled upon.

19 Blot out our iniquities, and do away with our errors, and shew forth thy compassion in this hour. 20 Let thy mercies quickly go before us. Grant us peace, that the cast down and broken hearted may praise thee with their mouth.

21 At that time God, who seeth all things, who is beyond all Holy among the holy, heard that prayer, so suitable; and scourged the man greatly uplifted with scorn and insolence. 22 Shaking him to and fro as a reed is shaken with the wind, he cast him upon the pavement, powerless, with limbs paralyzed; by a righteous judgment deprived of the faculty of speech.

23 His friends and bodyguards, beholding the swift recompense which had suddenly overtaken him, struck with exceeding terror, and fearing that he would die, speedily removed him. 24 When in course of time he had come to himself, this severe check caused no repentance within him, but he departed with bitter threatenings. 25 He proceeded to Egypt, grew worse in wickedness through his beforementioned companions in wine, who were lost to all goodness; 26 and not satisfied with countless acts of impiety, his audacity so increased that he raised evil reports there, and many of his friends, watching his purpose attentively, joined in furthering his will.

27 His purpose was to indict a public stigma upon our race; wherefore he erected a pillar at the tower-porch, and caused the following inscription to be engraved upon it: 28 That entrance to their own temple was to be refused to all those who would not sacrifice; that all the Jews were to be registered among the common people; that those who resisted were to be forcibly seized and put to death; 29 that those who were thus registered, were to be marked on their persons by the ivy-leaf symbol of Dionysus, and to be set apart with these limited rights.

30 To do away with the appearance of hating them all, he had it written underneath, that if any of them should elect to enter the community of those initiated in the rites, these should have equal rights with the Alexandrians.

31 Some of those who were over the city, therefore, abhorring any approach to the city of piety, unhesitatingly gave in to the king, and expected to derive some great honour from a future connection with him. 32 A nobler spirit, however, prompted the majority to cling to their religious observances, and by paying money that they might live unmolested, these sought to escape the registration: 33 cheerfully looking forward to future aid, they abhorred their own apostates, considering them to be national foes, and debarring them from the common usages of social intercourse.

Chapter 3

3:1 On discovering this, so incensed was the wicked king, that he no longer confined his rage to the Jews in Alexandria. Laying his hand more heavily upon those who lived in the country, he gave orders that they should be quickly collected into one place, and most cruelly deprived of their lives.

2 While this was going on, an invidious rumour was uttered abroad by men who had banded together to injure the Jewish race. The purport of their charge was, that the Jews kept them away from the ordinances of the law. 3 Now, while the Jews always maintained a feeling of un-swerving loyalty towards the kings, yet, as they worshipped God, and observed his law, they made certain distinctions, and avoided certain things. Hence some persons held them in odium; although, as they adorned their conversation with works of righteousness, they had established themselves in the good opinion of the world.

6 What all the rest of mankind said, was, however, made of no account by the foreigners; 7 who said much of the exclusiveness of the Jews with regard to their worship and meats; they alleged that they were men unsociable, hostile to the king's interests, refusing to associate with him or his troops. By this way of speaking, they brought much odium upon them.

8 Nor was this unexpected uproar and sudden conflux of people unobserved by the Greeks who lived in the city, concerning men who had never harmed them: yet to aid them was not in their power, since all was oppression around; but they encouraged them in their troubles, and expected a favourable turn of affairs: 9 He who knoweth all things, will not, [said they,] disregard so great a people. 10 Some of the neighbors, friends, and fellow dealers of the Jews, even called them secretly to an interview, pledged them their assistance, and promised to do their very utmost for them.

11 Now the king, elated with his prosperous fortune, and not regarding the superior power of God, but thinking to persevere in his present purpose, wrote the following letter to the prejudice of the Jews.

12 King Ptolemy Philopater, to the commanders and soldiers in Egypt, and in all places, health and happiness! 13 I am right well; and so, too, are my affairs. 14 Since our Asiatic campaign, the particulars of which ye know, and which by the aid of the gods, not lightly given, and by our own vigour, has been brought to a successful issue according to our expectation, 15 we resolved, not with strength of spear, but with gentleness and much humanity, as it were to nurse the inhabitants of Coele-Syria and Phoenicia, and to be their willing benefactors.

16 So, having bestowed considerable sums of money upon the temples of the several cities, we proceeded even as far as Jerusalem; and went up to honour  the temple of these wretched beings who never cease from their folly. 17 To outward appearance they received us willingly; but belied that appearance by their deeds. When we were eager to enter their temple, and to honour it with the most beautiful and exquisite gifts, 18 they were so carried away by their old arrogance, as to forbid us the entrance; while we, out of our forbearance toward all men, refrained from exercising our power upon them. 19 And thus, exhibiting their enmity against us, they alone among the nations lift up their heads against kings and benefactors, as men unwilling to submit to any thing reasonable.

20 We then, having endeavoured to make allowance for the madness of these persons, and on our victorious return treating all people in Egypt courteously, acted in a manner which was befitting. 21 Accordingly, bearing no ill-will against their kinsmen [at Jerusalem,] but rather remembering our connection with them, and the numerous matters with sincere heart from a remote period entrusted to them, we wished to venture a total alteration of their state, by bestowing upon them the rights of citizens of Alexandria, and to admit them to the everlasting rites of our solemnities.

22 All this, however, they have taken in a very different spirit. With their innate malignity, they have spurned the fair offer; and constantly inclining to evil, 23 have rejected the inestimable rights. Not only so, but by using speech, and by refraining from speech, they abhor the few among them who are heartily disposed towards us; ever deeming that their ignoble course of procedure will force us to do away with our reform. 24 Having then, received certain proofs that these [Jews] bear us every sort of ill-will, we must look forward to the possibility of some sudden tumult among ourselves, when these impious men may turn traitors and barbarous enemies.

25 As soon, therefore, as the contents of this letter become known to you, in that same hour we order those [Jews] who dwell among you, with wives and children, to be sent to us, vilified and abused, in chains of iron, to undergo a death, cruel and ignominious, suitable to men disaffected. 26 For by the punishment of them in one body we perceive that we have found the only means of establishing our affairs for the future on a firm and satisfactory basis.

27 Whosoever shall shield a Jew, whether it be old man, child, or suckling, shall with his whole house be tortured to death. 28 Whoever shall inform against the [Jews,] besides receiving the property of the person charged, shall be presented with two thousand drachmae from the royal treasury, shall be made free, and shall be crowned.

29 Whatever place shall shelter a Jew, shall, when he is hunted forth, be put under the ban of fire, and be for ever rendered useless to every living being for all time to come. 30 Such was the purport of the king's letter.

Chapter 4

4:1 Wherever this decree was received, the people kept up a revelry of joy and shouting; as if their long-pent-up, hardened hatred, were now to shew itself openly.

2 The Jews suffered great throes of sorrow, and wept much; while their hearts, all things around being lamentable, were set on fire as they bewailed the sudden destruction which was decreed against them. 3 What home, or city, or place at all inhabited, or what streets were there, which their condition did not fill with wailing and lamentation?

4 They were sent out unanimously by the generals in the several cities, with such stern and pitiless feeling, that the exceptional nature of the infliction moved even some of their enemies. These, influenced by sentiments of common humanity, and reflecting upon the uncertain issue of life, shed tears at this their miserable expulsion. 5 A multitude of aged hoary-haired old men, were driven along with halting bending feet, urged onward by the impulse of a violent, shameless force to quick speed.

6 Girls who had entered the bridal chamber quite lately, to enjoy the partnership of marriage, exchanged pleasure for misery; and with dust scattered upon their myrrh-anointed heads, were hurried along unveiled; and, in the midst of outlandish insults, set up with one accord a lamentable cry in lieu of the marriage hymn. 7 Bound, and exposed to public gaze, they were hurried violently on board ship.

8 The husbands of these, in the prime of their youthful vigour, instead of crowns wore halters round their necks; instead of feasting and youthful jollity, spent the rest of their nuptial days in wailings, and saw only the grave at hand. 9 They were dragged along by unyielding chains, like wild beasts: of these, some had their necks thrust into the benches of the rowers; while the feet of others were enclosed in hard fetters. 10 The planks of the deck above them barred out the light, and shut out the day on every side, so that they might be treated like traitors during the whole voyage.

11 They were conveyed accordingly in this vessel, and at the end of it arrived at Schedia. The king had ordered them to be cast into the vast hippodrome, which was built in front of the city. This place was well adapted by its situation to expose them to the gaze of all comers into the city, and of those who went from the city into the country. Thus they could hold no communication with his forces; nay, were deemed unworthy of any civilized accommodation.

12 When this was done, the king, hearing that their brethren in the city often went out and lamented the melancholy distress of these victims, 13 was full of rage, and commanded that they should be carefully subjected to the same (and not one whit milder) treatment. 14 The whole nation was now to be registered. Every individual was to be specified by name; not for that hard servitude of labour which we have a little before mentioned, but that he might expose them to the before-mentioned tortures; and finally, in the short space of a day, might extirpate them by his cruelties 15 The registering of these men was carried on cruelly, zealously, assiduously, from the rising of the sun to its going down, and was not brought to an end in forty days.

16 The king was filled with great and constant joy, and celebrated banquets before the temple idols. His erring heart, far from the truth, and his profane mouth, gave glory to idols, deaf and incapable of speaking or aiding, and uttered unworthy speech against the Greatest God.

17 At the end of the above-mentioned interval of time, the registrars brought word to the king that the multitude of the Jews was too great for registration, 18 inasmuch as there were many still left in the land, of whom some were in inhabited houses, and others were scattered about in various places; so that all the commanders in Egypt were insufficient for the work. 19 The king threatened them, and charged them with taking bribes, in order to contrive the escape of the Jews: but was clearly convinced of the truth of what had been said. 20 They said, and proved, that paper and pens had failed them for the carrying out of their purpose. 21 Now this was an active interference of the unconquerable Providence which assisted the Jews from heaven.

Chapter 5

5:1 Then he called Hermon, who had charge of the elephants. Full of rage, altogether fixed in his furious design, 2 he commanded him, with a quantity of unmixed wine and handfuls of incense [infused] to drug the elephants early on the following day. These five hundred elephants were, when infuriated by the copious draughts of frankincense, to be led up to the execution of death upon the Jews. 3 The king, after issuing these orders, went to his feasting, and gathered together all those of his friends and of the army who hated the Jews the most.

4 The master of the elephants, Hermon, fulfilled his commission punctually. 5 The underlings appointed for the purpose went out about eventide and bound the hands of the miserable victims, and took other precautions for their security at night, thinking that the whole race would perish together.

6 The heathen believed the Jews to be destitute of all protection; for chains fettered them about. 7 they invoked the Almighty Lord, and ceaselessly besought with tears their merciful God and Father, Ruler of all, Lord of every power, 8 to overthrow the evil purpose which was gone out against them, and to deliver them by extraordinary manifestation from that death which was in store for them. 9 Their litany so earnest went up to heaven.

10 Then Hermon, who had filled his merciless elephants with copious draughts of mingled wine and frankincense, came early to the palace to certify the kind thereof. 11 He, however, who has sent his good creature sleep from all time by night or by day thus gratifying whom he wills, diffused a portion thereof now upon the king. 12 By this sweet and profound influence of the Lord he was held fast, and thus his unjust purpose was quite frustrated, and his unflinching resolve greatly falsified.

13 But the Jews, having escaped the hour which had been fixed, praised their holy God, and again prayed him who is easily reconciled to display the power of his powerful hand to the overweening Gentiles. 14 The middle of the tenth hour had well nigh arrived, when the master-  bidder, seeing the guests who were bidden collected, came and shook the king. 15 He gained his attention with difficulty, and hinting that the mealtime was getting past, talked the matter over with him.

16 The kind listened to this, and then turning aside to his potations, commanded the guests to sit down before him. 17 This done, he asked them to enjoy themselves, and to indulge in mirth at this somewhat late hour of the banquet. 18 Conversation grew on, and the king sent for Hermon, and enquired of him, with fierce denunciations, why the Jews had been allowed to outlive that day. 19 Hermon explained that he had done his bidding over night; and in this he was confirmed by his friends. 20 The king, then, with a barbarity exceeding that of Phalaris, said, That they might thank his sleep of that day. Lose no time, and get ready the elephants against tomorrow, as you did before, for the destruction of these accursed Jews.

21 When the king said this, the company present were glad, and approved; and then each man went to his own home. 22 Nor did they employ the night in sleep, so much as in contriving cruel mockeries for those deemed miserable.

23 The morning cock had just crowed, and Hermon, having harnessed the brutes, was stimulating them in the great colonnade. 24 The city crowds were collected together to see the hideous spectacle, and waited impatiently for the dawn. 25 The Jews, breathless with momentary suspense, stretched forth their hands, and prayed the Greatest God, in mournful strains, again to help them speedily.

26 The sun's rays were not yet shed abroad, and the king was waiting for his friends, when Hermon came to him, calling him out, and saying, That his desires could now be realized. 27 The king, receiving him, was astonished at his unwonted exit; and, overwhelmed with a spirit of oblivion about everything, enquired the object of this earnest preparation. 28 But this was the wroking of that Almighty God who had made him forget all his purpose.

29 Hermon, and all his friends, pointed out the preparation of the animals. they are ready, O king, according to your own strict injunction. 30 The king was filled with fierce anger at these words; for, by the Providence of God regarding these things, his mind had become entirely confused. He looked hard at Hermon, and threatened him as follows: 31 Your parents, or your children, were they here, to these wild beasts a large repast they should have furnished; not these innocent Jews, who me and my forefathers loyally have served. 32 Had it not been for familar friendship, and the claims of your office, your life should have gone for theirs.

33 Hermon, being threatened in this unexpected and alarming manner, was troubled in visage, and depressed in countenance. 34 The friends, too, stole out one by one, and dismissed the assembled multitudes to their respective occupations. 35 The Jews, having heard of these events, praised the glorious God and King of kings, because they had obtained this help, too, from him.

36 Now the king arranged another banquet after the same manner, and proclaimed an invitation to mirth. 27 And he summoned Hermon to his presence, and said, with threats, How often, O wretch, must I repeat my orders to thee about these same persons? 28 Once more, arm the elephants against the morrow for the extermination of the Jews.

39 His kinsmen, who were reclining with him, wondered at his instability, and thus expressed themselves: 40 O king, how long dost thou make trial of us, as of men bereft of reason? This is the third time that thou hast ordered their destruction. When the thing is to be done, thou changest thy mind, and recallest thy instructions. 41 For this cause the feeling of expectation causes tumult in the city: it swarms with factions; and is continually on the point of being plundered.

42 The king, just like another Phalaris, a prey to thoughtlessness, made no account of the changes which his own mind had undergone, issuing in the deliverance of the Jews. He swore a fruitless oath, and determined forthwith to send them to hades, crushed by the knees and feet of the elephants. 43 He would also invade Judea, and level its towns with fire and the sword; and destroy that temple which the heathen might not enter, and prevent sacrifices ever after being offered up there.

44 Joyfully his friends broke up, together with his kinsmen; and, trusting in his determination, arranged their forces in guard at the most convenient places of the city. 45 And the master of the elephants urged the beasts into an almost maniacal state, drenched them with incense and wine, and decked them with frightful instruments.

46 About early morning, when the city was now filled with an immense number of people at the hippodrome, he entered the palace, and called the king to the business in hand. 47 The king's heart teemed with impious rage; and he rushed forth with the mass, along with the elephants. With feelings unsoftened, and eyes pitiless, he longed to gaze at the hard and wretched doom of the abovementioned [Jews].

48 But the [Jews,] when the elephants went out at the gate, followed by the armed force; and when they saw the dust raised by the throng, and heard the loud cries of the crowd, 49 thought that they had come to the last moment of their lives, to the end of what they had tremblingly expected. They gave way, therefore, to lamentations and moans: they kissed each other: those nearest of kin to each other hung about one another's necks: fathers about their sons, mother their daughters: other women held their infants to their breasts, which drew what seemed their last milk.

50 Nevertheless, when they reflected upon the succour before granted them from heaven, they prostrated themselves with one accord; removed even the sucking children from the breasts, and 51 sent up an exceeding great cry entreating the Lord of all power to reveal himself, and have mercy upon those who now lay at the gates of hades.

Chapter 6

6:1 And Eleazar, an illustrious priest of the country, who had attained to length of day, and whose life had been adorned with virtue, caused the presbyters who were about him to cease to cry out to the holy God, and prayed thus:

2 O king, mighty in power, most high, Almighty God, who regulates the whole creation with thy tender mercy, 3 look upon the seed of Abraham, upon the children of the sanctified Jacob, thy sanctified inheritance, O Father, now being wrongfully destroyed as strangers in a strange land.

4 Thou destroyedst Pharaoh, with his hosts of chariots, when that lord of this same Egypt was uplifted with lawless hardihood and loud-sounding tongue. Shedding the beams of thy mercy upon the race of Israel, thou didst overwhelm him with his proud army. 5 When Sennacherim, the grievous king of the Assyrians, glorying in his countless hosts, had subdued the whole land with his spear, and was lifting himself against thine holy city, with boastings grievous to be endured, thou, O Lord, didst demolish him and didst shew forth thy might to many nations. 6 When the three friends in the land of Babylon of their own will exposed their lives to the fire rather than serve vain things, thou didst send a dewy coolness through the fiery furnace, and bring the fire upon all their adversaries. 7 It was thou who, when Daniel was hurled, through slander and envy, as a prey to lions down below, didst bring him back against unhurt to light. 8 When Jonah was pining away in the belly of the sea-bred monster, thou didst look upon him, O Father, and recover him to the sight of his own.

9 And now, thou who hatest insolence; thou who dost abound in mercy; thou who art the protector of all things; appear quickly to those of the race of Israel, who are insulted by abhorred, lawless gentiles. 10 If our life has during our exile been stained with iniquity, deliver us from the hand of the enemy, and destroy us, O Lord, by the death which thou preferrest.

11 Let not the vain-minded congratulate vain idols at the destruction of thy beloved, saying, Neither did their god deliver them. 12 Thou, who art All-powerful and Almighty, O Eternal One, behold! have mercy upon us who are being withdrawn from life, like traitors, by the unreasoning insolence of lawless men. 13 Let the heathen cower before thine invincible might today, O glorious One, who hast all power to save the race of Jacob. 14 The whole band of infants and their parents with tears beseech thee. 15 Let it be shewn to all the nations that thou art with us, O Lord, and hast not turned thy face away from us; but as thou saidst that thou wouldst not forget them even in the land of their enemies, so do thou fulfil this saying, O Lord.

16 Now, at the time that Eleazar had ended his prayer, the king came along to the hippodrome, with the wild beasts, and with his tumultuous power. 17 When the Jews saw this, they uttered a loud cry to heaven, so that the adjacent valleys resounded, and caused an irrepressible lamentation throughout the army.

18 Then the all-glorious, all-powerful, and true God, displayed his holy countenance, and opened the gates of heaven, from which two angels, dreadful of form, came down and were visible to all but the Jews. 19 And they stood opposite, and filled the enemies' host with confusion and cowardice; and bound them with immoveable fetters. 20 And a cold shudder came over the person of the king, and oblivion paralysed the vehemence of his spirit. 21 They turned back the animals upon the armed forces which followed them; and the animals trod them down, and destroyed them.

22 The king's wrath was converted into compassion; and he wept at his own machinations. 23 For when he heard the cry, and saw them all on the verge of destruction, with tears he angrily threatened his friends, saying, 24 Ye have governed badly; and have exceeded tyrants in cruelty; and me your benefactor ye have laboured to deprive at once of my dominion and my life, by secretly devising measures injurious to the kingdom. 25 Who has gathered here, unreasonably removing each from his home, those who, in fidelity to us, had held the fortresses of the country? 26 Who has thus consigned to unmerited punishments those who in good will towards us from the beginning have in all things surpassed all nations, and who often have engaged in the most dangerous undertakings?

27 Loose, loose the unjust bonds; send them to their homes in peace, and deprecate what has been done. 28 Release the sons of the almighty living God of heaven, who from our ancestors' times until now has granted a glorious and uninterrupted prosperity to our affairs.

29 These things he said; and they, released the same moment, having now escaped death, praised God their holy Saviour. 30 The king then departed to the city, and called his financier to him, and bade him provide a seven days' quantity of wine and other materials for feasting for the Jews. He decided that they should keep a gladsome festival of deliverance in the very place in which they expected to meet with their destruction.

31 Then they who were before despised and nigh unto hades, yea, rather advanced into it, partook of the cup of salvation, instead of a grievous and lamentable death. Full of exultation, they parted out the place intended for their fall and burial into banqueting booths. 32 Ceasing their miserable strain of woe, they took up the subject of their fatherland, hymning in praise God their wonder-working Saviour. All groans, all wailing, were laid aside: they formed dances in token of serene joy.

33 So, also, the king collected a number of guests for the occasion, and returned unceasing thanks with much magnificence for the unexpected deliverance afforded him. 34 Those who had marked them out as for death and for carrion, and had registered them with joy, howled aloud, and were clothed with shame, and had the fire of their rage ingloriously put out.

35 But the Jews, as we just said, instituted a dance, and then gave themselves up to feasting, glad thanksgivings, and psalms. 36 They made a public ordinance to commemorate these things for generations to come, as long as they should be sojourners. They thus established these days as days of mirth, not for the purpose of drinking or luxury, but because God had saved them. 37 They requested the king to send them back to their homes.

38 They were being enrolled from the twenty-fifth of Pachon to the fourth of Epiphi, a period of forty days: the measures taken for their destruction lasted from the fifth of Epiphi till the seventh, that is, three days. 39 The Ruler over all did during this time manifest forth his mercy gloriously, and did deliver them all together unharmed.

40 They feasted upon the king's provision up to the fourteenth day, and then asked to be sent away. 41 The king commended them, and wrote the subjoined letter, of magnanimous import for them, to the commanders of every city.

Chapter 7

7:1 King Ptolemy Philopator to the commanders throughout Egypt, and to all who are set over affairs, joy and strength. 2 We, too, and our children are well; and God has directed our affairs as we wish.

3 Certain of our friends did of malice vehemently urge us to punish the Jews of our realm in a body, with the infliction of a monstrous punishment. 4 They pretended that our affairs would never be in a good state till this took place. Such, they said, was the hatred borne by the Jews to all other people. 5 They brought them fettered in grievous chains as slaves, nay, as traitors. Without enquiry or examination they endeavoured to annihilate them. They buckled themselves with a savage cruelty, worse than Scythian custom.

6 For this cause we severely threatened them; yet, with the clemency which we are wont to extend to all men, we at length permitted them to live. Finding that the God of heaven cast a shield of protection over the Jews so as to preserve them, and that he fought for them as a father always fights for his sons; 7 and taking into consideration their constancy and fidelity towards us and towards our ancestors, we have, as we ought, acquitted them of every sort of charge. 8 And we have dismissed them to their several homes; bidding all men everywhere to do them no wrong, or unrighteously revile them about the past. 9 For know ye, that should we conceive any evil design, or in any way aggrieve them, we shall ever have as our opposite, not man, but the highest God, the ruler of all might. From Him there will be no escape, as the avenger of such deeds. Fare ye well.

10 When they had received this letter, they were not forward to depart immediately. They petitioned the king to be allowed to inflict fitting punishment upon those of their race who had willingly transgressed the holy god, and the law of God. 11 They alleged that men who had for their bellies' sake transgressed the ordinances of God, would never be faithful to the interests of the king.

12 The king admitted the truth of this reasoning, and commended them. Full power was given them, without warrant or special commission, to destroy those who had transgressed the law of God boldly in every part of the king's dominions. 13 Their priests, then, as it was meet, saluted him with good wishes, and all the people echoed with the Hallelujah. They then joyfully departed.

14 Then they punished and destryed with ignominy every polluted Jew that fell in their way; 15 slaying thus, in that day, above three hundred men, and esteeming this destruction of the wicked a season of joy. 16 They themselves having held fast their God unto death, and having enjoyed a full deliverance, departed from the city garlanded with sweet-flowered wreaths of every kind. Uttering exclamations of joy, with songs of praise, and melodious hymns they thanked the God of their fathers, the eternal Saviour of Israel.

17 Having arrived at Ptolemais, called from the specialty of that district Rose-bearing, where the fleet, in accordance with the general wish, waited for them seven days, 18 they partook of a banquet of deliverance, for the king generously granted them severally the means of securing a return home. 19 They were accordingly brought back in peace, while they gave utterance to becoming thanks; and they determined to keep these days during their sojourn as days of joyfulness. 20 These they registered as sacred upon a pillar, when they had dedicated the place of their festivity to be one of prayer. They departed unharmed, free, abundant in joy, preserved by the king's command, by land, by sea, and by river, each to his own home.

21 They had more weight than before among their enemies; and were honoured and feared, and no one in any way robbed them of their goods. 22 Every man received back his own, according to inventory; those who had obtained their goods, giving them up with the greatest terror. For the greatest God wrought with perfectness wonders for their salvation. 23 Blessed be the Redeemer of Israel unto everlasting. Amen.

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Maccabees IV 瑪加伯4
Chapter 1

1:1 As I am going to demonstrate a most philosophical proposition, namely, that religious reasoning is absolute master of the passions, I would willingly advise you to give the utmost heed to philosophy.  2 For reason is necessary to every one as a step to science: and more especially does it embrace the praise of prudence, the highest virtue.

3 If, then, reasoning appears to hold the mastery over the passions which stand in the way of temperance, such as gluttony and lust, 4 it surely also and manifestly has the rule over the affections which are contrary to justice, such as malice; and of those which are hindrances to manliness, as wrath, and pain, and fear. 5 How, then, is it, perhaps some may say, that reasoning, if it rule the affections, is not also master of forgetfulness and ignorance? They attempt a ridiculous argument. 6 For reasoning does not rule over its own affections, but over such as are contrary to justice, and manliness and temperance, and prudence; and yet over these, so as to withstand, witho